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Full text of "Record of the service of the Forty-Fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia in North Carolina, August 1862 to May 1863"

GIFT OF 




RECORD 



OF THE 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS 



VOLUNTEER MILITIA 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



AUGUST 1862 TO MAY 1863 



BOSTON 
PRIVATELY PRINTED 

1887 



JOHN WILSON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE. 




While fbese pages were passing through the press, the 
Colonel of the Forty-Fourth died at his home in Westport, 
New York. 

The surviving members of the Historical Committee wish 
to testify here to the respect and affection felt for him by the 
Regiment, and therefore dedicate this Record 



of 



OUR COMMANDER, COMRADE, AND FRIEND, 



COLONEL FRANCIS L. LEE. 



PREFACE. 



THE Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regimental Associa 
tion has been fortunate in one circumstance. The regi 
ment was so largely made up of clerks and students who 
are now business or professional men in Boston, with 
common ties of residence and occupation as well as of 
army service, that the yearly meetings of the Association 
are more largely attended and more heartily enjoyed than 
are the reunions of regiments whose members have be 
come scattered and estranged since the war. 

This cordial fellowship led, many years ago, to a wish 
for some permanent record of the service in which it 
had its origin. The first reunion of the Forty-fourth was 
held March 14, 1876. As early as the annual meeting- 
held Feb. 5, 1879, the project of publishing a regimental 
history was discussed, and referred, with full powers, 
to an Historical Committee consisting of Charles C. 
Soule, Edward C. Johnson, Col. Francis L. Lee, Frank 
G. Webster, and James B. Gardner. 

At the annual meeting held Jan. 20, 1886, William 
Garrison Reed, Charles J. Me In tire, Paul S. Yendell, 
John J. Wyeth, and Eben N. Hewins were added to this 
Committee. 

The original Committee selected James B. Gardner to 
collect material and edit the history. Diligent inquiry 



VI PREFACE. 

was made among members of the regiment for old letters, 
diaries, or sketches. From material of this kind, from 
newspaper files, from the records of the War Department, 
from the four monographs already published concerning 
the regiment, 1 and from all other available sources, Cor 
poral Gardner had compiled the rough notes for a regi 
mental history, when he received a railroad appointment 
in the West, and removed from Boston to Dennison, 
Ohio. His new duties so thoroughly absorbed his time 
that he could not find leisure for working up his notes, 
and he therefore sent them just as they were to the 
Historical Committee. The members of this Committee 
were all exceptionally busy men, far too busy to edit 
the history themselves. They were compelled to seek 
an editor outside of their own number ; and much time 
\vas lost in trying to find among surviving members of 
the regiment some one with the leisure, zeal, literary 
ability, and patience needed for deciphering and putting 
into proper shape Gardner s rough notes. Several com 
rades were almost persuaded to undertake the task ; but 
laziness, diffidence, or actual inability to spare the neces 
sary time finally overcame all of them. In despair, the 
Committee borrowed an idea from " The Memorial His 
tory of Boston," divided the regimental record into 
chapters, each embracing some phase or event of our 
service, and endeavored to get different comrades to write 
them. In this attempt they were successful, although 

1 " Letters from the Forty-fourth Regiment M. V. M., by Corporal " (Zenas T. 
Ilaines of Company D) ; "The Bay State Forty-fourth," by De Forest Safford ; 
" Roll of the Association of Company F, etc.," by E. N. Hewins; and "Leaves from 
a Diary written while serving in Company E, etc.," by J. J. Wyeth. 



PREFACE. vii 

progress \vas still slow, owing to the unconquerable 
dilatoriness of some of the contributors. 

Fortunately, Gardner returned to Boston at this junc 
ture, and came to the rescue with renewed zeal and 
energy. Indeed, the other members of the Committee 
wish to say that notwithstanding the services rendered 
by the writers of chapters and by other comrades (among 
whom they would especially mention and thank Reed, 
He wins, and Wyeth), Gardner has done by far the 
greater part of getting this book together, and deserves a 
proportionate share of the credit. 

It was determined at an early stage in the enterprise 
that the history should be illustrated. To this end the 
Committee have been fortunate in securing the services of 
Paul S. Yendell, of Company G, whose sketches have the 
merit of being: reminiscences of incidents of actual service 

O 

with the Forty-fourth. The maps and plans have been 
carefully prepared and drawn (without compensation) by 
Comrade Gardner. 

As the result of these prolonged efforts, somewhat 
disproportionate, perhaps, to the size and importance of 
the book, the Committee present to the Regimental 
Association this Record of the campaign of the Forty- 
fourth, believing that even the difficulties of preparation, 
and the consequent enlistment of so many different con 
tributors, have tended to vary the style and increase the 
interest of the narrative. 

Lest this book should come into the hands of any 
others than our own comrades, it may be well to say 
here that the members of the Forty-fourth, as only nine 
months soldiers, recognize that they should speak 



viii PREFACE. 

modestly of their services. But while yielding admira 
tion and precedence to the veterans whose patriotism 
prompted and whose opportunities allowed a longer 
enlistment, the short-time men may be permitted to look 
back with some satisfaction to the part, however small, 
which they played in the great War of the Rebellion. 
The service of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts included 
a representative variety of the experiences of the Ameri 
can volunteer during a winter campaign, camp life, 
provost-duty, marches, skirmishes, a siege, battles serious 
enough to test the courage of the regiment, exposure, 
hardship, and losses by disease and in action. So far 
as it went, this service was serious work, and not a 
mere holiday parade. Older and more seasoned veter 
ans will not begrudge us these modest reminiscences. 

January, 1887. 




Plan of the 
DEPARTMENT 



J3 Goudntr CaD, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER PAGE 

I. THE NEW ENGLAND GUARDS i 

James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

II. ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE 21 

James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

III. VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE 41 

Everett C. Bumpus, Co. H. 

IV. NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON 53 

George F. Piper, Co. E. 

V. CAMP LIFE 69 

James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

VI. THE TARBORO MARCH, AND THE AFFAIR OF LITTLE CREEK 

AND RAWLE S MILL 109 

Charles J. M chit ire, Co. G. 

VII. THE GOLDSBORO EXPEDITION 133 

CJiarlcs Storrow, Captain, Co. F, 

VIII. THE PLYMOUTH EXPEDITION 147 

Henry W. Harttvell, Co. A. 

IX. WASHINGTON 159 

Paul S. Yendell, Co. G. 

X. PICKET-DUTY OF B AND F 197 

Charles C, Soule, Second Lieutenant, Co. B. 

XL PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER our . . . 205 
James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XII. NORTH CAROLINA REVISITED 223 

William Garrison Reed, Co. D. 

XIII. MEDICAL 233 

Dr. Theodore W. Fisher, Surgeon. 

XIV. PERSONNEL 255 

Rev. Edward H. Hall, Chaplain. 

XV. SUBSEQUENT SERVICE 269 

Eben N. Hewitts, Co. F. 



APPENDIX 293 

James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

RIOT 293 

ASSOCIATION 295 

ROSTER 301 

RECAPITULATION : AGES 336 

RECAPITULATION : PLACES OF ENLISTMENT 337 

GENERAL SUMMARY 338 

PRESENT RESIDENCE 339 

PRESENT OCCUPATION 340 

FAC-SIMILE SIGNATURES 341 

INDEX 357 



LIST OF PORTRAITS. 



GROUP OF OFFICERS, READVILLE To face page 21 

GENERALS FOSTER, WESSELLS, AND STEVENSON . . 61 

FIELD AND STAFF OF THE FORTY- FOURTH .... 255 



LIST OF MAPS AND PLANS. 

DEPARTMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA . . Following Preface. 
NEW BERNE. , To face page 53 

BARRACKS AT NEW BERNE 

" "ii~ 

RAWLE S MILLS 



KlNSTON 



133 



" " I4.O 

WHITEHALL 

" " I^Q 

WASHINGTON 

VICINITY OF NEW BERNE X 97 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

BY P. S. YENDELL. 



CHAPTER I. 

NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 

PAGE 

INITIAL FOURTH BATTALION CREST i 

SEAL FOURTH BATTALION COAT OF ARMS 4 

CANNON 5 

TAIL-PIECE FORT INDEPENDENCE .20 

CHAPTER II. 
CAMP AT READVILLE, ETC. 

INITIAL COLOR-GUARD .21 

GOING TO WASH 26 

INTERIOR OF BARRACK AFTER DRESS PARADE 32 

TAIL-PIECE BLUE HILL FROM CAMP-GROUND 39 

CHAPTER III. 
VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE. 

INITIAL WHARF WAITING TO GO ON BOARD ... .40 

DECK OF " MERRIMAC " ... 46 

RIDE TO NEW BERNE .48 

CHAPTER IV. 
NEW BERNE, ETC. 

INITIAL COAT OF ARMS OF NORTH CAROLINA . 

TAIL-PIECE ATTACK ON FORT ANDERSON 68 



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

CHAPTER V. 

CAMP LIFE. 

PAGE 

INITIAL ON GUARD 69 

RIGHT WING OF BARRACKS 71 

DRAWING RATIONS 74 

HUCKSTERS AT GUARD LINE 75 

POLICE SQUAD 78 

CLEANING UP FOR INSPECTION . 80 

DISTRIBUTING LETTERS 90 

MENDING CLOTHES 91 

OPENING BOXES 95 

TAIL-PIECE INDISPENSABLES 108 

CHAPTER VI. 

TARBORO . 

REGIMENT ON THE MARCH {from a sketch by Licut.-Col. Cabof) . 109 

INITIAL REVEILLE 109 

COTTON-PRESS ....112 

GATHERING RAILS 120 

FORAGING 123 

MAKING COFFEE AND DRYING BLANKETS 130 

TAIL-PIECE DESPATCH BOAT 131 

CHAPTER VII. 
GOLDSBORO . 

INITIAL FIELD AND STAFF BIVOUAC 133 

CAMP COOKING 136 

MIDNIGHT IN BIVOUAC 141 

"CLEAR GRIT" 144 

TAIL-PIECE LUGGAGE AND CONVEYANCE 146 

CHAPTER VIII. 
PLYMOUTH. 

INITIAL "NORTHERNER" AT WHARF ...147 

OLD MILL 150 

HAM-FAT MARCH 153 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XV 

CHAPTER IX. 

WASHINGTON. 

PAGE 

INITIAL BIRD S-EYE VIEW OF LEFT CENTRE 159 

COOK-HOUSE, COMPANY G 161 

BLOCKHOUSE No. 2 163 

TRAVERSE AND SPLINTER-PROOF LEFT OF COMPANY G . ... 177 

DRAWING RATIONS UNDER FIRE 183 

TAIL-PIECE . . . 196 

CHAPTER X. 
PICKET DUTY. 

INITIAL "HALT! WHO GOES THERE!" 197 

SCOUTING IN FLAT-BOAT 199 

BATCHELDER S CREEK PICKET POST . 201 

CHAPTER XI. 

PROVOST DUTY. 

INITIAL SENTRY AT HEADQUARTERS 205 

EXAMINING PASSES 208 

SENTRY FISHING 209 

TAIL-PIECE COLORED WASHERWOMAN 222 

CHAPTER XII. 

NORTH CAROLINA REVISITED. 

INITIAL How WE TRAVEL Now 223 

CHAPTER XIII. 

MEDICAL. 
INITIAL DISPENSARY DOOR AT SURGEON S CALL 233 

CHAPTER XIV. 

PERSONNEL. 
INITIAL 2 55 



XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

CHAPTER XV. 

SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 

PAGE 

INITIAL 291 

TAIL-PIECE 299 

APPENDIX. 

ASSOCIATION. 
INITIAL ASSOCIATION BADGE 295 



CHAPTER I. 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 

N writing the biography of an individ 
ual it is customary to refer to his an 
cestry ; and in writing what might be 
called an autobiography of the Forty- 
fourth Regiment it therefore seems 
appropriate to give a short account of 
the New England Guards, a military 
organization founded during the War 
of 1812-1815, and from which that 
regiment was lineally descended. The 
New England Guards were regularly 
organized at a meeting held at Con 
cert Hall, Boston, Sept. 19, 1812, un 
der authority of an order issued by 
the Brigadier-General commanding 
the -Third Brigade, First Division, 
M. V. M. Forty votes were cast, and Samuel Swett was elected 
captain; George Sullivan, lieutenant; and Lemuel Blake, ensign. 
The meeting then adjourned to the 24th, when James Dalton was 
chosen first sergeant ; Stephen G. Brown, second ; William \Vard, 
third ; and Isaac Mansfield, fourth. The corporals were chosen 
five days later. At this meeting the draft of the constitution 
was read and discussed, and on the following evening, Septem 
ber 25, at a meeting held at Faneuil Hall, it was adopted. 
The preamble read as follows : 

" To facilitate the performance of the duty which we owe to our country 
of adding to our character as citizens some portion of the skill of the sol 
dier ; to increase our usefulness as militiamen by adding to the zeal which 

1 




2 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

is excited by patriotism, the ardor which is inspired by emulation ; and to 
give to each one of us, while exerting himself for his own and the State s 
defence, that confidence in each other s zealous and skilful co-operation 
which can result only from military discipline, we have voluntarily asso 
ciated ourselves for the purpose of forming a company of light infantry ; 
and to govern us in the pursuit of these objects we have adopted the fol 
lowing articles for our constitution." 

This was quite lengthy, and contained the provisions usually 
found in documents of that description. The uniform as origi 
nally ordered would look strange in these days: 

" A plain, dark blue coat, double-breasted, with gilt buttons ; white waist 
coat ; white pantaloons ; blue cloth pantaloons ; half-boots with black tas 
sels ; round hat with a black leather cockade, yellow eagle in the centre, 
and a gold loop extending down to the band ; a black silk stock. ..." 

The duties of the officers are described with exceeding minute 
ness. A clause in the article specifying those of the orderly 
sergeant reminds us how inadequate were the postal facilities in 
those days : 

" He shall notify all the members of every meeting by signing a written 
or printed notification, which he shall seasonably deliver to the other ser 
geants and corporals in equal parts ; and it is hereby declared to be their 
duty to deliver said notifications without delay to the members to whom 
they are addressed." 

Previous to the declaration of peace in 1815, one hundred and 
twenty-six members had joined the Guards. Among them were 
many who in after years were enrolled among the " solid men of 
Boston ; " and their children and grandchildren were found in 
most of the regiments sent to the front from Massachusetts, and 
in a few which went from other States. Abbott Lawrence be 
came Minister to England ; Joseph B. Henshaw was for some 
time Collector of the Port of Boston; William Greenough, Jr., 
was a well-known hardware merchant, and his son is now Presi 
dent of the Trustees of the Public Library; Nathan Hale was 
editor of one of the most influential newspapers in New England 
and father of Rev. Edward Everett Hale ; and the names of 
Samuel Swett, George Sullivan, Lemuel Blake, Stephen G. 
Brown, George Dana, Massa Willis, Robert P. Williams, Reuben 
Richards, Jr., Charles Tidd, Moses Grant, Jr., Richard Ward, 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 3 

Watson Gore, Deming Jarves, Lorenzo Draper, Jonathan G. Bar 
nard, Thomas Dennie, Jr., Joseph Callendar, Jr., Cheever New- 
hall, Joseph West, Jr., Benjamin F. White, Thomas R. Sewall, 
Joseph Ballister, Jeffrey Richardson, Barney Tisdale, Samuel 
Hunt, 1 Isaac Child, Joseph Hay, and others will be readily re 
called by all the older generation of Bostonians. Mr. Hay is 
still living. 2 Dan Simpson and Si Smith were the drummer and 
fifer. Simpson attended the annual reunion of our regiment in 
i884. 3 

The company drilled regularly on Tuesdays, Thursdays, Fri 
days, and Saturdays, from September 23 to November 19, when 
it made its first public parade under command of Captain Swett, 
and was presented with " an elegant standard " by General 
Welles. If those to whom his speech was addressed did not 
have the opportunity to practise its precepts, its spirit animated 
the members of the Guards, as their record from 1861 to 1865 
conclusively proved. A few extracts may well be given : 

"In a free republic a permanent and standing military force has ever 
been considered dangerous if not hostile to the liberties of the people. 
The framers of our happy constitution of government have preferred an 
appeal to the patriotism of the citizens ; on the discipline, therefore, of its 
citizen soldiers the prosperity of the State essentially depends. 

" We witness with pleasure this day your enlistment among the de 
fenders of their country ; the trust is sacred ; the duties imposing. On 
your patriotism we may confidently rely. Valor and discipline will 
point to you the path to glory. Remember that the independence of 
your country was purchased with the toils and blood of your fathers, and 
in your hands the sacred deposit is placed for posterity. ... As honor 
able citizens and undaunted soldiers cultivate harmony with each other, 
preserve subordination, perfect yourselves in discipline, and the reward 
you will receive for this valuable service will be the sublime satisfaction 
which results from the discharge of duty with fidelity and the grateful 
acknowledgments of your fellow-citizens." 

The standard was accepted on behalf of the Guards by Ensign 
Blake. In his response occurred the sentence which the Guards 
afterwards adopted as their motto : 

1 Father of Captain Charles Hunt, of Company G. 

2 Mr. Hay celebrated his ninety sixth birthday anniversary, Jan. 15, 1886. 

3 Dan Simpson died, after this chapter was written, at a good old age. 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 




"... Although our country is engaged in a war contrary to the views 
of the people of New England, yet, if in the course of its events we 
should be called to the tented field by our venerable commander-in-chief 
to repel invasion, to suppress insubordination/ or to execute the laws 
of the Union, we pledge our life s blood to preserve this standard from 
dishonor. OuR NATION S HONOR is THE BOND OF UNION. " 

On this occasion it is noted 
as a fact worth remembering 
that the Guards "partook of 
cake and wine with General 
Welles/ and that they went 
" from the Common to the 
home of Captain Swett, where 
a superb collation was pro 
vided by his liberality." All 
through the orderly book such 
notations as these are contin 
ually found, showing that the 
Guards had a keen apprecia 
tion for the pleasures of the 

table ; and on the principle of transmitted traits we may account 
ior the distaste with which many of its later members received 
the hard-tack and salt horse furnished them half a century 
afterwards. 

At a meeting held at Concert Hall the following evening, the 
company voted to present a piece of plate to General Welles 
" expressive of their respect and gratitude for his honorable 
patronage." They also voted the thanks of the New England 
Guards to " the young lady who honored them with the elegant 
draft of the Roll of Members." 1 

At the suggestion of General Welles, the officers of the Guards, 
with the approval of the majority of the members, applied to the 

1 On the margin of the orderly book is a memorandum dated October, 1842, to the 
effect that the young lady was Miss Walter, afterwards wife of Mr. S. F. McCleary, 
the first City Clerk of Boston. Many of our comrades knew her personally, and the 
writer has heard her express the gratification she felt on this occasion. Miss Walter 
was an accomplished penwoman, and the original design which she made for the 
inscription on the plate presented to General Welles, as well as several other designs 
which she furnished, are preserved in one of the orderly books. 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 5 

Governor and Council for a couple of cannon for the use of 
the corps. The matter was considered at the council meeting 
in January, 1813, but the officers having learned unofficially 
that the Governor did not feel authorized to act in the matter, 
the petition was, by consent of all parties interested, withdrawn, 
and General Boyd of the United States Army, commandant of 
the station, requested to loan the Guards the desired cannon. 
This request he kindly granted. On Jan. 19, 1813, " the weather 
was rainy and the roads wet with melting snow; but the Guards 
resolving unanimously to march, they proceeded to the Navy 
Yard at Charlestown, whence they brought the cannon into 
Boston and lodged them at the artillery gun-house at four o clock 
P.M." These were returned to the Navy Yard Feb. 9, I8I4, 1 at 
the request of General Gushing. On the same day it was voted 
that " the commissioned 
officers be appointed a 
committee to apply to the 
Legislature of the State 
for a pair of brass cannon 
for the use of the com 
pany." There is no rec 
ord of the time when 
these were received ; but 

on June 13, 1814, the "Guards started for Charlestown with the 
six-pounders." These cannon were in possession of the corps 
for several years. By some means they were lost, but were 
found a few years since, and for a while formed " the battery " 
at the residence of Colonel W. V. Hutchings, Roxbury. Re 
cently they have been placed in the rooms of the Bostonian 
Society, in the Old State House. Each piece bears the inscrip 
tion, " Cast & Mounted by Order of the Board of War for the 
N. E. G., 1814." 2 

February 18, 1813, the Guards volunteered escort duty to 
the committee on the reception of Commodore Bainbridge of 
the " Constitution," who had just won the victory over the 

1 There is doubt if this date is correct. 

2 The orderly books and all the records of the Guards which can be found have 
been placed with the Bostonian Society in trust. 




6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

" Guerriere." Commander Rogers, Captain Hull, and others 
participated. 

On Thursday morning, Sept. 2, 1813, the company paraded. 
The day was intensely hot. The orderly notes, " Number of 
members small, but these were resolute." After taking their 
guns and baggage-wagons from the gun-house on Beacon Street, 
they proceeded by West Boston Bridge, West Cambridge, and 
the west side of Medford Pond to Gardner s Locks. On the way 
" we made the hills and vales resound with our animated songs." 
Most of us undoubtedly recall many instances when, if our 
orderly sergeants had not been completely worn out with fatigue, 
they, too, might have made similar entries. Few of us will ever 
forget the inspiration we felt as we joined in the chorus of " John 
Brown " or " Kingdom Coining," or listened to the Howard boys, 
or Ewer, or Powers, or Perkins, in one of their special songs. 

When the Guards reached their destination, " the Lake of the 
Woods," they pitched their tents; the encampment "was on 
streets running from front to rear, as practised in Europe." On 
Friday they marched to Medford, and after partaking of the 
hospitality of the adjutant-general, Peter C. Brooks, established 
their camp on the hill in rear of Mr. Tidd s house. On Saturday 
they returned to Boston. The time had been well occupied in 
drill, target practice, and similar duties, not forgetting the social, 
which the Guards never neglected. The record in the orderly 
book is quite long, and concludes as follows : " Thus having 
the honor to be the first military corps that has marched out of 
town with complete camp equipage, made a regular encampment, 
and performed regular camp duty for three successive days since 
the establishment of our Commonwealth." 

Captain Swett having resigned (October, 1813), to accept posi 
tion as Topographical Engineer of the Northern Army, on April 2, 
1814, George Sullivan was elected captain and Lemuel Blake 
lieutenant. 

Sunday, April 3, 1814, the commanding officer learned from 
Commodore Bainbridge that the frigate " Constitution " had been 
chased into Marblehead harbor by a seventy-four and two frig 
ates of the enemy. The news was received at 5.30 A.M. The 
Guards assembled, formed, and started at 7 A. M. On the way to 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 7 

Marblehead they made a short halt at the residence of Commo 
dore Bainbridge in Charlestown. Soon after resuming their 
march they were recalled by orders from the Commodore direct 
ing them to return to Boston to take charge of some heavy 
ordnance which he intended to send to Marblehead. As the 
horses \vere not ready, the corps was dismissed till 1 1 P. M., when 
every member who had turned out in the morning reported for 
duty. Several others, whose notifications had not reached them 
early enough to enable them to join in the first march to 
Charlestown, were also present. News reached the armory about 
midnight that the enemy had retreated, and the Guards were 
dismissed. One of the older members, 1 whose recollection of 
this parade was very distinct, said that Abbott Lawrence, who 
always manifested a very strong interest in the Guards, started in 
the morning shod in light dancing-pumps; that before reaching 
Charlestown he was practically barefooted ; but, far from being 
discouraged, he hired a boy to go home for his boots, and met 
him carrying them towards Marblehead as the column was 
returning. 

June 13, 1814, the Guards went into camp at Charlestown to 
guard the Chelsea bridge, which Commodore Bainbridge feared 
might be attacked. They remained there from Monday till 
Thursday, and in consideration of their services were invited to 
the launch of the seventy-four gun-ship, then almost completed, 
and to a collation at the residence of the Commodore after the 
launch. 

During the week beginning Oct. 26, 1814, a detachment of 
the Guards under command of Ensign Pickman did garrison duty 
at Fort Strong. Charles Tidd and J. Howe, Jr., were the ser 
geants, and Abbott Lawrence and Richard Ward the corporals. 
In the regulations issued for the government of the detachment 
it is provided that the " commissary will furnish whatever spirit 
may be needed for the use of the mess." It may be that from 
this incident the word " commissary " came to be synonymous 
with a rather well-known article which was sometimes confiscated 
by our boys, but to which the colonel decidedly objected unless 
liberally diluted with quinine or supplied under the guise of 
1 Mr. Joseph West, who died Oct. 16, 1884, aged ninety-two years. 



8 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

" orange pickle." It also indicates that social matters received 
some attention, to find a note saying, " It is expected that gentle 
men will entertain their guests at their individual expense." 

Feb. 13, 1815, the morning on which was received the welcome 
news of the declaration of peace, the Guards fired salutes from 
the Common at noon and at sunset. 

The Guards seem to have continued the custom of going into 
yearly camp (the " summer campaign," as they called it) ; and 
although no direct statement to that effect appears in the orderly 
book, there are many entries which lead the reader to infer that 
this practice was not common to the other military organizations 
of the State. During the campaign of 1822 the orderly, in de 
tailing the preparations made to receive guests, deems this fact 
worthy of record : " After dinner the tents were cleared of all 
rubbish. The members put on clean trousers." 

The encampment of 1823 was honored by the presence of 
John Ouincy Adams, who reviewed the corps and highly com 
plimented it. 

June 14, 1824, appears this extraordinary resolution, especially 
surprising considering the reluctance with which their successors 
quitted the "soft side of a downy plank" when reveille sounded 
on a cold and disagreeable morning: " Voted, unanimously, that 
the company shall have a drill on Monday of each week at five 
o clock in the morning untill the campaign." The experiment 
was evidently a failure, as the vote was rescinded on June 24. 

July 7, a destructive fire occurred on Beacon and Charles 
Streets. The Guards volunteered to protect the property, and 
forty minutes after the order had been issued by Captain Lyman 
two officers and forty members had reported at the armory for 
duty. 

August 24, the company formed part of the escort on the occa 
sion of Lafayette s visit to Boston, and were given the right of the 
line. The following day they went into annual encampment, 
where they were visited by General Lafayette, Governor Eustis, 
and a colonel of the British army who had " lost a limb at Water 
loo." The latter paid the Guards a very ambiguous compliment 
when he remarked that he " never saw such discipline in any 
camp as ours." 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 9 

Feb. II, 1825, they attended the funeral of Governor Eustis, 
and on April 8 guarded the property saved from the Doane 
Street fire, "a destructive conflagration which burned upwards of 
fifty stores and houses, and in consequence of which upwards of 
one hundred and fifty people were thrown out of employment." 

June 17, they participated in the laying of the corner-stone of 
Bunker Hill Monument, and ten days later were called upon by 
the Governor to be ready to aid in suppressing a riot at the 
North End; but fortunately their services were not required. 

Dec. 5, 1829, the buttons were ordered to be stamped " N. E. G." 
The non-commissioned officers had evidently tired of acting as 
postmen, as at this meeting a vote was passed authorizing the em 
ployment of a suitable person to deliver notices. 

Aug. 11, 1834, the convent at Charlestown was burned, and the 
Guards were on duty more or less from the I2th to the i6th. 
June 29, 1835, the orderly notes a vote that we " go on the Com 
mon to drill by the light of the pale moon ; " whether a variety of 
artificial light or a new kind of tactics he does not condescend to 
explain. 

On Sunday, July 11, 1837, they were ordered out, and under 
command of Ensign Bigelow (afterwards Chief Justice of the 
Commonwealth) performed valiant service during the Broad 
Street riot. They were the first infantry company that reported 
for duty. 

The annual encampment of 1838 was held at Woburn in June. 
On one day it is estimated that they entertained over three 
thousand visitors; at one hotel more than seven hundred chaises 
and carriages were taken care of. The Guards were always social 
favorites, and that their successors were so regarded is proved by 
the throngs of visitors which crowded the camps of the Second, 
Twentieth, Twenty-fourth, and Forty-fourth, which were essen 
tially N. E. G. regiments. 

Aug. 31, 1839, they went to Barnstable and spent five days 
there during the centennial celebration of that town. Being dis 
appointed in the arrival of the steamer they had engaged (it 
was detained by a heavy storm), they chartered a schooner, and 
with nearly two hundred members reached Barnstable before 
the hour appointed for the beginning of the exercises. It was 



10 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the first uniformed military company that had ever been seen 
there. 

April 21, 1841, they performed escort duty at the funeral of 
President Harrison, and on June 17, 1843, joined in the proces 
sion incident to the ceremonies at the dedication of Bunker Hill 
Monument, the corner-stone of which they had assisted in laying 
eighteen years before. 

The records of the Guards up to 1845 have been preserved, 
and from them most of the facts in the account thus far given 
have been gathered. Subsequent to that year it is difficult to 
obtain full particulars, as all official papers and documents were 
burned in the great fire of November, 1872. In consequence of 
this loss the most interesting portion of its history, from a few 
years previous to the breaking out of the war until the departure 
of the Forty-fourth, is largely a matter of tradition. 

The interest of the members in the success of the Guards grew 
rapidly during the year or two previous to the outbreak of the 
Rebellion. The visit of the Ellsworth Zouaves of Chicago had 
a stimulating effect by showing how much was yet needed to 
bring the company up to the standard of excellence at which it 
aimed. As an indication that at that time they had made con 
siderable progress in drill and discipline, Ellsworth is reported to 
have said that he anticipated having to compete with some well- 
drilled militia companies, but he did not expect to find one 
exhibiting so much proficiency as the Guards. 

The annual festival in January, 1861, was largely attended, and 
was a gathering of much interest. It was on this occasion that 
Governor Andrew remarked that he had always been regarded as 
a peace man, and that he was so much a friend of peace that he 
was ready to fight for it. 

Jan. 23, 1861, Captain Gordon presiding, Governor Andrew s 
celebrated Order No. 4 1 was read. In accordance with its 

1 COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, 

HEADQUARTERS, BOSTON, Jan. 16, 1861. 
General Order No. 4. 

Events which have recently occurred, and are now in progress, require that Massa 
chusetts should be at all times ready to furnish her quota upon any requisition of the 
President of the United States, to aid in the maintenance of the laws and the peace 
of the Union. His Excellency, the Commander-in-Chief, therefore orders, 

That the commanding officer of each company of volunteer militia examine with 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. I I 

provisions every member, excepting one who excused himself on 
the ground of serious illness in his family, pledged himself to go 
to the front immediately should the company be called upon. A 
military critic, in commenting upon the Guards about this time, 
remarks : " The efficiency and improvement of the company in 
drill is owing very much to the skill and ability of Captain George 
H. Gordon, a graduate of West Point, who has done efficient 
service in the United States Army ; and also to the efforts of the 
excellent orderly, Thomas G. Stevenson." 

Just previous to the outbreak of the War the "Tigers" and 
the " Guards " formed respectively Companies A and B of the 
Second Battalion of Infantry. March 11, 1861, Company B was 
set off as Company A of the Fourth Battalion ; a new company, 
B, was formed, and Captain Gordon elected major. 

The first call for troops was made April 15, 1861. As the 
quota of Massachusetts was filled by the regiments which were 
selected by Governor Andrew, the battalions were not required 
for duty, and on April 18 Major Gordon offered his services to 
the Governor to raise and command a regiment of volunteers for 
the war. This was probably the first offer of the kind received 
by the Commander-in-Chief. Major Gordon s letter of resignation 
states so clearly the reasons for his action, and gives so plainly 
his views of the proper functions of the organized militia, that it 
has been copied in full : - 

In offering to the Governor of the Commonwealth my resignation of 
the office of Major of the Fourth Battalion of Infantry to assume corn- 
care the roll of his company, and cause the name of each member, together with his 
rank and place of residence, to be properly recorded, and a copy of the same to be 
forwarded to the office of the Adjutant-General. Previous to which, commanders of 
companies shall make strict inquiry whether there are men in their commands who 
from age, physical defect, business, or family causes, may be unable or indisposed 
to respond at once to the orders of the Commander-in-Chief, made in response to the 
call of the President of the United States, that they may be forthwith discharged ; so 
that their places may be filled by men ready for any public exigency which may arise, 
whenever called upon. 

After the above orders shall have been fulfilled, no discharge, either of officer or 
private, shall be granted, unless for cause satisfactory to the Commander-in-Chief. 

If any companies have not the number of men allowed by law, the commander of 
the same shall make proper exertions to have the vacancies filled, and the men 
properly drilled and uniformed, and their names and places of residence forwarded 

to headquarters. . . . 

WILLIAM SCHOULER, Adjutant-General. 



12 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

mand of a regiment to be raised for service during the existence of our 
present unhappy difficulties, I deem it due to the members composing 
that battalion to state publicly my reasons therefor, as follows : 

Wherever any son of Massachusetts can render the most efficient ser 
vice to the State, there, in iny judgment, should his efforts be given. Al 
though in the first outbreak of war reliance must necessarily be placed on 
our militia, in whose ranks are found men of the best classes in our com 
munity, yet for prolonged and continuous service a composition of forces 
like that constituting the Army of the General Government is indisputably 
the most efficient and serviceable, a composition in which the character 
and intelligence of our best citizens must be used to organize and drill the 
bone and muscle of those upon whom we must rely for our armies. 

Thus we may with a small body of well-instructed gentlemen impart 
information, raise into an organization, and render efficient very many 
large bodies of men, all of whom will in time become soldiers rather than 
undisciplined mobs of raw militia. Where, as in the present sudden emer 
gency, any, even the least, capacity exists to impart information and effi 
ciency to a company of privates, we cannot afford to waste precious 
material that may instruct others by calling it to render individual services 
as privates rather than officers. 

My aim as chief of the New England Guards has been to impart to 
my command the necessary instruction to enable them to command, rather 
than to build up a company to serve as privates during the fatigues of a 
long campaign. 

Massachusetts needs to-day military skill, science, and power to in 
struct. No man has a right to refuse his skill to drill the body of the 
militia of our State, even though he sacrifice that ambition, so near to a 
soldier s heart, to be the first to bleed for his country. 

Believing firmly that my duty lies in the direction I have chosen, I 
have acted accordingly ; and knowing how hard it is for those of my com 
mand with whom I have been so intimately associated, and for whom indi 
vidually I entertain a respect that can never abate, and whose bravery and 
patriotism each and every member will show in the right direction, to 
be kept back from the foremost in this call of their country, I remain, ever 
devoted to the Constitution of the United States and the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, 

GEORGE H. GORDON. 1 

This letter shows conclusively what had been his ambition. 
How well he succeeded, let the fact that his command of but two 
companies furnished to the army during the war upwards of two 

1 General Gordon referred to this letter in his remarks at the tenth annual reunion, 
Jan. 20, 1886. 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 13 

hundred commissioned officers and a large number of non-com 
missioned officers and privates fully attest. Captain Putnam said 
at a meeting of the Guard Association held some time after the 
close of the war, that out of one hundred and sixty-one members 
who were on duty at Fort Independence in the spring of 1861, 
before the close of the year one hundred and sixteen had been 
commissioned and several had enlisted in the ranks. At the 
same meeting Colonel Hutchins said that of the whole number 
who were at the fort all but fifteen had gone into the army 
within a very short time after their return to the city. 

That the wives and mothers of the members were as patriotic 
as their husbands and sons it is needless to say, as women are 
always foremost in any work calling for self-sacrifice. On the 
same day that Major Gordon tendered his services, Mrs. J. 
Thomas Stevenson, the mother of our former orderly, captain, 
major, and brigadier-general, the beloved and lamented Thomas 
G. Stevenson, acting as the representative of three hundred Bos 
ton ladies who were willing to go to the front as nurses if they 
should be needed, called on the Governor and offered their 
services. 

April 25, 1 86 1, in accordance with the following orders, the 
Guards went on duty at Fort Independence: 

HEADQUARTERS, BOSTON, April 24, 1861. 
Special Order No. 75. 

Captain Thomas G. Stevenson, commanding Fourth Battalion, First 
Brigade, First Division, is hereby ordered, with the battalion under his 

command, to report at o clock A.M., April 25, at the State House, 

thence to proceed, after being supplied with the necessary arms and equip 
ments, to Fort Independence, on Castle Island, in Boston Harbor, to 
garrison and protect said fort until further orders. 

These troops are charged with this duty in pursuance of their own pa 
triotic wishes, and are to be supplied with rations by the State, but to 
perform the service without compensation. 
By command, 

WILLIAM SCHOULER, 

Adjutant- General. 

HEADQUARTERS, FOURTH BATTALION INFANTRY, M. V. M. 
BOSTON, April 25, 1861. 

You are hereby ordered to appear at the armory of the Fourth Battalion 
of Infantry, Boylston Hall, to-day at 12 o clock, for active service at Fort 



14 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Independence, in dark pantaloons and cap. There will be provided by 
the State, overcoat, knapsack, blanket, two pairs of stockings, two 
woollen shirts. You will provide yourself with towels, brushes, etc., and 
one extra pair of boots or shoes. 

Per order, 

THOMAS G. STEVENSON, 

Captain Commanding. 

Before leaving for Fort Independence the Guard was presented 
with a beautiful silk flag by the young ladies of Mr. Caleb 
Emery s school. Each member was also given a good service 
able fatigue-jacket by Mr. Parker Whitney, of the Cadets. 

The battalion went to Fort Independence under command of 
Captain Thomas G. Stevenson. Company A, Lieutenant Osborn, 
had fifty-seven guns, and Company B, Lieutenant Otis, sixty- 
three guns. May 4, 1861, Captain Stevenson was elected Major. 
On May 1 1 the roster was as follows : 

Major Thomas G. Stevenson. 

Adjutant John F. Anderson. 

Surgeon Dr. Hall Curtis. 

Quartermaster William V. Hutchings. 

Company A, Captain Francis A. Osborn. 

First Lieut John F. Prince, Jr. 

Second Lieut. . . . E. M. Dennie. 

Third Lieut. . . . Charles H. Hooper. 

Fourth Lieut. . . . Stephen Cabot. 

Company B, Captain R. H. Stevenson. 

First Lieut William C. Otis. 

Second Lieut. . . . Francis W. Palfrey. 

Third Lieut. . . . John Q. Adams. 

Fourth Lieut. . . . J. R. Gregerson. 

The complete list of the commanders of the Guards is as 
follows : 

Samuel Swett elected Sept. 22, 1812. 

George Sullivan " April 2, 1814. 

George W. Lyman " May 6, 1817. 

Franklin Dexter " Aug. 22, 1820. 

Charles G. Loring " May 23, 1823. 

William H. Gardiner " May 3, 1825. 

William F. Otis " May 6, 1828. 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 15 

Edward G. Loring - . elected June 8, 1829. 

Richard S. Fay " March 31, 1831. 

Thomas Dwight " April 23, 1835. 

Alanson Tucker " May 3, 1836. 

H. H. W. Sigourney " April 4, 1838. 

George Tyler Bigelow " Jan. 15, 1839. 

Charles Gordon " Jan. 9, 1841. 

J. Putnam Bradlee " March 20, 1845. 

Joseph L. Henshaw " March 16, 1852. 

George T. Lyman " Jan. 28, 1857. 

Harrison Ritchie " Dec. 30, 1859. 

George H. Gordon " 1860. 

Thomas G. Stevenson " May 4, 1861. 

Francis L. Lee " 1862. 

The following extracts from reports of visitors to the fort, 
selected from newspapers published at that time, will indicate the 
opinion which was generally entertained of the organization : 

"Everything looks like business, and West Point Cadets are not put 
through a more rigid drill by more competent officers." 

"... The first impression which strikes the observer is that of disci 
pline. The commander, Captain Stevenson, has risen rapidly from the 
ranks, evincing peculiar capacity for military discipline and command ; and 
we may add that he is well supported by an enthusiastic and excellent 
body of officers and men." 

" The Fourth Battalion of Infantry, at present stationed at Fort Inde 
pendence, is composed for the most part of sons of wealthy merchants in 
this city, and on this account they are inclined to be sensitive, fearing that 
the peculiar service to which they have been appointed will be construed 
as an indication of their desire to play the gentleman soldier and an un 
willingness to be called into the field, which is far from the case. . . . 
These young men at Fort Independence are by strict discipline perfecting 
and inuring themselves in preparation for the real hardships of war and 
active service into which they may soon be called. Let them rest assured 
that their zeal and patriotism will not be questioned, though they tempora 
rily occupy Fort Independence instead of Fort Monroe or Pickens." 

" The Fourth Battalion of Infantry, Major Stevenson (without dispar 
aging other corps which show as creditable proficiency in their drill), 
stands at the head of the military organizations of this State for precision 
of movement, skilful performance of complicated manoeuvres, and general 
discipline. There have been and there are companies which the Fourth 



1 6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

would find hard to beat in rapid and correct execution of the manual ; 
but there are none as yet that can compare with the Fourth in the other 
qualities which constitute an incomparable military association." 

The term of service at the fort was utilized to the best possi 
ble advantage. All of our boys can bear witness to the rare skill 
of General Stevenson as a commander, and have felt the personal 
magnetism which affected all with whom he came in contact. 
He was fairly idolized by his men, and it is doubtful if any one 
less peculiarly fitted for the position could have maintained as 
strict discipline. 

May 26, in accordance with special order No. 249, dated May 
21, they were relieved by the Fourth Battalion of Rifles, under 
command of Major Leonard. On this occasion was performed 
for the first time the "Fourth Battalion Quickstep," arranged by 
P. S. Gilmore, which immediately became sucfi a favorite, and 
to the inspiriting strains of which we have all marched so many 
times. On reaching the Common they were received by the 
veteran, Colonel Swett, their first commander, and there gave a 
dress-parade and battalion-drill, " to the delight of the spectators, 
among whom was found many a military critic who found no 
cause for disparagement." 

Colonel Gordon s regiment, the Second, drew largely on the 
battalion for its officers, as did also the Sixteenth, Twentieth, and 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts. There was scarcely a regiment 
raised in the eastern part of this State in which the Guards were 
not represented, either among the field, line, or staff; and many 
were commissioned in the service of other States. Of six Bos 
ton officers whose portraits appear in the third volume of the 
" Memorial History of Boston," General Stevenson, General 
Bartlett, Colonel Revere, Colonel Shaw, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Dwight, and Major Abbott, four received their early military 
training as privates in the New England Guards, as did the 
author of the chapter (Francis W. Palfrey), who rose to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and, subsequent to the war, was for 
many years in command of the Cadets. 

In August, 1861, the battalion volunteered its services; but on 
the 2 1st or 22d of the month they received an answer from the 
War Department refusing to accept them as a battalion. On the 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. If 

29th of that month they voted to raise a regiment, and on the 3 1st 
the official authority for so doing was granted Major Stevenson. 
Most of the line, and all of the field and staff, were selected from 
the Guards, and several members, who were afterwards commis 
sioned, enlisted in the ranks. This regiment, the Twenty-fourth, 
formed a part of the Burnside expedition, and did not leave the 
State till the early part of December. Just previous to its de 
parture, Past-Commanders Swett, Lyman, Loring, Gardiner, Fay, 
Tucker, Bigelow, Charles Gordon, Bradlee, Henshaw, and Ritchie 
presented to Colonel Stevenson a horse and suitable equipments. 
In the latter part of 1860, when the prospect of civil war 
became imminent, there was a general desire on the part of citi 
zens, young and old, to learn at least the rudiments of military 
drill. Clubs for this purpose were organized all over the State. 
One of the largest and most successful of these was commanded 
by a Frenchman named Salignac, and at one time numbered 
nearly, if not quite, one thousand members. A fencing-club, in 
which several who were afterwards commissioned in our regiment 
had for a long time been interested, was the nucleus. Soon after 
the actual outbreak of hostilities the Government recalled the 
arms and equipments which had been loaned to the drill-club, 
and it consequently disbanded. Several who were unwilling to 
relinquish their military lessons then organized the " Massachu 
setts Rifle Club," and engaged as instructor a Mr. Pease, who was 
a drill-sergeant in the Hythe School, England. Mr. Pease, re 
moving to the West, was succeeded by a Prussian officer of artil 
lery, named Steffen. Under his tuition the instruction given was 
extended to embrace field fortification, grand tactics, and various 
other subjects, the knowledge of which would prove valuable to 
an officer in active service. They secured the privilege of using 
the Fourth Battalion armory for drill and for the storage of their 
arms and equipments. The regiments which had already left for 
the seat of war had drawn so heavily on the Guards for their 
officers, and so many of its members had gone to the front, that 
the corps was completely demoralized, scarcely a corporal s 
guard remaining at home. In the winter of 1861-1862 the 
Massachusetts Rifle Club united with the Guards. Major Francis 
L. Lee, who had been in command of the former organization, 

2 



1 8 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

was elected to the command of the battalion, and renewed inter 
est was manifested immediately. 

In May, 1862, at the time of Banks s retreat, the militia of 
Massachusetts were called out with the expectation that they 
would go to the front. (General Order No. 14, May 26, 1862.) 
The order for them to assemble on Boston Common was issued 
on the 26th, and on the 2/th some four thousand had reported. 
The Boston and Salem Cadets were mustered in immediately, 
and were sent to Fort Warren to relieve the companies stationed 
there in guarding the Rebel prisoners, as the latter were to be 
sent to the seat of war. Before the rest of the militia could be 
mustered it was found that under the law they might be held for 
a period of eight months, and with the exception of the New 
England Guards, every company that had reported refused to be 
sworn in for longer than three months. Some of the companies 
were unanimous in their refusal and others nearly so. Under 
these circumstances, the Governor telegraphed to the War De 
partment for authority to send them for three months. After 
some delay he received for answer that, owing to certain con 
centrations, the men would not be needed, and they were ac 
cordingly dismissed. The Fourth Battalion was mustered out on 
the 28th (General Order No. 16, May 27, 1862), making their 
term of service just three days, having been mustered in on 
the 26th. 

The Boston " Herald " of the 2/th says : " The strange appear 
ance of one of our own corps ( Corporal Zenas T. Haines, of 
Company D) in Zouave dress, with a change of clothes strapped 
upon his back, at an unusually early hour in the editorial room, 
indicated the promptness with which the corps responded to the 
Governor s call." 

The roster of the battalion at that time was: Major, Francis L. 
Lee ; Adjutant, Charles C. Soule ; Quartermaster, Charles H. 
Dalton. Company A: Captain, E. C. Cabot; First Lieutenant, 
E. M. Dennie ; Second Lieutenant,}. H. Lombard. Company 
B: Captain, J. R. Gregerson ; First Lieutenant, J. R. Kendall; 
Second Lieutenant, F. W. Reynolds. 

When it was expected that the battalion was going to the 
front, a very large number of young men joined. On the 27th, 



NEW ENGLAND GUARDS. 19 

Special Order No. 104 authorized the formation of a third com 
pany, and directed the election of officers. No record can be 
found, however, that officers were chosen. The students of 
Harvard College offered a company to be attached to the bat 
talion, and the President and Faculty approved, provided it 
should be found that their services were needed. 

One of the newspapers, in referring to the matter editorially, 
says : " But their action yesterday, in such marked contrast with 
that of other corps in this city, will be remembered to their 
credit, and give this gallant battalion an addition to their pre 
vious honorable prestige." 

On the 28th Governor Andrew presented the Guards with a 
flag, and in his speech said: "Your conduct is what might be 
expected, and an earnest of what may be relied upon for the 
Fourth Battalion ; and I pledge you that during the brief space 
that I may occupy my present position with regard to the militia, 
there shall be no position of honor within my gift higher than 
that assigned to the Fourth Battalion." 

Aug. 4, 1862, the call came for 300,000 nine months men. 
August 5, the battalion voted unanimously to serve for that 
length of time, but having had some experience of the difficulty 
of getting a battalion accepted, on the 7th they voted to raise a 
regiment, and before the meeting adjourned between two and 
three hundred members had signed the rolls. The battalion was 
swallowed up in the regiment. 

About the time the Forty-fourth went into camp, the older 
members voted to organize a " Home Guard," or " Veteran 
Association." This society existed for some time. The de 
parture of the Forty-fourth had taken away nearly all the active 
members. After its return a large number of those who had 
formerly belonged to the Guards went into service again as com 
missioned officers ; the others felt they were too few in numbers 
to keep up the active company ; many thought that it was no 
time to try to build up a military company for home duty when 
every available man was needed in the field. For these and 
other reasons no attempt was made to form an active company 
until 1872 or 1873, when at a meeting of the "Veteran Associa 
tion " the subject was referred to, and for two or three years a 



20 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

strong effort was made to revive the charter, but without a 
favorable result. 

The New England Guards was organized in September, 1812. 
It closed its existence, September, 1862, when the Forty-fourth 
Regiment went into camp and the battalion was merged in the 
regiment. For fifty years it had had an honorable record, and 
on its roll of members are inscribed the names of some of the 
most prominent, best-known, and most widely influential of the 
citizens of Boston. 

At the annual meeting in 1862 Captain Charles G. Loring 
said : 

" Why have the New England Guards excelled so much in military dis 
cipline, in moral character, and always enjoyed so much of the public 
confidence? It was because in 1812, when this venerable man (Colonel 
Swett), who was then its commander, and who commanded it so nobly 
and so gloriously, it was because he and those associated with him in 
getting up the New England Guards took care that it should be com 
posed exclusively of gentlemen and men of good moral character. From 
that time to this, the New England Guards has been, as I believe, a most 
exemplary and moral company." 

The statement has been made, and so far as can be ascertained 
it is believed to be correct, that the New England Guards is the 
only military organization in this country that ever lost its 
charter in consequence of sending so many of its members into 
active service that there was not a sufficient number left at home 
to keep it alive. 











"?. - - 



CHAPTER II. 




UGUST 4, 1862, President Lin 
coln issued a call for 300,000 
men to serve nine months. 
The proportion to be fur 
nished by Massachusetts, " by 
some process of arithmetic 
known only to the authorities 
in Washington," was fixed at 
19,090. The quota was to be 
raised by " draft, in accord 
ance with orders from the War 
Department and the laws of 
the several States." These or 
ders were issued August 9, 

and additional ones sent August 14. Governor Andrew was 
desirous of avoiding the necessity of a draft, and on August 8 
he wrote the President : 

"... I am confident of getting more volunteers and militia this 
month by enlistments, and by wheeling militia into line, than conscription 
could bring in the same time. Meanwhile, will be preparing machinery 
for draft. 

" Our people want nothing to spur them but assurance from Washing 
ton that the enemy shall be conquered, and right vindicated at all hazards 
by our arms." 

In filling this requisition for troops he acted on the plan here 
advised. 

August 5, at a regular meeting of the Fourth Battalion, it was 
unanimously voted that the Governor be petitioned to authorize 



22 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the corps to recruit to a full regiment for the nine months 
service. The request received prompt attention and resulted in 
the following order : 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, 

HEADQUARTERS, BOSTON, Aug. 7, 1862. 
Special Order No, 597. 

The Fourth Battalion of Infantry, First Brigade, First Division, M. V. M., 
is authorized to recruit to the size of a regiment of ten companies of 
ninety- eight enlisted men each, conforming in all respects both as to the 
quality of the enlisted men and otherwise to the militia laws of the United 
States, each man in the regiment being required to sign an agreement to 
serve upon any requisition of the Government of the United States issued 
during the present year as a militia man for the term of nine months con 
secutively, if orders therefor shall be issued to his regiment or any portion 
thereof by the Commander-in-Chief of the militia of Massachusetts. 

Major- General Andrews, commanding First Division, will transmit this 
order. 

By command of his Excellency, 

JOHN A. ANDREW, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 
WILLIAM BROWN, A. A. G. 

On the same day Special Order No. 596, worded like the 
above, gave permission to the Second Battalion, " Tigers," to 
recruit to a regiment, which afterwards became the Forty-third ; 
and on August II the following order authorized the formation 
of the Forty-fifth Regiment: 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, 

HEADQUARTERS, BOSTON, Aug. n, 1862. 
Special Order No. 607. 

Captain Charles R. Codman, of Boston, Adjutant of the Company of 
Cadets, First Division, M. V. M., is hereby authorized to recruit for a 
regiment of infantry in the M. V. M., under the auspices of said company 
of Cadets. 

By command of his Excellency, 

JOHN A. ANDREW, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 
WILLIAM SCHOULER. Adjutant- General. 

A meeting of the Fourth Battalion was held at the armory, 
Boylston Hall, on the evening of August 7. It was called to 
order by Captain Cabot. The reading of Special Order No. 597 
was received with cheers, and a grand rush was made for the 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 23 

enrolment lists, each wishing to get his name as near the head 
as possible. Nearly every one present signed the roll for the 
new regiment, and before the meeting adjourned almost three 
hundred men had joined. Major Lee had been passing the sum 
mer at his place at Westport, N. Y. As soon as he learned from 
the newspapers that the call for nine months troops had been 
made, anticipating the action that the battalion would take, he 
started for Boston, and reached the armory just as the men had 
begun to sign the roll. Before adjournment he suggested that 
each member make himself a " recruiting committee of one," and 
added, that as all could not go as officers and as undoubtedly we 
had a choice of associates, this plan would be much more likely 
to secure those who would be agreeable than the usual one of a 
regular recruiting headquarters and acceptance of all who might 
choose to volunteer. 

Authority was immediately granted to Messrs. J. H. Lombard, 
H. D. Sullivan, Spencer W. Richardson, Charles Storrow, Charles 
Hunt, J. R. Kendall, and F. W. Reynolds, all of whom had been 
officers in the battalion, to raise companies. These gentlemen 
selected their assistants, who were afterwards commissioned lieu 
tenants. James M. Richardson, who had been a captain in the 
Twenty-first, and William V. Smith, who had been a lieutenant in 
the Eighteenth, also received authority. A company recruited 
exclusively in Newton by John M. Griswold was afterwards 
added. 

Each member of the battalion seemed inclined to follow the 
advice of Major Lee, and worked as if the success of the regiment 
depended on his individual exertions. Most of the companies 
made the Boylston Hall armory their headquarters ; but Com 
pany E, Captain Spencer W. Richardson, located at the rooms of 
the Mercantile Library Association. Captain Richardson was an 
ex-president of that society, which took a strong interest in the 
company he commanded. August 11, it passed a resolution 
making all who should enlist in Company E members of the 
Library Association. 

At this time the interest in filling the quota of the city was 
most intense. Besides our regiment, there were being recruited 
in Boston and immediate vicinity the Forty-third, Forty-fifth, 



24 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Forty-seventh, and several companies for the Forty-second. The 
Fifth had three companies from Charlestown, one each from 
Somerville, Medford, and Watertown ; and the Sixth, one from 
Cambridge. By general agreement many of the merchants 
closed their places of business at 2 or 3 P. M., and the afternoon 
was devoted to the work of encouraging enlistments. 

On the 8th the battalion paraded, some wearing the " Chas 
seur " uniform and some clad in citizen s dress. Other parades 
were made while the regiment was being formed. On the 2Oth 
we had about five hundred in the ranks. August 19, eight com 
panies having reported the minimum number of enlisted men, 
the following order was issued : - 

Special Order No. 650. 

The Fourth Battalion, First Brigade, First Division, M. V. M., will be 
forthwith organized into a regiment of ten companies and designated as 
the Forty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. 

Rolls of companies enlisted by J. H. Lombard, J. R. Kendall, Charles 
Hunt, H. D. Sullivan, Spencer W. Richardson, Charles Storrow, F. W. 
Reynolds, and W. V. Smith having been legally returned to the Adjutant- 
General, the companies will be immediately organized by the election of 
officers and attached to said regiment. The usual ten days notice for the 
election of company and field officers will be waived. 

Major-General Andrews is charged with the execution of this order. 

By command of his Excellency, 

JOHN A. ANDREW, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 
WILLIAM SCHOULER, Adjutant- Getter al. 

August 29, the regiment went into camp at Readville, quite 
near the station, on the ground between the Boston and Providence 
and the New York and New England Railroads, south of the junc 
tion, the field being just east of the embankment of the latter 
road. The barracks a separate building for each company 
were built very nearly at right angles with the embankment, and 
the field in which we drilled and held our dress-parades was east 
and north of the barracks. 

During the ten days intervening between the issuing of Special 
Order No. 650 and going into camp, quite a large number of men 
had joined, so that when the regiment reported at Readville it 
contained about the maximum number allowed by law. Still, 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 25 

recruits appeared who wished to belong to the Forty-fourth, and 
as it was very probable that the critical surgical examination our 
surgeons proposed making would cause the rejection of many 
who accompanied the regiment to camp, the late comers were 
accepted with the understanding that they should be selected to 
fill the anticipated vacancies. At one time there were nearly 
twelve hundred names on the rolls of the regiment. At the date 
that we were authorized to elect officers none of the towns in the 
State had offered bounties to the nine months troops ; and when 
we reached Readville with full ranks, comparatively few had 
taken action on the matter. 1 The State paid no bounty to the 
nine months troops. Although some of our men collected the 
town bounties, to which they were entitled under the provisions 
of the several votes granting them, they had enlisted before the 
votes were passed, and we think we can justly claim the credit of 
having been the last regiment recruited before the bounty system 
went into general operation. 

Among our members was Zenas T. Haines, Corporal in Com 
pany D, a journalist by profession, who was the regular corre 
spondent of the Boston " Herald " while the regiment was in 
service. His pictures of camp life are so vivid and complete 
that they will be quoted frequently, as even after the lapse of 
twenty years it would be difficult to improve his descriptions. 
In his first letter, dated "Barracks at Readville, Aug. 30, 1862," 
he says : 

"... The Forty-fourth came one day too soon to barrack at Read 
ville, but it was their own fault. The fine new barracks just erected there 
were not completed, and will not be until to-night, although now habitable, 
and comfortable as heart can desire. But all have had to work to pro 
duce this comfortable state of affairs so early, and the school of the 
soldier has been neglected to-day. 

" Our first night in barracks was exceedingly jolly, as was to have been 
expected. Poor devils who depend on good sleep and a good deal of it 
for what vitality they can muster, might have probably sworn last night if 

1 Bounties to nine months men were voted as follows : Boston, September 8 ; 
Cambridge, August 20; Dorchester, August 21; Framingham, September i; West 
Roxbury, September 6 ; Walpole, August 19; Roxbury, August 27; Waltham, Au 
gust 20; Maiden, August 27 ; Weston, August 19; Chelsea, September 15. Newton 
did not formally vote bounty, but on November 4 approved the act of the Selectmen 
in paying it. (Adjutant-General Schouler s " Massachusetts in the Rebellion.") 



26 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



they had been obliged to barrack at Readville. Not that the boys were 
riotous, or even obstreperous, but simply jolly. We supped on hard 
bread, and coffee hotter than the crater of Vesuvius. Then, pipes and 
cigars lighted, the early evening was devoted to music songs of home. 
After we had retired to our bunks, music of another character beguiled 
the hours of the night. 

" Your correspondent slept not at all the first night in barrack, for ob 
vious reasons. The inside musical performances opened with a barnyard 
chorus by the entire company, followed by rapid, unintermitting succession 
of dog, hog, pig, and rooster solos, duets and quartets, single and com 
bined, which continued in great volume until the unexpected arrival of 
the captain and his lieutenants, who are unfortunately without any ear 
for music. After a short intermission the performance was resumed in 
a greatly modified condition, commencing with admirable imitations of 




chickens astray from the shelter of the maternal wing, and coming to a 
pause with the low, small, satisfied twitterings of chickens in clover. 

" Then followed sounds less artistic, but not less suggestive to the gen 
eral appreciation, intermingled with snatches of conversation of a highly 
festive character. The good wit of the occasion rendered endurable what 
would otherwise have been an intolerable nuisance to any one wanting 
sleep as badly as your humble servant ; but at last, as it must be confessed, 
even this element failed to satisfy a scientific audience. Objurgations, not 
loud but deep, came from a number of bunks where sleep had failed to 
come, or tarried a moment to be cruelly banished. 

"To-day we have been applying finishing touches to our quarters, and 
exercising in company movements, by squads, etc. The turn-out at 
reveille this morning at five o clock was a new sensation, even to the 
Corporal. The style of the morning s ablutions was a novelty too. 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 27 

Instead of basins and soap at the barracks, we were ordered to fall in 
with towels, and then were positively marched to a pond to wash our 
hands and faces. Oh the degradation of military rule ! Such is war." 

This exuberance wore off quickly, as none of us felt inclined 
to keep awake all night after several hours severe drill during 
the day, with the certainty that at five o clock the next morning 
the unwelcome reveille would rouse us from our luxurious 
slumbers. 

Almost as soon as we reached camp one quality was developed 
which seemed to be characteristic of the Forty-fourth, that of 
making themselves as comfortable as circumstances would per 
mit, and considering the ornamental as well as the useful. " Cor 
poral " writes, September 6 : 

" . . . There is some emulation among the companies in the way of 
neatness, convenience, and decorations about their several barracks. The 
palm is due to Company D for an early display of flags upon the outside, 
and also for certain novel decorations of the interior in the shape of one or 
two delicate articles of apparel probably wafted by the wind from a wash 
ing hung out to dry. 

" Company F having had the temerity to erect a flagstaff taller than 
Company D s, the latter company extended its mast a few feet over that 
of its neighboring barrack. This ambition to excel exhibits itself in a 
variety of ways. Some of the barracks are prettily lighted with lanterns, 
and in one or two of them the bunks are lettered and ornamented in a 
very artistic manner. Afterwards Captain Spencer Richardson s boys se 
cured the tallest pole which could be found in the neighboring woods, and 
at the present writing their flag floats the highest. The barracks occu 
pied by the companies of Captain Lombard, Captain Hunt, and Captain 
Kendall also have creditable displays of bunting, and contribute to give 
the encampment a beautiful and animated appearance. . . . 

" As our stay at Readville protracts, we are gathering about us many little 
comforts and luxuries which we shall probably have to sacrifice in the 
event of a sudden retirement before an enemy. But while we stay here 
our purpose is to make ourselves extremely comfortable ; and in this 
purpose a numerous constituency of friends are lending their assistance 
in the way of hampers and baskets and bundles of fruit and other 
delicacies." 

A very pleasant feeling existed between the officers and the 
rank and file, which was manifested by the presentation to the 
former of some little token of regard from the men in their com- 



28 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

mands. Swords, sashes, and belts were given to Captain Sullivan 
of Company D; Captain Spencer W. Richardson of Company 
E; Horace S. Stebbins, Orderly Sergeant of Company F; Frank 
W. Hatch, Orderly Sergeant of Company G ; George L. Tripp, 
Orderly Sergeant of Company D ; Clarence Sumner, Orderly 
Sergeant of Company I ; Charles A. Cunningham, Orderly Ser 
geant of Company C ; Eben R. Buck, Orderly Sergeant of Com 
pany B ; Albert W. Edmands, Orderly Sergeant of Company A ; 
and Captain F. W. Reynolds of Company K. Lieutenants Blake 
and Stebbins, of Company D, were presented with shoulder- 
straps, and Captain James M. Richardson, of Company A, with a 
very handsome meerschaum pipe. " Uncle " Dan Simpson was 
not forgotten, the boys of Company C giving him a gayly deco 
rated Turkish fez. 

Nothing produces more pleasure in camp than music, and the 
Forty-fourth Regiment was especially fortunate in having a large 
number of singers in its ranks. 1 Scarcely an evening passed 
during our whole term of service without a gathering of the choir, 
and the performers were always sure of a sympathetic and appre 
ciative audience. Recognizing how pleasant it would be to have 
the words and music of our accustomed songs in some conven 
ient form for reference, Mr. Charles White, of Milton, father of 
Lieutenant White of Company G and Orderly White of Com 
pany E, kindly offered to defray the expenses of such a publica 
tion and furnish a copy to each member of the regiment. The 
compilation was made by Charley Ewer of Company D, and in 
addition to many familiar and well-known airs the book con 
tained some original songs and original music furnished by our 
members. The " Forty-fourth Regimental Song-Book " was voted 
to be a complete success. 

When we went to Readville, Colonel Lee was placed in com 
mand of camp, with military jurisdiction over a territorial radius 
of one mile. 2 Although neither of our field officers believed in 
the principle of total abstinence, they realized the evil influence 



1 Two of the original members of the Boylston Club, William K. Millar and 
Augustus Jacobs, were privates in Company D. 

2 Special order No 739 issued under authority of General Order 99 from the War 
Department. The appointment dated from Aug. 26, 1862. 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 29 

caused by undue indulgence in intoxicating drinks, and for this 
reason, as well as to set an example to the men under their 
command, they mutually resolved not to taste any wine or ardent 
spirits while they were in the service of the United States, except 
on advice of the surgeon, a resolution to which they scrupu 
lously adhered. Colonel Lee in particular felt very strongly 
about this matter, and waged a relentless war against " traffickers 
in the ardent" who attempted to establish booths near our camp. 
Quite a number of enterprising speculators engaged in the busi 
ness ; but the confiscation of their stock in trade, and frequently 
of their building as well, caused their project to end in financial 
wreck. 

" Corporal s" letter of September 13 was quite " gossipy," and 
touched on several matters of interest to the boys : 

"... We have received an order from the Comrriander-in-Chief of 
all the forces in Massachusetts * prohibiting us from bathing at all Chris 
tian hours of the day, out of regard to the sensitive nerves of somebody. 
As nobody but soldiers live near the ponds, it is to be supposed that the 
order was promulgated as a measure of consideration of the naiads and 
nymphs habitant hereabout. We heartily wish that everybody was like 
Caesar s wife. 

"The women of America, including a few Boston friends, have sent us 
in a grand lunch of Washington pies, coffee, and cold meats. Where 
these dainties went to is a profound mystery to the non-commissioned 
officers and privates, but it is doubtless all right. 

" At dress-parade the other day Miss Josie Gregg, of Boston, through 
Colonel Lee, presented us an elegant flag, and the gift was acknowledged 
by three cheers. . . . 

" Flag competition continues, and now every barrack shows its bunting, 
that of Company D again floating the highest. Thursday morning Com 
pany F s flagstaff presented to the eyes of an astonished camp the same 
small white bifurcated garment which had previously served to decorate 
the interior of a neighboring barrack. The boys are bound not to have 
their selves, as Uncle Sim Wilbur used to say. We now hope, however, 
for better things for our company, having sent the sergeants to a tent by 

1 By General Order 44, dated September 3, Brigadier-General John H. Reed, Quar 
termaster-General, was appointed commandant of all camps of rendezvous in the 
State. By special order 790, dated September 9, Brigadier-General R. A. Peirce 
was assigned to command of the Readville camp. The bathing order to which 
" Corporal " alludes was probably issued in consequence of complaints made by the 
officials of the Boston and Providence Railroad. 



3O FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

themselves, and conferred the responsibility of keeping good order upon 
the corporals. 

" Captain James Richardson s company give their barrack a beautiful, 
almost Oriental appearance at evening by the introduction of numerous 
Chinese lanterns. In every barrack the fine arts are still cultivated in the 
lettering and ornamentation of the bunks. One is labelled Squirrel s 
Nest ; another, Penguin s Nest ; another, Sleeping Beauties ; another, 
Damon and Pythias ; another, Siamese Twins. Some graduates of 
Tufts College, who occupy a bunk together, inform the world in good 
classical phrase that it is sweet to die for your country. They may well 
say that, if living in the barracks at Readville be dying for your country. 
Corporal cannot but look with amazement upon these classical young 
patriots elevated upon their bunks and devouring home dainties over this 
conspicuous motto, Dulce et decorum est pro Patria mori ! . . . 

" The quarters of Company G, Captain Hunt, are tastefully ornamented 
with evergreen, and are much admired by visitors ; but it is on all hands 
conce ded that the barrack of Company D, thanks to the oversight of our 
admirable Corporal Waterman, is most noticeable for its complete order 
and neatness. It is whispered that we are to have a piano, if we remain 
here much longer, and then, with such singers among us as Charley 
Ewer, from the Warren Street choir, we reckon upon very good times in 
the musical line. 

" Yesterday was a great day with the men of the Forty-fourth. We were 
mustered into the service of the United States by companies. The event 
was hailed with cheering and general rejoicing ; and then the uniforms 
provided by Uncle Sam were opened for inspection. Many members of 
the regiment had already provided themselves with garments of superior 
quality, made to measure ; and those who had not taken this precaution 
regretted it the more when they came to see the half-cotton, shoddy, 
slouchy stuff sent to them through the State authorities. Colonel Lee, 
who has a natural abhorrence of shams in all shapes, advised his men not 
to draw such uniforms, and promised to assist them in procuring garments 
made to measure. The men gladly acted upon the suggestion of the 
Colonel, and will clothe themselves, not less as a matter of neatness and 
taste than of economy. 

" Last evening the barrack of Company F, Captain Storrow, was the 
centre of much attraction. The parents of the artists Cobb were present, 
and the delighted spectators of a country breakdown and other festive 
demonstrations. Mrs. Cobb delivered a little impromptu poem, and Mr. 
Cobb made a very stirring address, both of which were vociferously 
applauded. The Cobb brothers sang and played exquisitely, and the occa 
sion was one of touching interest. . . . 

" We have been provided with muskets for guard duty only, and of 
course have much work to perform in the manual of arms drill before we 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 31 

shall be fit to take the field. In the facings we have made commendable 
progress, and have been highly complimented by Colonel Lee in this 
respect. 

" Since the Forty- fourth went into barracks they have been favored with 
the services of the Boston Brass Band, under the lead of Mr. Flagg. It is 
said the expense is to be defrayed by an assessment upon the regiment. 
Considering that the mass of the regiment have had no voice in the selec 
tion of a band, a number of persons are inclined to consider this a little 
rough. What Corporal and many others wish to suggest in this con 
nection is, that a few of our rich friends in Boston unite to defray the 
expense of a good band, which shall accompany us to the seat of war. It 
is thought they would be pleased to confer this substantial benefit upon 
the regiment, and thus acknowledge the important assistance rendered by 
the Fourth Battalion of Infantry in raising the quota of Boston. Failing 
in this, a set of instruments would be gratefully acknowledged, and an ex 
cellent band would then be recruited from the regiment." 

In his letter of September 20, he says : - 

"... We reasonably expect that a week of furloughs will be succeeded 
by work. Some of our little captains are threatening us hard. More drill 
and less guard duty will not be unacceptable to the poor fellows whose 
duty as sentinels for the past week has only been relieved by the relaxation 
of police guard work or scavenger service. Bootless has been the plea, I 
was on guard yesterday, and police guard the day before. The orderly 
knew it. There was no help for it. It costs hard work, but we have the 
cleanest camp in Christendom, if we may believe visitors. Captain 
McLaughlin, our mustering-in officer, was profuse in his commendations 
of the Forty-fourth. It was, he said, the most orderly and the cleanest 
regiment he ever mustered in. The company rolls were the neatest 
which had ever come under his inspection, and the number of ab 
sentees (one sick and one unavoidably absent) the smallest in his experi 
ence. We do not wish to be always elevating our horn, but we must 
record history." 

One compliment attributed to Captain McLaughlin, " Cor 
poral " neglects to mention. He is reported to have said that 
although he had been detailed as mustering officer since the out 
break of the war, he never before had mustered in a whole regi 
ment on the same day. A rather critical examination of the 
" Record of the Massachusetts Volunteers," issued by authority 
of the State, seems to prove this statement, except so far as it 
might refer to a few of the three months regiments, to be 
correct. 



32 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

" Since my last letter there have been added to the list of decorated 
barracks those of Company B, Captain Griswold, and Company A, Captain 
Richardson. Company D has introduced Chinese lanterns, small flags, 
and the arms of the New England Guards, neatly painted by one of our 
numerous artists, to wit, Fred. Sayer, the lingual prodigy and pet of his 
corps. . . . 

" A large proportion of the regiment is now uniformed in neatly fitting 
suits, having no relationship to the contractor s shoddy which was attempted 
to be foisted upon us. Our appearance at the dress-parades is creditable, 
and every pleasant afternoon crowds of spectators honor us with their 
presence. The number of pretty girls that adorn these occasions, coming 




as they do laden with offerings of fruit and flowers for their favorites, is 
by no means the least interesting feature of the afternoon displays. The 
angels even besiege us in our barracks, and although we are delighted to 
see them, they seem sometimes to forget that we have no retiring rooms, 
and that we must perforce make our toilets in our bunks, or not make 
them at all. Corporal wants it distinctly understood that he don t care 
anything about this, personally. He speaks for the modest man of his 
company. . . . 

Your correspondent could expatiate by the half column of the social 
fascinations of this life in barracks ; of the genial friendships formed ; of 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 33 

the glorious hearts discovered ; of the roaring wit brought out by this free- 
and-easy companionship ; of the freedom from conventional restraints and 
the care of every-day pursuits. Do not, dear reader, think us too jolly 
and comfortable for soldiers, but rather thank Heaven for the sunny side 
and recompense of military life, which, perhaps, after all, has very feebly 
offset the shadows through which lies the pathway of him who takes up 
arms in defence of liberty, imperilled as it is to-day." 

The crowds of visitors which thronged our camp attested our 
popularity. If our friends enjoyed coming to Readville, it is 
equally certain that we enjoyed receiving them. Many a suscep 
tible young soldier lost his heart during those delightful moon 
light promenades, and an interesting chapter might be written on 
this subject, could the number of matrimonial engagements which 
resulted from these mild flirtations be correctly ascertained. 
J. J. Wyeth, in his sketch of Company E, says, under date of 
September 12 : - 

"... As this was probably the young ladies last visit before our start 
for the South, we demanded and received our last good-by kisses ; but 
when they saw the same boys falling in the second time, and some of them 
strangers, they scattered like a drove of sheep over the fences and far 
away to the station. I think that was the last effort the company made 
(as an organization) to kiss them all a good-by." 

For some time previous to the formation of our regiment a 
pleasant little coterie of young ladies and gentlemen had existed 
in Cambridge, and there were but few evenings when they did 
not meet at a party, the theatre, or some similar entertainment. 
Most of the gentlemen enlisted in our regiment. The young 
ladies were so incensed at those who did not, that they resolved 
unanimously not to attend a party or a place of amusement dur 
ing the absence of the Forty-fourth, and this resolution was most 
faithfully kept. Will not all our young lady friends agree that 
these Cambridge girls displayed as much self-sacrifice as if they 
had " donned the blue " and " shouldered the musket," even if 
the service were not quite so perilous? 

In " Corporal s " letter of September 27 he again refers to the 
unwelcome practice of early rising: 

"... The most unmusical of sounds is the reveille at five o clock A. M. 
Even the freshness and magnificence of those star-gemmed mornings 

3 



34 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

scarcely compensate us for this ghostly hour of turning out. But now we 
are threatened with calls among the small hours for the purpose of prepar 
ing us for surprises in the enemy s country. We would gladly excuse our 
officers from this laborious work in our behalf. In fact, we shall not be 
less grateful to them if they do not carry the plan into execution. Besides, 
midnight movements like these might excite the suspicion of our ubi 
quitous provost guard, and result in getting the whole regiment into limbo. 
We could not even visit our neighbors of the other regiments, last Sunday, 
without falling into the hands of those merciless Philistines, who go about 
the country like roaring lions seeking whom they may devour." 

He also speaks of our double-quick marches and of the new 
sanitary discipline which our surgeon had introduced : 

" Companies E and D have been making double-quick marches to Ded- 
ham Village by the three-mile route. An uninterrupted run of three miles 
is something incredible to the uninitiated. Corporal and five others 
confess, with proper self-abasement, that the last mile was rather too much 
for them, especially as your correspondent was tortured by a pair of new 
boots. We fell out. ... A little while before dinner a small, awkward 
squad (the six men mentioned) might have been seen descending the 
railroad embankment near Camp Meigs, and then proceeding by the right 
and left flanks until it safely passed the lines. The main party had not 
arrived, and we confidently reported them in the hands of the provost. 
On the contrary, as we learned upon their arrival, they had been detained 
by a number of beautiful Samaritans habitant along the road, who came 
out laden with smiles and kind words. Several fellows came back to 
camp with hearts and pedal extremities equally damaged. 

" Our rifles have been distributed at last, and we have commenced 
drilling with great industry. . . . 

" On Thursday we had a grand cleaning out of barracks. Everything 
was removed from them, and exposed to the air and sunshine. Most of 
the regiment being absent on escort duty, the task devolved upon a few. 
It was a work of vandalism. Cherished shelves, pictures, flags, and 
flowers came down at one fell swoop. The personal effects of absentees 
were tumbled down and bestowed in promiscuous piles into the bunks, 
and then carried outside. They comprised a heterogeneous collection of 
valuables, like pats of butter, soap, packs of cards and Testaments, tooth 
brushes and cutlery, spare clothing and baskets, haversacks, havelocks, 
night-caps and smoking-caps, pipes, tobacco and matches, now and then 
a bottle, and one umbrella. Having the example before them of the army 
in Flanders, the absentees of the Forty-fourth swore when they came back 
and witnessed the improvements which had been made while they were 
away. 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 35 

" We have occasional evening entertainments here in the shape of 
ground-and-lofty tumbling (en costume) and sparring matches. Between 
our hours of drill, camp duties, reception of visitors, music, letter-writing, 
etc., there is no possibility of time dragging upon our hands. Now 
visitors are restricted to the hours between half-past four and half-past 
eight P. M. . . . 

" Our Surgeon, Dr. Ware, of Boston, is drawing a tight rein over the 
regiment. His experience upon the Peninsula has given him notions of 
sanitary discipline which some think too severe for soldiers in barracks at 
home. He has stripped our quarters of everything but prime necessaries, 
and we are reduced to a very bald condition indeed. We shall probably 
see the wisdom of this severity more clearly by and by. At present a 
majority of the boys don t see it at all. Thursday night we tried the 
experiment of sleeping without straw in our bunks. It did n t work, and 
now we propose to provide ourselves with canvas bags to keep the straw 
in place, and thus avoid the continual nuisance of straw litter inside 
and out. 

" On Thursday detachments from six companies of our regiment acted 
as escort at the funeral of the late Lieutenant-Colonel Dvvight. Consider 
ing the short time of our practice in the manual of arms, the regiment was 
awarded the credit of great proficiency, particularly in the firing of volleys. 
Colonel Stevenson paid the regiment the highest compliment." 

The marches we took proved of great benefit in toughening 
us for active service, and the comparatively small percentage of 
straggling shown by our regiment when actually in the field 
demonstrated conclusively the wisdom of our colonel in adopting 
this plan. The sanitary regulations introduced, although griev 
ous to bear at the time, we afterwards acknowledged to be wise 
and beneficial. 

" Corporal s " letter of October 4 gives an account of two of 
these marches : 

"The past week Colonel Lee has wisely varied our drill by taking the 
regiment on marches through portions of the country surrounding Camp 
Meigs. Our first of these marches, after escort duty at the funeral of the 
late Lieutenant-Colonel Dwight, was through that portion of Milton of 
which we have such delightful glimpses from camp. We were forced to 
breathe dust freely, but through the clouds which rose wherever the regi 
ment moved we caught refreshing views of stately homesteads, blushing 
orchards, and autumn-tinted landscapes. . . . Since the march to Milton 
we have surprised the good people of Mill Village and round about Ded- 
ham Court-House by a sudden appearance in their midst. For the 



36 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

gratification of our many friends who are anxiously watching the progress 
of this regiment, I have to report that our marching extorted great praise 
from Colonel Lee, who, by the way, is quite as prompt to give us a sound 
blowing-up as he is to compliment. In point of fact, he does neither by 
halves. His outspoken frankness and generosity are creating him hosts of 
warm friends in the regiment. . . . 

" We received marching orders last Thursday, 1 and are going to New 
Berne, N. C., as soon as a transport vessel can be got in readiness. At 
New Berne it is expected we shall be brigaded under General (now 
Colonel) Stevenson. This will be gratifying to the regiment. . . . 

" Our indefatigable surgeon is organizing and training a corps of assist 
ants who are to lend their aid to the wounded upon the field of battle. 
The training consists of binding up imaginary wounds, pointing out the 
position of arteries, showing how to handle fractured limbs, placing men 
upon litters, and showing how to carry them with the least possible dis 
turbance of the wounded parts." 

In the same letter he mentions the fact that Mr. Steffen, for 
merly instructor of the Massachusetts Rifle Club, was delivering 
a series of military lessons to our commissioned officers. 

In his letter of October 1 1 he makes mention of a march over 
Brush Hill Turnpike : 

"... On Thursday we were treated to a magnificent march over 
Brush Hill, our first brush. . . . Our march, which included a distance 
of fourteen miles, was, considering the state of the atmosphere, the 
severest of our experience ; but it was cheered by the smiles and waving 
handkerchiefs of beautiful women in windows, gateways, balconies, and 
groves, and by their more substantial favors in the shape of apples, pears, 
and cool water. The few men who fell out of the ranks from faintness and 
exhaustion were of the reputed tougher sort, men of outdoor life and 
pursuits. Your professional men and clerks, clean-limbed and elastic, are 
the men to endure hardships, all the talk to the contrary notwithstanding. 
This, I believe, was the observation of the Little Corporal. 

" Among the late testimonials in the Forty-fourth deserving of mention 
is the presentation of a knife, fork, and spoon, in a neat case, to each of 
the recruits from Framingham by their friends in that town. . . . 

" Your correspondent, and the other members of Company D, are 
indebted to Corporal Gardner for the introduction of a company dog, 
Romeo, a promising fellow, whose laughing countenance and waving tail 
and general intelligence have already won him a host of friends. Several 

1 Special Order 1007, dated Oct. 2, 1862. 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT READVILLE. 37 

of the boys are industriously laboring to reconcile him to the society of a 
cat which has come to our barrack. 

" Mr. Burrage, of the firm of J. M. Beebe & Co., has presented to each 
member of Company C, Captain Lombard, one of Short s patent box 
knapsacks. If they can be manufactured in season to supply us before 
our departure South, the other members of the regiment will probably 
supply themselves with this knapsack at their own expense, which will 
amount to $2.50 per man. This knapsack is so adjusted to the shoulders 
as to be carried with much greater ease than the Government article." 

Unfortunately, an order promulgated from headquarters sent 
" Romeo " out of camp and "Juliet," in despair, followed the ex 
ample of her illustrious namesake ; at least it was so supposed, 
as pussy died very suddenly the day following Romeo s depart 
ure. One of the members of Company D was accused of mur 
dering her, tried by court-martial, and convicted ; but the 
evidence against the alleged culprit was far from conclusive. 

After the muskets were given out to the guard, the officers 
took great pains to teach the men the duties of a sentry. Fre 
quently they were so much interested that they induced the 
sentinel to loan them his musket while they practically demon 
strated how it should be handled. Many of our boys will recall 
the consternation they felt when they realized that they had been 
disarmed and their gun was in the hands of the enemy. Some 
of them found it difficult to remember the formula for challenge 
and answer, or for calling the corporal of the guard as prescribed 
in the Army Regulations, and the cry of " Corporal of the Guard, 
Post Nagle," was one familiar to us all. 

In the last weekly letter from " Corporal " previous to the 
departure of the regiment, dated October 18, he speaks of the 
similarity in some respects between the life of a soldier and that 
of a convict, and refers to several donations which had been 
made to many of the companies : 

"The close resemblance between the life of a soldier in barrack and 
that of a State Prison convict, regarded in certain outward aspects, affords 
mingled amusement and disgust. We go for our rations in single file, and 
with tin mugs and plates. The intercourse between officers and subor 
dinates is scarcely less reserved, and the punishment for small offences 
scarcely less severe with the soldier than with the prisoner. On inspec 
tion days we stand up like well-burnished automata, and are as sensitive to 



38 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

praise or censure regarding the condition of our quarters, guns, etc., as so 
many children. At our meals and in our bunks we are stared at by visit 
ors just as I remember to have stared at the happy family of Hon. 
Gideon Haynes at Charlestown on various occasions. When impelled 
by sanitary reasons, our keen-eyed surgeons pass through the barracks to 
see that nothing contraband nestles in the bunks, that the blankets and 
overcoats are accurately folded, and that only a certain amount of cloth 
ing and baggage per man is retained ; we stand about and gaze at them 
just as your readers will remember they were gazed at by the inmates of 
the House of Correction which they visited not long ago. . . . 

" More princely donations have been made to some of the companies of 
the Forty-fourth Regiment. To Company E, Captain Richardson, William 
Cumston, Esq. (father of Lieutenant Cumston) , of the firm of Hallett & 
Cumston, has presented a check for five hundred dollars. 

" To the same company donations amounting to three hundred dollars, 
for the purchase of the improved knapsack, have been made by the follow 
ing gentlemen : J. M. Beebe & Co. ; F. Skinner & Co. ; Alexander Beal ; 
C. W. Cartwright ; W. P. Sargent ; J. R. Tibbets ; Read, Gardner, & Co. ; 
Wilkinson. Stetson, cS; Co. ; J. C. Converse & Co. ; E. cSc F. King & Co. ; 
Horatio Harris ; Gorham Rogers. 

" To Company H, Captain Smith, C. F. Hovey & Co. have presented a 
full set of the patent knapsacks. Company K, Captain Reynolds, have 
been favored in the same way by a number of friends of that company. 
. . . Company F, Captain Storrow, have received the present of a set of 
patent knapsacks. The generous donor is too modest to let his name be 
known, but it is surmised that a young corporal of Company F knows all 
about it. 

" The wife of Colonel Lee has kindly remembered each soldier of the 
regiment by the gift of a little testimonial card, upon one side of which is 
printed the Old Hundredth Psalm, and upon the other the name of the 
recipient written in a neat hand. . . . 

" We have had a good share of dismal weather the past week, and have 
not been allowed the consolation of smoking in the barracks ; but the 
boys have managed to keep the blue devils at bay with mock parades and 
shows of great effectiveness. One day the camp was electrified by the 
appearance of an exceedingly well got-up elephant, not unprovided with 
a tail, and waving a trunk of twisted shoddy. Another day we were 
visited by citizens of Brobdingang, ten feet high in their stockings." 

The expenses of our regiment while recruiting and in camp 
were about $6,200, of which nearly $3,000 was paid for music. 
This amount came from the regimental fund, of which William 
Gray, Jr., was treasurer, a fund raised by contribution, the city 



ORGANIZATION, AND CAMP AT REAUVILLE. 39 

giving $3,ooo 1 and the rest being donated by individuals. Most 
of the companies were presented with Short s knapsacks by 
their friends, and those companies which were not so fortunate 
were supplied at the expense of the regimental fund. The corre 
spondence with the state officials and the War Department arising 
from the endeavor to have this style of knapsack supplied by the 
Government is rather unique and decidedly interesting. The let 
ter from " Corporal " last referred to concludes by saying: 

" We now expect to remain at Readville till the close of the war, except 
in case Readville is invaded by the enemy, when we shall make a masterly 
retreat to Mill Village." 

Alas for the claims of " Corporal" as a prophet! Three days 
after this letter was printed we had orders to pack, and on the 
fourth day, Thursday, October 23, we bade good-by to our bar 
racks and the friends who had been so much interested in our 
progress. 

1 August 18 it was ordered, "That the committee ... be authorized to pay out of 
said appropriation, to each of the four regiments . . . such a sum as they may deem 
expedient, for a regimental fund." 




CHAPTER III. 



VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE. 




ADAM RUMOR, who at Read- 
ville had no better reputation 
for veracity than the " intel 
ligent contraband," had so 
many times announced our 
departure for this or that 
dangerous point at the 
South, that when the order 
finally formulated into the 
fact that we must go, we 
could hardly realize it until 
we found ourselves, early in 
the morning of October 22, under the weight of knapsacks, idly 
waiting in line to be escorted to the station. Standing there, now 
hitching up one strap, then unbuckling another that had not got 
accustomed to its place upon us, with our backs well piled with 
many things soon to be thrown away, we looked across the fields, 
where in awkward squads we had strayed to the larger camp, that 
was alive with the bustle and noise of a recruiting headquarters ; 
thence beyond the meadows to the beautiful Blue Hills, covered 
by the many-tinted colors of autumn ; and the query must have 
come to all, How many of this one thousand will be present at 
the return to answer "Here"? There was no voice to that 
thought as up and down the lines came nothing but the cheerful 
voices of the men, bantering one another, bidding their old 
quarters, even to the familiar boards upon which they had lain, 
good-by, with almost tearful fondness. 

" Attention, company ! " " Shoulder arms ! " The men stood 
steady in their ranks, we jauntily marched after the band, gave 



42 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

hearty cheers to the escort and all blue-coats and friends at the 
station, and went Bostonwards on the cars to meet friends there. 

The history of old Readville camp should be written to present 
the picture of the bright and eager-hearted youths who gathered 
around its camps, and after the preparatory lessons there received 
went marching away, thousands after thousands, the flower of 
our generation, with no thought but of duty to a country which 
was worthy of the sacrifices these young boys made. 

It was more than an ordinary soldier departure day when we 
marched through Boston. Three regiments, made up, for the 
larger part, of men from the city and its immediate vicinity, 
were going. 

As we marched up Boylston Street the town seemed alive with 
people to bid us God-speed. The escort, composed of gentle 
men whose every action bespoke & desire to go with us in our 
Southern pilgrimage ; the blessings and cheers that were show 
ered upon us by the thousand of ladies whose friends were of us, 
or of others who had gone before ; the hearty hand-shake of some 
old gentleman who broke into the ranks with, "God bless you, 
boys, my Tom is just dead at Antietam ! " still remain as vivid 
pictures. Forgotten then were all distinctions of rank, whether 
he who marched bore an eagle, or but the blue on his shoulders ; 
whether he had no one who knew him but the old lady in black, 
who hung to his neck and had nothing to bestow but a blessing, 
or whether some elegant home opened its doors to bid their 
soldier-boy good-by. As the Boston "Journal," speaking of 
this reception, says: "Notwithstanding the strenuous efforts 
of the guard and police to keep the Common clear of almost 
everything that did n t wear a uniform, many of the ladies could 
not be resisted, and soon they were seen freely and happily min 
gling with their friends in the Forty-fourth, determined to enjoy 
their society until the last moment." The flurry of rain that 
occurred on the Common, which drove some of the spectators 
away; the march up past the State House, down State Street, 
with the ringing cheers of the crowd of men who gathered as 
by magic from every quarter, are scenes that will ever remain 
as pictures the details of which we can through our memory 
fill in. 



VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE. 43 

When we took our departure, the time had come for steady, 
concentrated work in the war. In April, 1861, we had heard the 
mad scream of excited people rushing after the first soldiery that 
went their way ; and when the first three-years regiments marched 
past the old State House, you could see old men follow their 
dipping banners with the tears of patriotism, and hear half- 
exclaimed prayers of sobbing women. The lumbermen of Maine, 
the stanch regiments of New Hampshire, had had their day ; but 
when the tide of war had reached October, 1862, Antietam had 
been fought. The streets were filled with wounded men. The 
war had permeated into every relation of life ; and the good-by 
that we got was from a people who knew then what all this sacri 
fice meant. The Boston "Traveller" of October 22, gives this 
account: 

THE FORTY-FOURTH REGIMENT. 

This splendid corps left their camp at Readville at a little after 10 
o clock this morning, reaching the Providence Railroad depot at about n. 
The regiment was under arms as early as 8 o clock, and on reaching the 
depot were honored with a salute from the Cadet Regiment, which was 
drawn up in line and gave nine rousing cheers, which were returned with 
interest, making a most enthusiastic parting. The Forty-second cheered 
them vociferously, also, when they were passing their camp. 

There were other parting ceremonies last evening at camp, when at the 
dress parade the regiment was formed in a hollow square and the chap 
lain, Rev. Mr. Hall, offered prayer. The band played an appropriate air, 
and Colonel Lee then called for cheers for the old Commonwealth, and 
for the dear ones they were to leave behind them. The regiment re 
sponded heartily, and then gave nine cheers for their commander. The 
colonel replied to the compliment in a brief but feeling manner. 

After arriving in Boston this noon the regiment formed on Boylston 
Street, and marched upon the Common, where the New England Guard 
Reserve Corps and past members were in line and presented arms. The 
regiment was drawn up on the Charles Street mall, and grounded arms, and 
about an hour was allowed for the hosts of friends present to say their 
farewells. 

Thousands of people were on the Common, and lined the route of 
march on Beacon, Park, Tremont, Court, State, and Commercial Streets. 
State Street, down which the corps passed at one o clock, was crowded 
with spectators. 

The line was formed as follows : 

Platoon of sixteen police under Sergeant Dunn. 



44 FORTY-FOURTH iMASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The full Gilmore Band. 

Reserve corps and past members of the New England Guard, under 
Major J. Putnam Bradlee and Captains J. L. Henshaw, Thomas Chick- 
ering, J. M. Howe, and Sewall H. Fessenden. 

The Guards escorted a number of past members and officers, including 
Hon. J. T. Stevenson, S. H. Gookin, and other gentlemen. 

They numbered a hundred bayonets and were in citizens dress. 

The regiment, 1010 strong, with Flagg s brass band in the centre of its 
right wing. 

On their way to Boston in the cars there were frequent groups of people 
on the road who cheered heartily, and at Roxbury an artillery salute was 
fired. 

The regiment is in splendid condition ; on the Common, at the salute 
by the Reserve New England Guards, while the Gilmore Band played 
" Auld Lang Syne," the soldiers wheeled into column of platoons and 
moved by with the steadiness of veterans, showing the interest they have 
taken in securing a high degree of skill in manoeuvring. 

The corps is armed with Enfield rifles captured from an English 
steamer, and their belts, bayonet-sheaths, and cap-pouches were similarly 
obtained. 

The hank of the belt is a snake of brass, so emblematic of the vileness 
of the Rebel cause. Probably the shippers little imagined they would be 
used against the Rebels. 

After we reached the wharf it was but a short time before we 
found our places on either the steamer " Mississippi " or the 
" Merrimac," and amidst the cheers of the thousands who had 
followed to the water side we slowly steamed to anchorage for 
the night. 

The change that we had been doting on had come ; we were 
now to learn some of the tribulations of a soldier s life, and to 
find that his experience on board a transport is not altogether 
calculated to make him " wish that he had come." He found his 
bunk in the hold ; and just as he was finding his, he found several 
hundred others, just as intent, employed in that occupation. A 
place that he thought too small for his sister s poodle was to be 
used for three other strapping fellows besides himself. Meantime, 
the fact that there was such a thing as bilge-water, and that sol 
diers no cleaner than they ought to be had occupied this place 
before, presented themselves vividly to his sense. He remarked 
that the ventilation might be improved, that the decks were half 



VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE. 45 

lighted, and as he picked his way towards deck was crowded to 
and fro by the many who seemed to fill all places before him. 
The water-tanks had always a band of thirsty customers, and to 
get anything like coffee, or the better phrase, " bilge-water," or 
anything to eat, he must stand in rank and wait until he is counted 
off, while sergeants and other uncommissioned officers are work 
ing here and there to find places or food for their men, or per 
chance medicine for some one taken sick so early on the way. 
The two great transports lay at anchor off Deer Island, and most 
of the men found their decks by far the most pleasant place on 
board. They could see the lights of home shining almost all 
around them. There is a little cluster off towards the South 
Shore, and a little band of the boys, all from that village, gather 
together and speculate upon what Tom, or Mary, or father, or 
So-and-so can be doing over there, whether that light that 
seems higher than the rest comes from a home just saddened by 
a soldier s death. 

The lights on Beacon Hill flash upon the night, and there were 
some in private s toggery on board to whom the homes were fa 
miliar. There was a constant bobbing of lights at and upon the 
forts, while a gunboat went rushing by towards the Navy Yard. 
Presently voices upon the forward deck let us know that " there 
is music in the air," and every man had soon forgotten discom 
fort in letting the world for a mile or two about know that beans 
can always be procured " down by the Readville camp." The 
music changed : sometimes it became pathetic, and there was 
something plaintive in its sounds, while the lights of distant 
homes, and the thoughts that would fill the mind, made it still 
more potent; then it would break into the patriotic, and our souls 
be. aroused from sadness and carried away to martial sights and 
sounds, into which we hoped, if carried, to engage with honor. 

Some got drowsy and went to join that mighty chorus of those 
who could sleep, while others remained on deck mooning the 
night away; until presently, the anchors being weighed, the ves 
sels started, soon leaving home a dim line of blue hills that 
would insist in getting very misty in so short a time. 

I recall, as I stood looking homewards early in the morning, 
one of the oldest officers of the regiment coming close to where 



4 6 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



I was, and as he gazed into the mist that kept his home out of 
sight, I heard him repeat that always sweet Thackerarian, 

" And when the day was breaking, 
My little girls were waking, 
And smiling and making 
A prayer at home for me." 

The sun the next morn looked out upon a pleasant day at sea, 
and soon the crowd came tumbling one on another for fresh air. 
The sound of every animal that man can imitate blended with 




the laugh and shout of the crowd. The hungry man was on the 
alert, with his eager eye towards every quarter ; he sniffed the 
officers breakfast being prepared, and mutiny, if not something 
worse, was stamped on his face. Occasionally one particular 
man anxiously asked for water for his daily libations. He got no 
consolation, excepting to have the transport men state that, 
though they had carried fifty thousand soldiers, this was the first 
regiment that wanted water for washing purposes. Dirt, the 
soldier s comforter, began to put on her grim mask. Some, over 
come by seasickness, wandered about with a fiendlike look of 



VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE. 47 

resignation on their faces, while there ran through the crowd a 
curious fancy to examine the old hulks, with all the curiosity a 
Yankee can exhibit. 

As we rounded the Cape and got well set on the trip, we 
began to make ourselves as comfortable as we could, and ac 
cepted the situation without conditions. 

I should like to have a picture of the crowd upon the decks of 
one of the transports, many lying about upon their backs, 
smoking their pipes in quiet amusement, observing some frolic 
some mate attempting a breakdown, or a hand-spring that would 
land him in a crowd of grave-looking savants discussing some 
knotty Greek problem, or the more practical game that Sarah 
Battles so much and under such different circumstances en 
joyed. Here a group of strategists were settling the problem of 
where we were to go ; there a party watching distant smoke on 
the horizon, and querying whether it may not be the terrible 
"Alabama;" near by, a sad-voiced youth reading " Michelet" 
to a band of hard-heads, who guy the poor youth until he is 
obliged to withdraw from the contest; everywhere, men lying 
upon their backs, enjoying the rapture of looking into the sky 
while the vessel is seesawing along. Guns are everywhere, and 
accoutrements are tumbling about. The diary fever becomes 
contagious, and now and then some genius undertakes a sketch 
of something picturesque, to find his efforts spoiled by some sad 
wag- 
Transport life is the art of holding on to existence with a fierce 
patience while praying all the time to reach port ; but it has its 
peculiarities which cannot be found on any shipboard. It is a 
good place for those who accept, a bad place for growlers. 

Beaufort Harbor, with its little village of old-fashioned houses 
encircling the shore, with the fort at the other end of the circle 
and the dismal wharf called Morehead City, greeted us, on the 
morning of October 26, when we pulled up to our place of 
debarkation. Our eyes were everywhere. This, then, was the 
part of the sunny South to which we were invited. It hardly 
looked fit to conquer. Yet when we landed, the pleasure of 
getting "out of the black hole" was so great that the country 
round about put on a better tone. A hungry friend just then 



4 8 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



gave me a piece of sweet-potato pie that he had bought of a fat 
old Dinah, who had a really clean-looking basket, and after the 
first mouthful, hungry as I was, this experience became my first 
and last experiment with " sweet-potato pie." 

Of course there was delay. The cars backed down past the 
long building on the wharf with exasperating slowness, while we, 
with our concentrated Readville equipage still packed in our 
knapsacks, stood by doing everything but swearing (that was 
forbidden by the army regulations). The magnificent structures 




in which we were expected to ride, consisting of open (platform) 
freight-cars, with room for some to stand and some to sit, having 
been finally made ready, we climbed upon them and stowed 
ourselves away as best we could. 

At 1.30 P.M., after interminable delays, we started for New 
Berne, forty miles away. The Ninth New Jersey, with whom we 
were destined to march many weary miles, were quartered at 
Morehead City, and greeted us with hearty cheers. The railroad 
carried us through a country guarded in fact by block-houses, 
around which as we passed by were gathered veterans who gave 
us a glance half-curious, half-satirical, as though they doubted 
the entire efficiency of our overpowering newness ; but the route 



VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE. 49 

was made very interesting in catching glimpses of the country 
through which Burnside had conducted his brilliant campaign 
when he captured New Berne. 

As the train approached the clearings that were in front of the 
breastworks that ran down to the river s bank, surrounded by 
the thick forests that prevail in that country, other than the 
mounds of earth built by the enemy, there was no sign that a 
battle had ever been fought. The more vivid reminders of the 
existence of war were the chimneys of burned houses, and the air 
of desolation that was added to the character of the country, 
dreary enough before the war. The rain in its most pronounced 
Southern style poured upon our unprotected heads, but there 
was very little glumness. Jokes were passed. The Mark Tap- 
ley in us struggled upwards, and we secured a certain amount 
of interest in the excitement that war scenes always bring to 
mind. Corporal Gardner, whose letters upon this and other in 
cidents connected with our history are exceedingly graphic and 
interesting, gives the following incident that occurred upon this 
train : 

" Yankee genius is apt to run to invention ; and at the outbreak of the 
war one would have judged by the number of new patents that were con 
stantly appearing, patents for cartridge-boxes, muskets, haversacks, and 
in fact everything that could by any possible means be enumerated in a 
soldier s outfit, that the whole nation had devoted itself to invention. 
Among these numberless inventions was a patent canteen. It was a com 
bined lunch-box, writing-desk, and fluid storehouse. One of the principal 
advantages claimed for it was, that when a soldier was too weary to lift it to 
drink, he had but to apply his lips to the end of a rubber tube which was 
fastened along the strap from which the canteen was suspended and which 
was close to his mouth ; a slight suction was then all the exertion required 
I was the proud possessor of one of these articles. Previous to the de 
parture of the regiment the canteen had been filled with some whiskey 
which I resolved to keep for a case of emergency. This resolution, in the 
innocence of my heart, I confided to many of the boys, and showed them 
how the famous canteen could be easily emptied of its contents. The 
morning the regiment landed at Morehead City was threatening, and be 
fore the train had started it began to rain, a genuine Southern rain. 
The officers and cooks having appropriated the only covered car on the 
train, the rest of us were obliged to stand on open platform cars that were 
filled up like a hay-cart. Rubber blankets were no protection, and in a 

4 



50 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

few minutes we were completely drenched. The air was chilly, and the 
boys huddled together to keep warm ; nearly all the boys in Company D 
seemed to have a particular desire to keep me warm, and although the 
individuals who surrounded me were constantly changing, the number 
remained about the same. Time and time again, as a cold shiver passed 
over me, I was tempted to take a sip from the patent canteen ; but I man 
fully resisted the temptation. Finally I became too cold, the temptation 
was too great. I succumbed and sucked. No whiskey rose in the tube. 
I sucked again. No response. An expression of doubt and distrust 
passed over my face. The boys could keep quiet no longer ; while I had 
been thanking them almost for their kindness in protecting me from 
the wind, they had been drinking my precious whiskey. I felt a sense 
of righteous wrath. But of what avail? The whiskey had disappeared, 
and probably there was no member of Company D, barring myself and a 
few anti-alcoholites, but could have told the quality of the liquor." 

But the long jaunt came to an end ; we rumbled over the 
bridge into the city of New Berne, where, letting Corporal 
Gardner tell the remainder of this story, " We reached after dark 
and found quite a number of the Twenty-third Massachusetts at 
the depot to receive us. The Twenty-third are guarding the 
town. It was raining when we reached the city, and we met with 
the delay usually incident to all military proceedings. At last 
our company (Company D) and three others were safely housed 
in the machine-shop connected with the railroad. This was 
about 7 P. M. It took us but a short time to unsling knapsacks 
and select our bunking places. Then arose a great demand 
for eatables. A box of very good codfish and a barrel of bread, 
hard, were opened, and found a market very quickly. The only 
water we could procure was by holding our cups under the rain 
spout; but the supply did not equal the demand. We were all 
gratified to hear that the Twenty-fourth were preparing some hot 
coffee, and soon after that the coffee had arrived. Cold, wet, and 
tired as we were, it tasted better than anything I have had since I 
left home. As soon as we fairly emptied the mess kettle, we 
turned over and under our blankets, and in a few minutes were 
sound asleep." 

To me, as I go over the details that then seemed so important 
and now so misty and almost inconsequential, there comes up a 
picture of the bright faces that went with us in the life of the 



VOYAGE TO NEW BERNE. 51 

regiment. They have all gone their way these many a year, - 
some are resting under 

" the low green tent 
Whose curtain never outward swings," 

and the rest have so changed in the last twent/ years that one 
could almost dream the days we spent in the old Forty-fourth 
were in another existence, and with other men than those we 
meet now and call comrades. 



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CHAPTER IV. 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 



EW BERNE, the county seat 
of Craven County, and the 
largest town in eastern North 
Carolina, is situated on the 
southwest bank of the Neuse 
River, at this point over a 
mile wide and navigable, at 
its confluence with the Trent, 
thirty miles from Pamlico 
Sound, and one hundred and 
twenty miles southeast from 
Raleigh. 

At the beginning of the 
Civil War the population of 
New Berne was about five 
thousand. It was a port of 
entry, exporting large quanti 
ties of grain, lumber, tar, and turpentine, and having also a 
considerable coastwise commerce. Railroads connected it w r ith 
Beaufort on the coast, and through Weldon with Goldsboro and 
its converging roads in the interior. It had a bank, a theatre, 
two good hotels, a daily newspaper, and other features of a 
thriving city. The paper was revived under Yankee auspices 
after the capture, and as " The New Berne Progress," containing 
as much news as the military authorities deemed it proper to 
allow, was a welcome visitor in the camps. 

The town was an attractive one, of the Southern type. Wide 
streets, running generally at right angles, and shaded by large 
trees, were bordered by detached dwelling-houses, mainly built 




54 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

of wood, with broad verandas and luxuriant gardens. At the 
time of our occupation the better part of the native whites had 
left the city. Their houses, occupied by troops, had been 
neglected and fallen out of repair. Negroes swarmed through 
the town, and populated its outskirts. 

Early in the war the attention of the Federal authorities was 
directed to the facilities afforded by the inlets and sounds of the 
North Carolina coast for collecting and forwarding supplies for 
the Virginia armies ; for exporting the naval stores which could 
be turned into money abroad ; for the entrance of blockade- 
runners returning with arms, ammunition, and clothing; and 
for sheltering small privateers, which could issue from the inlets, 
dash upon coasting merchant-vessels, and return at discretion to 
the friendly shelter of the sounds. The formation of the coast, 
a narrow strip of sand enclosing extensive land-locked bodies 
of water, while favorable to such commerce, was also favorable 
for naval attacks from the ocean, and correspondingly weak for 
defence. 

As early as August, 1861, a naval expedition accompanied by 
a small land force under General Butler captured and occupied 
the forts at Hatteras Inlet. In January, 1862, a large force under 
General Burnside (the Burnside Expedition), embarking at Hamp 
ton Roads, was transported with difficulty over the shallow and 
shifting bar at Hatteras, and in February attacked and carried the 
Rebel works at Roanoke Island, the key to Albemarle Sound. 

A month later, the naval forces and transports left Roanoke 
Island, steamed up the Neuse, and landed the troops of the ex 
pedition sixteen miles below New Berne. On the morning of 
March 14 a line of earthworks running from the river across the 
Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, and defended by ten 
thousand Confederates, was attacked and gallantly carried by our 
forces, in about equal numbers. Generals Foster, Reno, and Parke 
commanded the three columns of attack, which pushed forward 
after the retreating Rebels, and took possession of New Berne. 

Through these successive victories the army and navy effected 
a permanent lodgment in eastern North Carolina, which they 
held until the close of the war. Our occupation effectually 
stopped blockade running, exporting, and privateering, as far 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 55 

south as Wilmington, N. C., and was a constant menace to the 
flank and rear of the Confederate armies around Richmond. 

In July, 1862, General Burnside was ordered, with a large 
portion of his force, to Virginia, and General Foster assumed 
command of the Department of North Carolina. On Sep 
tember 24, he addressed a letter to General Halleck, General-in- 
Chief of the United States Army, at Washington, making formal 
application for more troops. He writes: 

" The advantages of this post for drilling and perfecting new regiments 
are very great. The place is healthy, wood in great abundance, water 
sufficient, and subsistence and quartermaster s supplies are easily brought 
from New York, both to this place and to Beaufort, from which point the 
railroad is in good order and running. I have some eight regiments of 
infantry here, of old troops divided into two brigades, commanded by most 
excellent officers (acting brigadier- generals), Colonels Amory and Steven 
son, and with other excellent colonels could readily drill any number of 
new regiments. My artillery force (Third New York Artillery) is good. 
They number five light batteries with twenty-eight pieces, Rhode Island 
battery with six pieces, Rocket battalion with eight pieces. My siege train, 
ready for transportation, though at present on shipboard with supply of 
ammunition, consists of four 3O-pounder Parrott guns ; in addition to 
which I can land for the investment of any sea-coast place ten 32-pounders 
in ship carriages. My cavalry force is one good and efficient regiment, 
Third New York Cavalry. My knowledge of the country in this region, 
derived from being stationed here as engineer officer in charge, and more 
lately in command of this department, enables me to use the small force 
at my disposal to advantage ; which advantages would of course be greatly 
increased by having a much larger force at my disposal." 

Again, Oct. 3, 1862, he addressed a letter to the War Depart 
ment requesting reinforcements of infantry to be sent, " if it 
is expected of me to go into active service during the cool 
weather." 

" Further reflection on this subject has convinced me of the propriety 
of my request, and especially as regards new regiments ; and I beg leave to 
re-urge this matter, and to further say that even if it is not intended that I 
should make any decided movement, this place presents very great facili 
ties as a camp of instruction for a very large body of troops, and would be 
more available for operations on the flank of the enemy, should that be 
rendered necessary by their retreat from Richmond, or from any other 
cause. Even if thirty or forty new regiments be sent, I will devote my 
personal time to drilling and perfecting them in their duties. I am 



56 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

advancing the defences of the town, and they are now strong enough to 
require a siege to take, I think." 

In answer to these suggestions a number of new troops (prin 
cipally nine months regiments) were sent to New Berne in 
October. After the Tarboro expedition General Foster asked 
again for more troops, in these terms : 

" The enemy have much increased their force and their activity in this 
State. They show a determination to withstand my advances in their rich 
country of the eastern sections, and also, if possible, to diminish my hold 
in that section. On the other hand, the weakening influences of the past 
malarious season have so weakened the strength of my old regiments that 
for hard active service I have scarcely available one half their nominal 
strength. The Third, Fifth, Forty- third, Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, and 
Forty-sixth Massachusetts Regiments, arrived here, are good troops. I 
would most respectfully suggest that if possible I should be allowed 
at once ten thousand troops in addition to my present force. The 
sooner I have this force, the sooner I will endeavor to prepare my plans 
of cutting the Weldon and Wilmington Railroad, and the taking of 
Wilmington and the works at the mouth of the Cape Fear River." 

Additional troops were sent in response to this appeal, until 
the Federal troops in the Department of North Carolina num 
bered (in January, 1863) nearly thirty thousand men. 

The relative strength of the opposing forces in the State dur 
ing the period in which we are especially interested is shown in 
the following tables, taken from the Appendix to Admiral Am- 
men s " Navy in the Civil War : The Atlantic Coast : " 

Abstract from Returns of the United States military forces serving in 

North Carolina. 

Present for duty. Aggregate present. 

September, 1862 6,642 8,647 

October, " 8,967 II A I S 

November, " 12,872 1 5,569 

December, " 18,468 21,917 

January, 1863 25,023 28,194 

February, " 15,806 18,548 

March, 14,672 i7;i5 

April, 13,962 I5,9 20 

May, 16,643 I97 r 5 

In August the forces had been reduced to 7,699 present for duty. 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 57 

Abstract from Returns of the Confederate military forces serving in 
North Carolina. {No returns accessible for September, October, and 
November, 1862.) 

Present for duty. Aggregate present. 

December, 1862 11,074 12,207 

January, 1863 26,958 3 Z > 2 73 

February, " I5>94 i9> 8 94 

March, " . - 20,733 

April, " 7>5 01 8,385 

May, " 22,149 26,838 

In August there were 7,391 present for duty. 

A small portion of our forces were distributed as garrisons 
along the coast, and in towns like Plymouth and Washington, 
at the head of navigation in the larger rivers. The larger portion 
of the troops remained in and around New Berne, occupying per 
manent camps in the outskirts of the town, on both sides of the 
Trent River, within a strong line of forts which had been con 
structed after our occupation. The picket line lay six or eight 
miles out, following on the west, or side toward the enemy, the 
course of Batchelder s Creek. The sparsely inhabited country 
around New Berne is flat, low, swampy, heavily wooded with 
pines, and traversed by numerous creeks. The roads are wet, 
sandy, heavy, and unfavorable to the movement of troops. 

The Rebel force in North Carolina in November, 1862, was dis 
tributed somewhat as follows : 

Between New Berne and Raleigh, with headquarters at Golds- 
boro , eight thousand men, including two regiments of cavalry 
and a small force of light artillery. 

At and near Wilmington, three thousand men. 

Between the Tar and Roanoke Rivers, a movable force of three 
thousand men. 

A regiment was also stationed at Weldon, where further forces 
could be readily and speedily concentrated from Petersburg and 
Richmond. 

The aggregate of these detachments would appear to be nearly 
fifteen thousand men, three thousand more than the returns 
given above indicate for the following month of December. 



58 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

When the Forty-fourth reached New Berne the Union forces 
under Foster were known as the " Department of North Caro 
lina." Nov. 21, 1862, General Orders No. 58, Department Head 
quarters, formed the infantry regiments into temporary brigades, 
our regiment being assigned to the Second (under command 
of Col. Thomas G. Stevenson), consisting of the Twenty-fourth 
Massachusetts, Lieut-Col. Osborn ; Fifth Rhode Island, Major 
Arnold ; Tenth Connecticut, Colonel Leggett ; and Forty-fourth 
Massachusetts, Col. Francis L. Lee. The First Brigade, about 
4,500 men, was commanded by Col. T. J. C. Amory; the Second, 
about 4,000 men, by Col. Thomas G. Stevenson ; the Third, 
about 4,000 men, by Col. Horace C. Lee ; and there were unas- 
signed about 3,200 men, a total of about 16,000 men, infantry, 
cavalry, and artillery. 

On the 24th of December the following general order was 
issued from the War Department at Washington : 

WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT GENERAL S OFFICE, 

WASHINGTON, Dec. 24, 1862. 
General Order No. 214. 

By direction of the President, the troops in North Carolina will con 
stitute the Eighteenth Army Corps, and Major-General J. G. Foster is 
assigned to the command. 

Four days later, General Order No. 84, Corps Headquarters, 
was issued as follows : 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 

NEW BERNE, N. C., Dec. 28, 1862. 
General Order No. 84. 

The assignment of infantry to brigades from this date will be as follows, 
and commanding officers of regiments will report at once to their brigade 
commanders : 

BRIG.-GEN. L. C. HUNT. 



Pennsylvania ...... Col. J. B. Howell. 

Pennsylvania ...... Lieut.-Col. W. H. Maxwell. 

New York ...... Lieut.-Col. A. J. Wellman. 

New York ....... 

i oist Pennsylvania ...... Lieut.-Col. D. M. Armor. 

96th New York ....... Capt. George W. Hindes. 

BRIG.-GEN. THOMAS G. STEVENSON. 

24th Massachusetts ..... Lieut.-Col. F. A. Osborn. 

44 th " ..... Col. F. L. Lee. 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 59 

5th Rhode Island Maj. Tew. 

loth Connecticut Lieut. -Col. Leggett. 

BRIG.-GEN. C. A. HECKMAN. 

9th New Jersey Maj. Zabriskie. 

23d Massachusetts Maj. J. G. Chambers. 

3 d " Col. S. P. Richmond. 

5ist Col. A. B. R. Sprague. 

COL. T. J. C. AMORY. 

i yth Massachusetts Lieut.-Col. J. F. Fellows. 

43d Col. C. L. Holbrook. 

45th Col. C. R. Codman. 

8th " Col. Coffin. 

COL. HORACE C. LEE. 

2 yth Massachusetts Lieut.-Col. Luke Lyman. 

2 5th Col. Pickett. 

46th " Col. George Bowler. 

5th Col. G. W. Pierson. 

First Division of the Eighteenth Corps will consist of Brigadier-General 
Hunt s and Stevenson s brigades, to be commanded by Brigadier-General 
Wessells. Brigadier-Generals Hunt and Stevenson will report at once to 
Brigadier-General Wessells. 
By command of 

Major-General JOHN G. FOSTER, 

J. F. ANDERSON, Captain and A. A. A, G. 
[Official] : 

WILLIAM PRATT, A. A. A. G. 

On the 29th, General Orders from Division Headquarters was 
read : 

HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS 

NEW BERNE, N. C., Dec. 29, 1862. 
General Order No. i . 

I. Pursuant to orders from Headquarters Eighteenth Army Corps, 28th 
inst., the undersigned assumes command of this division, composed of 
Hunt s and Stevenson s brigades. The following are announced as staff 
officers of this division : 

Capt. Andrew Stewart, A. A. G. 
" R. C. Webster, A. Q. M. 
" John Hall, C. S. 



60 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Surg. D. G. Rush, Chief of Medical Staff. 

ist Lieut. Daniel F. Beigh (loist Pennsylvania) , A. D. C. 

2d " M. C. Frost ($2d New York), A. D. C. 

The brigades will be known as First and Second in the order above 
enumerated. H. W. WESSELLS, 

Brigadier- General Volunteers, 

Commanding Division. 
[Official] : 

WILLIAM PRAIT, A. A. A. G. 

The force at New Berne was considerably increased in January, 
1 863, by the arrival of troops ordered to this department from 
the Department of Virginia, Major-General Dix, Brigadier-Gen 
erals Ferry, Wessells, Spinola, and Naglee reporting with their 
respective brigades. A reorganization of the Army Corps fol 
lowed, and five divisions were created. 

The monthly reports subsequent to this date (January 12) show 
that the First Division was commanded by Brig. -Gen. I. N. Palmer, 
the Second Division by Brig.-Gen. Henry M. Naglee, the Third 
Division by Brig.-Gen. O. S. Ferry, the Fourth Division by Brig.- 
Gen. Henry W. Wessells, the Fifth Division by Brig.-Gen. H. 
Prince. The first North Carolina Union volunteers were com 
manded by Capt. C. A. Lyon, the artillery brigade by Brig.-Gen. 
J. H. Ledlie, and the Third New York Cavalry by Col. S. H. Mix. 

The Fourth Division, General Wessells, comprised the two 
brigades of Hunt and Stevenson as defined in General Order 
No. 84 above. 

Under this organization the Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regi 
ment was in the Second Brigade of the Fourth Division of the 
Eighteenth Army Corps, with Major-General Foster as our corps 
commander, Brig.-Gen. Henry W. Wessells our division com 
mander, and Brig.-Gen. Thomas G. Stevenson our brigade 
commander. 1 

1 There has been considerable discussion among our members as to which divi 
sion we belonged to. The writer has examined carefully all the papers on file at the 
State House, including the regimental order-book, and all the official documents in 
Washington to which he could get access. He has failed to find any order assigning 
the regiment to the Fourth Division, while there is one (General Order No. 14) 
assigning it to the First; yet all the official papers subsequent to January 12 speak 
of General Wessells as in command of the Fourth Division. So far as we can see, 
there is at present no means of settling the question satisfactorily. 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 6 1 

Our corps commander, John G. Foster, Major-General of 
Volunteers, was born in New Hampshire in 1824, was graduated 
at West Point in 1846, and appointed a brevet second lieutenant 
in the corps of engineers. He was brevetted as first lieutenant for 
gallantry during the Mexican War at Contreras and Cherubusco, 
Aug. 20, 1847, and as captain for gallantry at Molino del Rey, 
Sept. 8, 1847, where he was one of the party which stormed the 
Mexican works and was severely wounded. He was assistant 
professor of engineering at West Point in 1854, became a cap 
tain July I, 1860, and was brevetted as major, Dec. 26, 1860. 
On April 28, 1858, he took charge of the fortifications in North 
and South Carolina, which duty he was performing on the break 
ing out of the Civil War in 1861. He was one of the garrison 
of Fort Sumter under Major Anderson, and participated in the 
defence of that fort. After its surrender he was employed upon 
the fortifications of New York. He was appointed a brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Oct. 23, 1861, and commanded a brigade 
in the Burnside expedition, taking a leading part in the capture 
of Roanoke Island and New Berne. After the capture of New 
Berne he was made governor of that place. In August, 1862, 
he was appointed major-general of volunteers. After General 
Burnside left North Carolina to join the Army of the Potomac, 
General Foster became the commander of the department, and 
on the creation of the Eighteenth Army Corps he was appointed 
to the command. 

From July 15 to Nov. 15, 1863, he was in command of the 
Department of Virginia and North Carolina. From Dec. 12, 
1863, to Feb. 9, 1864, he commanded the Army and Department 
of the Ohio. This command he was obliged to relinquish on 
account of severe injuries which resulted from a fall from his 
horse. After remaining two months on sick leave at Baltimore, 
he assumed command of the Department of the South, retaining 
it from May 26, 1864, to Feb. 11, 1865. From August, 1865, to 
December, 1866, he commanded the Department of Florida. 
He was mustered out of the volunteer service, September, 1866, 
and died at Nashua, N. H., Sept. 2, 1874. 

General Foster was made Lieutenant-Colonel in the Engineers 
of the regular army March 7, 1867; and was brevetted March 13, 



62 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

1865, Brigadier-General and Major-General, also of the regular 
army. 

By a general order dated New Berne, Jan, 12, 1863, the follow 
ing-named officers were announced as constituting the staff of the 
major-general commanding : 

Brig.-Gen. Edward E. Potter, chief of staff. 
Lieut.-Col. Southard Hoffman, assistant adjutant-general. 
Capt. James H. Strong, aide-de-camp and assistant adjutant and in 
spector general. 

Maj. J. L. Stackpole, judge-advocate. 
Maj. John F. Anderson, senior aide-de-camp. 
Maj. Edward N. Strong, aide-de-camp. 
Capt. George E. Gourand, aide-de-camp. 
Capt. Louis Fitzgerald, aide-de-camp. 
Capt. Daniel Messinger, provost marshal. 
Lieut.-Col. Herman Briggs, chief quartermaster. 
Capt. J. C. Slaght, assistant quartermaster. 
Capt. Henry Porter, assistant quartermaster. 
Capt. William Holden, assistant quartermaster. 
Capt. J. J. Bowen, assistant quartermaster. 
Lieut. Joseph A. Goldthwaite, acting commissary of subsistence. 
Surg. F. G. Snelling, medical director. 

Lieut. F. W. Farquhar, United States Engineer Corps, chief engineer. 
Lieut. M. F. Prouty, acting ordnance officer. 
Lieut. J. Myers, United States Ordnance Corps, ordnance officer. 

Our division commander, Henry W. Wessells, was born in 
Litchfield, Conn., Feb. 20, 1809. At the age of nineteen he 
entered a military school at Middletown, Conn., and the following 
year went to West Point, where he was graduated in 1833. He 
was brevetted second lieutenant in the Second Infantry; was 
engaged in the Creek War in Georgia in 1835, an ^ the Seminole 
W T ar in Florida in 1837-43; was promoted to be first lieuten 
ant in 1838, and captain in 1847; was brevetted major for 
gallantry at Contreras and Cherubusco during the Mexican war, 
in the former of which engagements he was wounded. After 
the close of the war with Mexico he went with his regiment to 
California, and thence in 1854 to Kansas and Nebraska. In June, 
1 86 1, he was appointed major in the Sixth Infantry. During the 
winter of 1861-62 he was granted leave of absence and organized 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 63 

the Eighth Regiment of Kansas Volunteers. In the spring of 
1862 he joined his own regiment before Yorktown in. General 
Sikes s command, and was wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks. 
He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, April 25, 
1862, serving in the Department of Virginia, Major-General Dix. 
In December, 1862, he was transferred from the Department of 
Virginia to the Department of North Carolina. In May, 1863, he 
was assigned to the defence of Plymouth, N. C., which place he 
was compelled to surrender, April 20, 1864, after a fight of four 
days, and was taken prisoner and held until August, when ex 
changed. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, January, 
1866. In February, 1865, he was appointed a lieutenant-colonel in 
the Eighteenth Regular Infantry. He was retired Jan. r, 1871. 

Our brigade commander, Thomas G. Stevenson, was born at 
Boston in the year 1836. He became an active member of the 
State Militia, rising from the ranks to become major of the Fourth 
Battalion of Massachusetts Infantry, which body, under his care 
and instruction, attained a high degree of excellence in discipline 
and drill. In the fall of 1861 he was commissioned colonel of 
the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers. He participated 
in the battles of Roanoke Island and New Berne. In an official 
report, dated New Berne, Nov. 12, 1862, to the War Department, 
after the Tarboro expedition, General Foster writes : - 

" I recommend Colonel Stevenson, for his efficient services on this march 
and in the affair at Little Creek and Rawle s Mills, as well as previous 
services at the battle of Roanoke Island and New Berne, be promoted to 
the rank of brigadier-general." 

In November, 1862, Colonel Stevenson was appointed brigadier- 
general. In the Richmond campaign of 1864 he commanded a 
division of the Ninth Corps, and lost his life at Spottsylvania 
Court House, May 10, 1864. 

With this description of New Berne, the forces which occupied 
it, and the commanders under whom the Forty-fourth served, 
this chapter might be considered as complete ; but it may be 
well to include here one or two incidents connected with our 
stay in the town which do not come within the scope of any 
other chapter. 



64 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

In January the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts and Tenth Con 
necticut of our brigade, under General Stevenson, were sent with 
other regiments of the Eighteenth Army Corps, first to Beaufort, 
N. C., and thence to South Carolina, where they joined the forces 
operating against Charleston. 

The concentration of troops in North Carolina, and their sub 
sequent embarkation at Beaufort, puzzled and alarmed the Con 
federate authorities, who anticipated a simultaneous attack upon 
Weldon at the north and Wilmington at the south. General D. 
H. Hill was assigned to the command of the troops in North Caro 
lina, then (Feb. i, 1863) composed of Daniels s and Pettigrew s 
infantry brigades, Robertson s cavalry brigade, and some artil 
lery. In March, Garnett s brigade, from Petersburg, was ordered 
to report to Hill. 

When it was ascertained that Charleston, and not Wilmington, 
was the objective point of the new expedition, General Hill 
planned a strong movement against New Berne and the other 
Federal positions along the coast. About this time General 
Foster wrote to the War Department : 

" I have received information that the corps of Major-General D. H. Hill 
is within the limits of this State and that he commands this department. I 
referred, in my last letter, to some iron-clads being constructed on the Tar 
and Roanoke Rivers. I understand that the iron-clad on the Roanoke 
River is nearly completed, and to prevent its being destroyed by our gun 
boats before it is ready for service, the enemy have assembled a large 
force at Hamilton, said to be 7,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry, and seven 
batteries of between six and eight pieces each. The fortifications at Rain 
bow Bluff, just below Hamilton, destroyed by me last November, are being 
repaired and heavy guns being mounted from Weldon. A considerable 
force is at Weldon, and the enemy are busily engaged in fortifying that 
point. . . . To prevent the enemy from putting their threat into execution 
of taking the town of Plymouth, taking the gunboats or driving them out 
of the river, I propose to reinforce that point, and at the same time I 
have prepared a strong reconnaissance, under General Prince, to move 
in the direction of Wilmington and so prevent too great an accumulation 
of force on the Roanoke until such time as I shall be strong enough to 
attack with advantage. The command is only waiting for a suitable con 
dition of the roads to move, the recent rains having rendered them almost 
impassable." 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 65 

As before stated, General Hill s force was increased by the 
arrival of Garnett s brigade on the loth of March. The com 
bined force numbered some 15,000 men. On the nth of March 
General Hill moved his army towards New Berne. On the after 
noon of Friday, March 13, the enemy s scouts were seen in various 
directions. Belger s Battery, the Fifth and Twenty-fifth Massa 
chusetts Regiments, were sent out on the Trent road, leading 
towards Kinston. At dawn on the I4th a strong force under 
the Confederate General Pettigrevv placed sixteen guns in posi 
tion near a small fort opposite the town on the north, across the 
Neuse River. This fort was almost directly opposite the camp 
of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment. Two or three 
thousand infantry supported the artillery. They came into a 
clearing about sixty yards from the fort and began a rapid 
fire of shell and canister. After a few rounds they sent in to 
Colonel Anderson, of the Ninety-second New York (four hun 
dred and fifty of whom held the place), a flag of truce, demand 
ing a surrender, saying that a combined attack was to be made 
that day on New Berne, and that resistance was useless. To 
gain time for the gunboats to get into position, Colonel Ander 
son asked for half an hour to send and consult General Foster. 
The flag of truce went back, and returned granting the half-hour, 
and when the time had expired, returned again for the response. 
Colonel Anderson replied, " My orders are to hold this place, 
and I shall never surrender it." During this interval the Con 
federates had put all their guns in position, straightened their 
lines, and formed their infantry in three lines behind the guns. 
General Pettigrew was mounted on a large white horse, and was 
constantly riding up and down the lines, giving orders. When 
the flag of truce went back the third time, and the result was 
known, the Confederates opened a rapid and terrific fire. The 
men in the fort, not wishing to show their strength, lay close 
behind the sand wall and waited for a charge. The soldiers in 
the fort prepared for the expected charge by biting off car 
tridges and putting them up before them on the logs, so as to 
be ready to fire fast. The camp in the fort was completely rid 
dled with balls. A thirty-pound Parrott threw shells across 
the river, striking near our camp. The Union gunboats came 

5 



66 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

around from the Trent River, and getting into position, began 
a vigorous shelling of the woods beyond the fort, causing the 
enemy to retire. A thirty-pound siege-gun of the enemy burst, 
and killed a number of their own men. In the afternoon 
they attempted to creep up and plant a battery in the woods, 
but were prevented from so doing by the constant shelling of the 
fleet 

About noontime a train of platform cars with a locomotive in 
the rear stopped before the camp of the Fifth Rhode Island. In 
twenty minutes that regiment was on the train and moved rapidly 
out to the camp of the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, doing 
picket duty some eight miles out from New Berne, on the Kinston 
road. Reports came that a force of 8,000 or 10,000 men, with 
thirty pieces of artillery and some cavalry, had reached a point on 
the flank of the picket force nearer New Berne than they were. 
Colonel Jones, of the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, com 
manding the picket-post, was ordered, if pressed, to retire on New 
Berne, fighting his way as he came in. At dusk the outer pickets 
were driven in. At night tattoo was beaten at several points and 
the cars were kept running, to give the enemy the impression that 
a large force was near. The entire force in and around the town 
were kept constantly under arms. Every preparation was made 
for an attack. 

After threatening the town at various points, the enemy during 
the night disappeared from New Berne. It was supposed that 
Washington, N. C., might be in danger, and to reinforce and 
strengthen the garrison of that town, on the following day 
(March 15) eight companies of the Forty-fourth Massachu 
setts Regiment were ordered to Washington. Companies B and 
F of the regiment were at this time doing picket duty at Batch- 
elder s Creek, a few miles out of New Berne towards Kinston. 
Between this date (March 15) and April 22 the main body of the 
regiment was at Washington, N. C., the greater part of the time 
surrounded and hemmed in by the Confederate troops under 
General D. H. Hill, as narrated in another chapter. 

General Foster was with the small force at Washington, N. C., 
during the siege of that town. During his absence Brig.- 
Gen. I. N. Palmer, commanding First Division of Eighteenth 



NEW BERNE AND ITS GARRISON. 67 

Army Corps, was in command at New Berne. On April I, 1863, 
he wrote from New Berne to the War Department, stating that 
General Foster was at Washington, N. C, and that that place 
was being attacked by the enemy in force; that there were only 
parts of two regiments there as garrison; and that three regi 
ments and a battery of artillery had been sent him, but they were 
unable to reach there, the enemy having two batteries on the 
river below the town. Commander Davenport, United States 
Navy, sent from New Berne all the available gunboats to engage 
the batteries. The enemy were reported as being in large force 
in North Carolina, and as acting on the offensive. On the same 
date (April i) an urgent request by letter was made by General 
Palmer to Major- General Dix, commanding Department of Vir 
ginia at Fortress Monroe, for assistance. He says : " There is a 
fair prospect of success for the Rebels at Washington [N. C.], and 
if they succeed this place will be attacked. I only suggest to 
you, General, as food for thought, whether it would not be best 
to reinforce this place with, say, 5,000 men temporarily. . . . 
We are sadly in need of gunboats." 

In response to this request General Dix made preparations to 
send assistance, and had actually embarked a portion of his com 
mand on transports for that purpose, when General Longstreet 
made an attack on his front, which necessitated the withdrawal 
of the troops from the transports, and their detention in that 
department. 

An attempt was made to relieve Washington by a force sent 
overland from New Berne, which was unsuccessful. On the 
8th of April an expedition left New Berne for the purpose of 
relieving Washington, under the command of General Spinola. 
They had gone but a short distance when they found themselves 
confronted by a large force of the enemy, with batteries arranged 
to command the roads approaching in that direction. The 
bridges had been cut away, and breastworks erected command 
ing every approach. Finding the contest so unequal, and the 
possibility of advancing so small, General Spinola ordered his 
command to fall back, and returned to New Berne. At mid 
night of the 1 4th of April the transport " Escort," with the Fifth 
Rhode Island Regiment on board, ran the blockade on the Tar 



68 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



River, and passed the batteries, reaching Washington. On the 
following day General Foster left Washington on the " Escort," 
passed the batteries, and, reaching New Berne, collected his force 
and marched to Washington, to the successful relief of that 
town. 








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COMPANY BARRACKS, 5O x38 

REGIMENTAL PARADE. 



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CHAPTER V. 



CAMP LIFE. 

ATTLE is merely an incident 
in the life of a soldier. The 
larger part of his service is 
spent in preparing for it. His 
experience might be compared 
with that of the professional 
athlete who devotes months to 
training for a contest which a 
few seconds will decide. In 
foreign nations which maintain 
large standing armies most of 
this preliminary work is accom 
plished in time of peace, but in 
ours it had to be done while in 
actual conflict. Undue haste 
in forcing battle subjected us 
to the disastrous defeat of Bull 

Run, a defeat which was not an actual misfortune, as it taught 
the nation that the soldier s profession demanded capacity and 
experience, and that armies could not be made effective until 
they had attained a certain homogeneity which time and dis 
cipline alone could give. For this reason, among others, much 
of the time of most regiments, at least in the early part of the 
war, was passed in camp. 

On our main lines of operation there was more or less con 
stant fighting; but at many places along the coast held by us 
mainly as bases for future operations our forces were not large 




/O FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

enough to take the offensive on any extended scale, and there 
fore a few days of active, hard, spirited work were followed by 
longer periods of inaction. This was the case in our depart 
ment; and although not the most important part of our service, 
our life in camp was not the least interesting. 

Our barracks not being completed at the time we reached 
New Berne, some of the companies were quartered in tents for 
a few days, and almost as soon as we had removed to the bar 
racks were sent off on the Tarboro expedition. Part of the 
regiment returned to New Berne on the night of Thursday, 
November 13 ; but the rest did not land till the following noon, 
as their steamer had been delayed. We went immediately to 
our barracks, and our camp life in the South fairly began. On 
the 1 7th Colonel Lee issued Special Order No. 6: 

"As a slight demonstration of the affection and esteem we have all 
learned by our recent experiences to feel for our present commanding 
officer, it is ordered that the present regimental camp be hereafter known 
and denoted as Camp Stevenson, and all letters and orders shall hereafter 
be so dated." 

The name " Camp Stevenson " was retained as long as we 
remained on the old " Fair Ground." 

The camp was very pleasantly located. It was situated on 
the southerly side of the Neuse, very nearly on the river-bank, 
a short distance westerly from the town. After passing the rail 
road station we came to the quartermaster s stables and cavalry 
corral on the right and the Government wood-yard on the left; 
then the camp of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts on the right; 
crossed a small stream spanned by a light wooden bridge, and 
our camp-ground was reached. Our line of sentries extended 
from the river along the stream to the bridge, near which our 
guard-house was placed, then at right angles to the stream and 
parallel to the river for quite a distance, again turning at right 
angles and thence running northerly to the river. 

Beyond us were the camps of the Third and Forty-sixth 
Massachusetts. Opposite to ours, but farther from the river, 
and reached by the same bridge we have mentioned, was that 
of the Tenth Connecticut, one of the best regiments in the 
service. It might be appropriate to mention here that the 



CAMP LIFE. 71 

young lady, a resident of Stamford, who presented a standard 
to this regiment just before it left for the seat of war, afterwards 
became the wife of Charles H. Demeritt, of Company D, Forty- 
fourth Massachusetts. The drill-ground, which was used in 
common by all the regiments of our brigade, was west of the 
camp of the Tenth, and southwesterly from our own. 

The barracks were situated nearly equidistant from the easterly 
and westerly boundaries, but much nearer the road than they 
were the river. They consisted of a long wooden building, one 
half of which was parallel to the river and the other half at right 
angles to it, each part being divided into five apartments about 
fifty feet front by thirty-eight feet deep, an apartment being 
assigned to each company. Those at right angles to the river 




were occupied by the companies of the right wing, and those 
parallel to the river by the companies of the left wing. The line 
officer s quarters were in separate buildings erected at either 
end of the barracks, a room being assigned to each company, 
and the tents of the field and staff were pitched in front of the 
wing occupied by the right flank and parallel to it. The cook 
houses one to each company and one to its officers were 
built on to the rear of the barracks and officers quarters, and 
the quartermaster and commissary building was in the re-entrant 
angle formed by the two wings of tKe barracks. The guard-tent 
was pitched close by the bridge, and the sutler s quarters a 
structure about the size of a company barrack was built a 
short distance easterly of the end of the building occupied by 
the left wing. 



72 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The right flank is the post of honor in regimental line ; next 
in importance comes the left flank ; then the right centre, the 
position of the color company, etc. Usually these positions are 
determined by the seniority of the captains ; but where the com 
missions bear the same date they are arbitrarily assigned by the 
colonel. Beginning at the right, the company whose captain 
held the oldest commission would naturally be number one ; 
the captain who was sixth in rank would be second in line, etc. ; 
the order being as follows : 

Position in line i 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 

Position in rank i 6 4 9 3 8 5 10 7 2 

Soon after we went into camp at Readville the companies were 
assigned positions in the following order: - 

H C E I F D B K Q A 

On November 21 this order was changed, Company A being 
given the right flank, and the new order was 

A D E G C K H I B F 

This arrangement lasted for some time. December 28, Cap 
tain Reynolds resigned on account of ill health, and for the same 
reason Captain Jacob Lombard followed his example January 14. 
There were not many changes in our roster, but such as there 
were it may be well to particularize here. Dr. Ware died 
April 10, and Assistant-Surgeon Fisher was promoted to Surgeon 
on the same day. March 26, Daniel McPhee was commissioned 
assistant-surgeon. May 29, our youthful and popular adjutant, 
Wallace Hinckley, was transferred to the corresponding position 
in the Second Heavy Artillery, and was succeeded by E. C. John 
son, first lieutenant of Company H. In Company B, First Lieu 
tenant F. H. Forbes resigned Oct. 13, 1862, before we left 
Readville. Second Lieutenant J. A. Kenrick was promoted to 
the first lieutenancy, and Charles C. Soule, at that time serving 
as a private in Company F, appointed second lieutenant. 1 On 
the acceptance of the resignation of Captain Jacob Lombard, 
George Lombard was commissioned captain of Company C, and 
William Hedge, formerly sergeant in the same company, elected 
first lieutenant. Second Lieutenant Briggs of that company was 

1 Lieutenant Soule had been adjutant of the Fourth Battalion. See page 18. 



CAMP LIFE. 73 

away from the regiment on permanent detail. Alfred S. Hart- 
well, first lieutenant of Company F, having resigned to accept a 
commission in the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, Second Lieutenant 
Theodore E. Taylor was promoted, and First Sergeant Horace S. 
Stebbins appointed second lieutenant. Captain Reynolds s resig 
nation was followed by the promotion of Lieutenant Weld to be 
captain, Second Lieutenant Brown to be first lieutenant, and 
Sergeant John Parkinson, Jr., to be second lieutenant. These 
were the only changes among the commissioned officers. After 
Lieutenant Johnson s promotion to the adjutancy, Lieutenant 
Howe acted as first, and Sergeant Mulliken as second lieutenant, 
but no record can be found of their having been commissioned. 
These changes made necessary a readjustment of the line and 

on l the companies took position as follows: - 

A G H K E I D C B F 

This was their order at the time the regiment was mustered out 
of service. 

When an army is in motion and rarely bivouacs two successive 
nights on the same ground, it is. impossible to carry routine and red 
tape to such an extent as when occupying a camp that is relatively 
permanent. Camp duty does not vary much ; and the following 
order, which was put in force soon after our return from Tar- 
borough, describes essentially the routine of most regiments : 

Reveille 6 a. m. 

Breakfast 7 a. m. 

Morning report 7.15 a.m. 

Surgeon s call 7.30 a. m. 

Guard mounting 8 a. m. 

Squad drill under sergeants 8.3010 10 a. m. 

Drill for commissioned officers under lieutenant-colonel 10 to 1 1 a. m. 

Rifle drill for sergeants under major 10 to n a. m. 

Company drills, corporals acting sergeants . . . . 1 1 to 1 2 a. m. 

Block drill for sergeants under captains n to 12 a.m. 

Dinner 12 a. m. 

First sergeant s call i p. m. 

Company drill 1.30 to 2. 30 p.m. 

Battalion drill 3 to 4 p. m. 

Company parade 4.30 p. m. 

1 Have been unable to ascertain the date. 



74 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Dress parade 5 p. m. 

Supper 6 p. m. 

Tattoo and roll-call 7.30 p. m. 

Taps 8.30 p. m. 

Few of our men were used to early rising, and having to turn 
out before daylight was a new and not altogether welcome expe 
rience to most of them. To be sure, we were obliged to retire 
early, but that was merely aggravating the matter. After reveille 
came a trip to the river, where the men could enjoy a good swim 
or wade as preferred, and then they returned to the barracks, 
where breakfast was served. However much some of us might 
have been disposed to shirk drill and guard duty, it was very 




seldom that one attempted to shirk his rations. The food fur 
nished was ample in quantity and generally of excellent quality, 
although our cooks would have scarcely found favor at Del- 
monico s, Young s, or Parker s. The army ration consisted of 
twelve ounces of pork or bacon, or one pound and four ounces 
of salt or fresh beef; one pound and six ounces of bread or 
flour, or one pound of hard bread, or one pound and four ounces 
of corn meal to each man. To each one hundred rations, fifteen 
pounds of beans or peas and ten pounds of rice or hominy; ten 
pounds of green coffee, or eight pounds of roasted (or roasted 



CAMP LIFE. 



75 



and ground) coffee, or one pound and eight ounces of tea; fifteen 
pounds of sugar; four quarts of vinegar; one pound and four 
ounces of adamantine or star candles ; four pounds of soap ; 
three pounds and four ounces of salt; four ounces of pepper; 
one quart of molasses ; and when practicable, thirty pounds of 
potatoes. 

The bill of fare was not in all respects such as most of us had 
been used to, but the food was wholesome, and our exercise in 
the open air gave us appetites to which many had heretofore 




been strangers. Hunger proved an excellent sauce; but in spite 
of this appetizer there was some growling because we were not 
furnished with butter for our bread or milk for coffee. All of 
us tried to eke out the Government rations with private supplies; 
and " goodies" from home were devoured with far greater relish 
than when as children we assisted at the surreptitious disappear 
ances of pie or cake or jam from our mothers pantries. 

Among the native delicacies to which we took very kindly 
from the start were sweet-potato pies. The negroes were adepts 
at this kind of cookery, and many of them made a comfortable 
income by supplying the boys. There was a "white nigger" 



76 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

who was an especial favorite, and no matter how large his stock, 
it was always disposed of before he left camp. The darkies 
must have thought that " the day of jubilee" had actually arrived, 
as we are sure that the money they received from our regiment 
exceeded in amount the wildest expectations of their dreams, - 
that is, provided they were imaginative enough to indulge in 
dreams. 

After breakfast the first sergeants made their morning reports, 
and then came the surgeon s call. This was a general invitation 
to " the lame, the halt, and the blind " to appear before the 
doctor. We are glad to believe that as a rule few of our men 
answered this call unless they were actually ill ; but the knowledge 
that the surgeons had power to excuse men from duty was a 
great temptation to some when they felt lazy, as all do at times. 
It was amusing to watch those who reported ; to see the different 
expressions of countenance and hear the different stories each 
would tell. The stereotyped formula of the surgeon was : "Let 
me see your tongue. Barnaby, give this man some C. C. drops." 
" Barnaby, give this man half dozen compound cathartic pills." 
" Barnaby, give this man a dose of castor-oil." " What do you 
mean by coming here? There s nothing the matter with you. 
Go to your quarters." Occasionally a case would require more 
attention than could be given in barracks, when the man would 
be sent to the regimental hospital ; and if the accounts of those 
who went are reliable, nowhere could one have received better 
care or kinder treatment than was given by our surgeons and 
their assistants. Some who never reported at surgeon s call but 
once or twice, thought the surgeons were unnecessarily severe ; 
but it was often difficult to discriminate. Among one thousand 
men there must always be a percentage under medical treatment, 
but we think the general health of our regiment compared favor 
ably with that of any in the department. 

Then came guard mounting. The detail was usually announced 
at tattoo roll-call the previous evening. The ceremony was a 
dress parade in miniature, with some additions and a few sub 
tractions. Generally, quite an audience assembled to witness it. 
After the ritual as laid down in the Army Regulations had been 
fully complied with, the old guard was relieved and dismissed, 



CAMP LIFE. 77 

and the care of the camp placed in charge of the new guard for 
the succeeding twenty-four hours. 

Guard duty was in some respects very pleasant. The turn 
was two hours on and four off, although the men were not 
allowed to leave the vicinity of the guard-tent without permis 
sion when off duty. Some of the posts were very desirable. In 
stormy weather the colonel was always considerate, and sentries 
that could be spared were relieved from their posts and allowed 
to return to their quarters. At least once during the twenty-four 
hours they were called out to receive the " grand rounds." When 
ever a general officer, the commandant of the camp, or the officer 
of the day, approached the guard-house it was expected that the 
guard would be turned out ; but the colonel, and generally the 
officer of the day, were satisfied with receiving this honor once 
from each guard, and left word not to turn it out a second time. 
Before reporting for duty each man was required to don his 
dress suit, have his boots nicely polished, his brasses bright, his 
gun clean, his gloves of spotless white, etc. If a soldier trans 
gressed in any particular he received some very fatherly advice 
given in a very paternal manner. Sentries were required to carry 
their pieces as prescribed in the Army Regulations, to salute all 
commissioned officers passing near their beats, to prevent un 
authorized persons from entering the confines of the camp, and 
to preserve order generally. If a sentry wished to be relieved 
for any purpose he had to call for the corporal of the guard and 
give the number of his post. Some of our men could not get 
this idea, and none of us will ever forget the call of " Corporal of 
the Guard, Post Nagle." The soldier who instituted this call was, 
by the way, one of the best men in the regiment, and whatever 
orders he received \vere always obeyed to the letter. After being 
on duty the men were excused from the time they were relieved 
in the morning until dress parade that afternoon. 

Camp guard was pleasant enough, but few if any of the men 
enjoyed being detailed for police guard. The duties of the latter 
were that of cleaning up camp, for which many thought a force 
of contrabands should have been regularly engaged ; and there 
were few in the regiment who would not willingly have paid 
any reasonable assessment to provide a substitute. There was 



78 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

nothing especially fascinating in sweeping up the camp-grounds, 
particularly when as large as ours, in emptying swill-pails, digging 
sinks, etc. ; but the work had to be done, and some one had to 
do it. There was one satisfaction, however, we could wear our 
old clothes and did not wear our equipments ; and from guard 
mounting in the morning to dress parade in the afternoon, except 
when actually engaged in work a period rarely exceeding three 
hours our time was our own. 




As soon as guard mounting was finished, all the men excepting 
those on guard or who had just come off, the detailed men, and 
those on sick leave, were taken out for company drill. The 
number was rarely more than half the effective strength of the 
company. The length and severity of drill varied materially, 
some of the officers keeping their men hard at work during 
the whole of the time assigned, while others gave frequent 
" rests," and brought their companies into camp long before its 
expiration. 

After dinner came company drill again, and then battalion drill. 
Occasionally the programme was diversified by a brigade drill 
under General Stevenson. The labor of preparing for the dress 



CAMP LIFE. 79 

parade which followed was not inconsiderable, as we usually re 
turned from drill hot, tired, and dusty, and it was essential that 
on parade we should appear in apple-pie order. A regiment of 
bootblacks would have found business excellent had they visited 
us about that time in the day. Apropos of dress parade. On 
leaving Readville we thought the regiment was well drilled, and 
probably it was, compared with the militia generally ; but the first 
time we saw the Tenth Connecticut go through the Manual, it 
was a revelation to us ; and although before being mustered 
out we had undoubtedly attained nearly or quite as great pro 
ficiency, none will ever forget the feeling of despair which 
came over us at the idea of ever being able to equal such pre 
cision. Supper immediately followed dress parade. Later came 
tattoo and roll-call and finally taps, at which sound all lights in 
the quarters of enlisted men were extinguished and the day was 
ended. 

Saturday afternoon we often had inspection of barracks, and 
Sunday morning came the regular weekly inspection. Saturday 
was " cleaning-up day." The officers were very particular about 
the condition of camp and barracks. The least thing amiss was 
quickly noticed. One plan adopted soon after our arrival at 
New Berne to promote good order and cleanliness, which proved 
very successful, was to detail a corporal in charge of each com 
pany barrack for a week at a time. The officer of the day would 
send in a detailed report to headquarters, and the company that 
he reported " best " was excused from guard duty for the follow 
ing day, the men who would otherwise have gone on guard were 
furloughed, and the company he reported " worst " had to furnish 
double its allotted number of men. The competition between the 
companies was very keen and often it was difficult to decide. 
On Sunday morning each company was mustered in its own 
street ; it formed in two ranks, and the inspecting officer made 
a careful examination of the condition of the uniforms, muskets, 
cartridge-boxes, knapsacks, etc. Woe unto the unlucky private 
who displayed anything contraband among his possessions or 
whose equipments were not up to the standard of brilliancy ! 
As the officer passed down the ranks he would step in front of 
each soldier, examine his appearance carefully, take his musket, 



8o 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



look scrutinizingly at the polished work, test the action of the 
lock, and then drawing out the ramrod, which had been previously 
placed in the barrel, rub the end of it across his immaculate 
white glove. If it left a mark, be it never so slight, the soldier 
was in a state of fear and trembling till his doom was announced. 
One week a non-commissioned officer who had a constitutional 
aversion to house-cleaning was detailed as " corporal of the bar 
racks." The man was disposed to decline the honor, but in the 
army, resignations from the rank and file are not in order; he 




accordingly resolved if possible to win new laurels in this posi 
tion, albeit in opposition to his natural instincts, and succeeded 
so well that his company was relieved from guard duty at least 
once if not twice during the week that he was in charge. En 
couraged by success, he was tempted to still higher effort; and 
on Saturday, after having attended to his duties relating to the 
barracks, he turned his attention to his own equipment. The 
labor spent in brightening and cleaning his musket, belt, car 
tridge-box, and clothes, the expense of rags, tripoli, and soap 
was simply enormous. Sunday morning dawned bright and 
sunny. The company was ordered out for the regular weekly 
inspection. The corporal took his place in the front rank, 



CAMP LIFE. 8 1 

confident that he would pass with flying colors. The inspecting 
officer wiped the musket with a clean handkerchief or a pair of 
white gloves. He gazed at the corporal with a look of great 
interest. The surgeon reached the spot. He looked at the 
young man s clothes and then at him. The corporal was de 
lighted. He felt sure that he was to be publicly complimented ; 
and his intuition was correct, for the surgeon, after a silent look 
at the inspecting officer as if for corroboration, exclaimed, " Cor 
poral - ,* you re the dirtiest man in the regiment ! " 

One of the boys, in writing home under date of November 16, 
says: " At 3 P. M. yesterday (Saturday) had inspection by Gen 
eral Foster, who complimented us highly. Said he never saw a 
better-looking set of men, men who conducted themselves bet 
ter, or kept their persons, equipments, and muskets in better con 
dition. One of the boys in Company E, John Wyeth, in the 
skirmish a fortnight ago to-day had a bullet pass through the 
stock of his musket, partially shattering it. General Foster in 
quired the cause, and being told the circumstances, said : Keep 
that musket, and send it home as a trophy by which to remem 
ber your first fight. I will see that you are provided with an 
other, and as good a one as Uncle Sam can make. That fellow 
grew half an inch while the general was talking to him." 

Soon after reaching New Berne, one by one our comrades 
would disappear from daily drill or roll-call, and on making in 
quiries regarding the cause, we would learn that they had been 
detailed. The administration of an army corps, or even of a 
brigade, requires quite a force of clerks at headquarters and in 
the various departments, few of whom are civilians ; and details 
were made for duty not only in our own camp, but at brigade, 
division, and corps headquarters. A part of the time the regi 
ment was without its colonel, as he was commanding the brigade, 
his place being supplied by Lieutenant-Colonel Cabot. One of 
the first men we lost from this cause was Lieutenant J. H. Blake, 
Jr., of Company D, who was on the staff of General Stevenson 
during the time we were in North Carolina. His detail was 
dated October 27. Lieutenants Briggs, of Company C, and 
Field, of Company I, were most of the time on the signal corps, 

1 Out of respect to his friends the name of the man is suppressed. 

6 



82 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



and other of our officers were away for longer or shorter periods ; 
while yet others, being in charge of special work, did not do duty 
with their companies. Among the various positions to which the 
detailed men were assigned were those of clerks at the different 
headquarters and departments, pioneers, ambulance men, musi 
cians and members of the band, signal-corps, wagoners, nurses, 
orderlies, cooks, harness-makers, etc. John F. Bacon, of Com 
pany D., was first assistant to the chief carpenter, Mr. Wilson ; 
Wheelock and Curtis, of F, were on duty as draughtsmen; C. E. 
Wheeler, of D, was sign-painter-in-chief of the department; and 
it was currently reported that one of the men had been called 
upon to run Mrs. General Foster s sewing-machine. In some 
respects it was much more agreeable to be detailed than to re 
main with the regiment; but, on the whole, we rather think those 
who " stuck by the old flag," even if the " appropriation " was 
small, had the best time. Among the papers which the colonel 
has kindly loaned the committee is a list of the drummers, fifers, 
and members of the band, which will undoubtedly be interesting 
to our readers : 



DRUMMERS. 

E. C. Lee . . . Co. A 
G. W Brooks . . 
I. Jones . . . 
G. W. Springer . 
W. W. Woodward 
G. F. Pulsifer . 
J. H. Myers . 

C. F. Morse . . 
J. M. Gibbs . . 
E. S. Fisher . . 

E. Hayden . . 

F. O. Peterson . 

D. F Redman . 
C. A. Annable . 
A. Fisher . 



FIFERS. 
G. E. Wetherbee Co. B 



BAND. 

N. H. Dadmun . Co. A 

S. T. Shackford " A 

T. F. Gibbs . " A 

E. Graef . . . " B 

A. Hemenway . " D 

C. H. Park . . " E 

E. A. Ramsay . " E 
N. H. Ingraham " F 
W. F. Ingraham " F 

C. Cobb . . . " F 

D. Cobb . . . " F 

F. W. Clapp . H 
C. E Hook. . H 
C. E. Hovey . H 

E. S. Hemenway " H 

G. F. Hall . . " I 
H. A. Spear . " K 
J. A. Lewis . . " K 
J. Fowler . . " K 
H. B. Hartshorn " K 

From those who failed to stand the fatigues of the Tarboro ex 
pedition a detachment was selected, styled the " Invalid Guard," 



B 


J. E. Leigh ton . 


" D 


C 


C. B. Curtis . 


" H 


C 


E. P. Upham . 


" I 


D 


F. A. Hartshorn 


" K 


E 






E 






F 






F 






G 






H 






H 






I 






I 






K 







CAMP LIFE. 83 

which was sent to garrison a block-house at Brice s Creek, a picket 
station some miles outside of New Berne. The duty was light, 
but the men say they were very lonesome. A list of these will 
be found on page 251. Several whose names appear here did not 
join the " block-house squad," as they were detailed to various 
positions in the town. As might be imagined, time hung heavily 
on the hands of those doing garrison duty at this out-of-the-way 
spot, and the men were always ready to welcome any incident 
that would break the monotony. An anecdote is told, more 
amusing to those who perpetrated the joke than to its victim. 
One day several of the men crossed the creek. After enjoying 
themselves for some time on the farther side, an alarm was given 
that the " Johnnies " were coming. All but one of the party 
rushed for the boat, and before their comrade could reach the 
shore, they were on their own side of the creek. It was too deep 
to ford, the man could not swim, the boys were calling to him 
that if he remained on the other side he would surely be cap 
tured, and his entreaties " to bring over the boat " were heart 
rending. After tormenting him until they were tired, the boat 
was sent for him and the joke explained; but it is doubtful if he 
ever forgave the perpetrators. 

November 27 was Thanksgiving Day, and was celebrated very 
generally by the members of the Forty-fourth. On the 26th, at 
dress parade, General Order No. 9 was read : - 

" To-morrow being Thanksgiving Day in this department, there will be 
no duties. Captains will issue twice the number of passes, and taps will 
not be beat till 10 p. M." 

All the men had been very much interested in the arrange 
ments for this holiday. Companies A, C, E, F, and G had com 
pany dinners, and Companies B and D divided up into squads. 
Diarists in H, I, and K fail to give an account of their doings. 
Each company celebrated on its own account. The most elabo 
rate programme was laid out by Company A, a full account of 
which is contained in the diary lent the committee by Sergeant 
E. R. Rand, which, by the way, with that of Everett, of C, are 
two of the fullest and most interesting placed at their disposal. 
Most of the comrades of Company A followed the example of 



84 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

our friend Silas Wegg in the " Mutual Friend," and on this occa 
sion " dropped into poetry." Although somewhat of a machine 
character, the effusions were replete with wit and personal allu 
sions, and created a great deal of merriment. First Sergeant 
Edmands presided. A. L. Butler, afterwards killed at Whitehall, 
was orator of the day, and his speech is reported in full in the 
"Bay State Forty-fourth," a magazine to which reference will be 
made later in this chapter. Sergeant Clark read a poem after 
the style of " On Linden, when the sun was low," which began, 
" In New Berne, when the sun was high." Henry Lyon read an 
ode appropriate to the occasion, and then C. C. Murdock gave 
an account of the operations of the regiment up to that time, his 
style being evidently modelled after that of the " New Gospel of 
Peace." Hiram Hubbard, Jr., officiated as toast-master, and 
responses were made by Sergeant Clark, Captain Richardson, 
Lieutenant Coffin, Corporal Conant, and Sergeant Rogers. A 
letter was read from Colonel Lee, and there was frequent singing 
by the company. A song written by A. S. Bickmore was ren 
dered by S. T. Shackford, and then Sergeant Rand read some 
machine poetry full of local hits, and introducing the name of 
every member of the company, with the exception of one which 
was inadvertently omitted. 

The bill of fare as given in bulk consisted of one barrel ham 
sandwiches, ten gallons oysters, one hundred pounds fresh 
beef, one and a half barrels apple-sauce, two barrels Baldwin 
apples, two kegs ginger-snaps, twelve " big " plum-puddings, 
and numerous smaller articles, with cigars ad libitum. Ser 
geant Rand, in commenting on the dinner, notes : " Sat down 
with tightly buttoned coats, but " Language probably failed 
him. 

One mess of eighteen men from Company B went down town 
to dinner. They paid fifty cents per plate, and the menu con 
sisted of fried trout, roast beef, beefsteak, roast goose, onions, 
sweet and Irish potatoes, and apple and potato pies. 

In Company F the after-dinner exercises were of rather a 
formal character, and were decidedly the most finished, from a 
literary standpoint. Private Francis C. Hopkinson presided, and 
his speech was really eloquent. Company F had many graduates 



CAMP LIFE. 85 

and undergraduates of Harvard College in its ranks, and the 
University might well have been proud of its representation in 
that company. During the exercises every available inch of 
space was occupied by men from other companies, and those 
who could not get into the barrack thronged the doors and win 
dows. The Cobb brothers were as usual among the enter 
tainers, and their music added not a little to the pleasure of 
the anniversary. 

In Company D there were a few set speeches, and some 
extemporaneous ones in response to a series of toasts, but no 
attempt at any elaborate performance. In Company G the lit 
erary exercises followed immediately upon the dinner. Private 
E. G. Scuclder presided, and responses were very general from, 
members of the company. In the evening Companies E and D 
united in giving an entertainment in Company E s quarters, of 
which the following was the programme : 

PART I. 

Song. " Happy are we to-night, boys " . . . . 

Declamation. " England s Interference " . . . F. S. Wheeler. 

Song. " Oft in the stilly night " 

Declamation. " The Dying Alchemist " . . . . S. G. Rawson. 

Readings. Selections J. W. Cartwright. 

Song. " Viva 1 America " 

Declamation. " Spartacus to the Gladiators " . . J. H. Waterman. 
Declamation. " The Beauties of Law " . . . . H. T. Reed. 

" Contraband s Visit " Myers and Bryant. 

Song. " Gideon s Band " 

Intermission. 

PART II. 

Song. " Rock me to sleep, mother " . . . . . 

Declamation. " Garibaldi s Entree to Naples " . G. H. Van Voorhis 

Song. " There s music in the air " 

Imitation of Celebrated Actors H. T. Reed. 

Declamation. " Rienzi s Address to the Romans " . N. R. Twitchell. 

Old Folks Concert (Father Kemp) 

Ending with " Home, Sweet Home," by the audience. 



86 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Companies C and H each had an entertainment in the evening, 
but no reports have been found, and the members of these com 
panies, together with those of B, I, and K, have failed to record 
the proceedings so far as the historical committee have been 
able to discover. 

At the Thanksgiving festivities in Company E s barracks Lieu 
tenant Cumston was called upon for some remarks. Towards the 
end he said there was a Boston man in camp gathering statistics, 
and among the things he wished to find out was how many of 
the men smoked. The lieutenant thought it would be better to 
reverse the question, and ask how many did not smoke, and 
requested such " to stand up and be counted." Several arose, 
and among them some of the most inveterate smokers in the 
company, evidently desirous that the " statistics " should indicate 
Company E to be very abstemious. As soon as the men were 
on their feet, the lieutenant remarked that he had some cigars, 
not quite enough to supply the whole company, but as there 
were so many non-smokers he thought they would go round ; 
those who did not smoke of course must not take any. 

During the morning the men amused themselves with football, 
base-ball, etc., and in the evening Company A gave a variety 
entertainment in the quarters, beginning with a mock dress 
parade tinder command of Sergeant Wilkins, and ending with 
dancing, singing, readings, and acrobatic performances, the bar 
racks being crowded by men from the other companies. 

Not an incident happened to mar the festivities of the pro 
gramme ; the presence of friends who had heretofore passed this 
holiday with us being all that was needed to make our enjoyment 
perfect. Colonel Lee complimented the regiment in General 
Order No. u, read at dress parade the following day: - 

" Colonel Lee desires to congratulate the companies of his command 
on the success of their Thanksgiving festivities, and to express his extreme 
satisfaction at the orderly manner in which the day closed, and the sol 
dierly discipline shown in the perfect silence of the camp after taps," 

It is no easy matter to enforce strict discipline in a regiment, 
especially when the thousand men who compose it are young, 
active, and overflowing with animal spirits. The writer enjoys a 



CAMP LIFE. 87 

very wide acquaintance among his comrades of the Forty-fourth, 
and can conscientiously say that, so far as his knowledge extends, 
he does not believe there was a single member of the regiment 
who was maliciously inclined, or who disobeyed any order 
through a spirit of insubordination. The feeling of the men 
was well shown in the case of a member of Company D, a boy 
of only sixteen, who had been sent to the guard-house for im 
pertinence to First Sergeant Tripp. On his release, he imme 
diately hunted up the orderly and said to him, " You did just 
right to put me in the guard-house. I should n t have had a 
d d bit of respect for you if you hadn t. It s just what I de 
served." As a rule, obedience in our camp was prompt and 
discipline excellent, but there were times when punishments were 
inflicted. 

One of the most difficult problems to be solved by an officer 
is how to punish an infraction of the rules when committed by 
but one or two men, and these undetected. The innocent then 
have to suffer with the guilty. One night about midnight there 
was a loud explosion in one of the barracks. Had it occurred 
twenty years later, it would doubtless have been attributed to dy 
namite. Every one jumped from his bunk. The officers rushed 
in, and the captain, in a voice that expressed his feelings, de 
manded the name of the person responsible for the disturbance. 
There was an awful pause. Probably not more than two or three 
men in the company knew the offender. " If I do not find out 
the name of the man who caused this trouble within one minute, 
I will have the whole company out for drill," thundered the cap 
tain. The minute passed very rapidly. " Orderly, fall in Com 
pany D for drill," was the command. The men fell in, the 
sergeants searched the bunks carefully so there should be no 
skulking, one poor fellow who had been sleeping through all the 
disturbance was rudely awakened and ordered to join his com 
rades, for what he knew not, and the company marched out 
on the parade-ground. It was rather cold, and in going through 
the different manoeuvres the men showed very much more enthu 
siasm than was absolutely necessary. After about half an hour 
the company was ordered back to the barracks, the captain being 
satisfied that his experiment was rather enjoyed by the boys. 



88 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

For a long while the standing conundrum was, " Who put the 
powder in the stove ? " Company G and one or two of the other 
companies had a similar experience, with a like result. 

Company I held the championship for throwing hard-tack. 
As soon as taps had sounded, " whiz " would go a piece of hard 
tack from one end of the barrack, followed by a profane ejacula 
tion from the man it chanced to hit at the other. At first the shots 
were scattering, then began " firing by file, firing by platoon," 
and finally, " volley by company." The officers endeavored to 
stop the performance, but their efforts were at first unsuccessful. 
One night a watchful lieutenant entered the barrack with a dark- 
lantern, prepared to turn its flash in the direction from which 
came the first shot. One of the men, suspecting his design, crept 
from his bunk, and throwing open the stove door, the light from 
the fire unmasked the intruder. The lieutenant seized the man 
and had him marched to the guard-house, where he passed the 
night in spite of his earnest protestations that he was merely 
going to replenish the fire. As "midnight drills" were apparently 
enjoyed by the men, the officers adopted the novel plan of cut 
ting off the hard-tack rations. This unheard-of severity created 
a consternation. Men who would never touch a piece when able 
to get anything else, immediately declared it was their main arti 
cle of diet, and that they would inevitably starve if it were not 
furnished. The sudden hunger for hard-tack was amazing. 
Company I appealed to the others by means of notices posted 
throughout the camp, and it was not long before the most gen 
erous contributions began to arrive. The excitement lasted a 
day or two ; but the captain finally talked to the men, they ac 
knowledged they had been wrong, and the rations were restored. 
Allusion to this incident is made in the opera. 

Almost as soon as our camp was established, contrabands 
began to throng in. They could be hired for a very small sum, 
and in a few days there was scarcely a mess in the regiment that 
had not engaged a servant. Tt was quite convenient to call on 
some one to wash your tin plate or dipper, or polish your boots, 
or dust your coat, instead of having to perform these menial 
duties for yourself; but there were so many employed that they 
soon became a nuisance, and on December 4, much to the 



CAMP LIFE. 89 

regret of most of us, an order was issued sending out of camp all 
negroes not servants of commissioned officers, or provided with 

o 

a pass granted by one of our field officers. Some of the ser 
geants and a few of the corporals succeeded in retaining the 
contrabands they had engaged ; but as a rule the order was rigidly 
enforced. 

Notwithstanding that the prescribed orders of camp routine 
provided some occupation for almost every minute in the day, 
we found many leisure hours. Rainy days there were when 
drilling could not be thought of; the guard was excused on the 
day following its term of duty; there were always several off on 
account of illness ; and in one way and another we had a good 
deal of time at our own disposal. 

Nothing gave us more pleasure than to receive a large number 
of letters when our assistant-postmaster Fish distributed the mail, 
and those whose names were not called might have served an 
artist as a study for " Disappointment." We have sometimes 
thought it impossible for any regiment to have devoted more 
attention to letter-writing than we did. At any hour of the day, 
from reveille to taps, some of the boys would be found with 
paper and pencil, jotting down for the information of their friends 
incidents of their daily life. On the march or in the camp it 
was the same, and at every halt out would come the unfinished 
letter and a few lines be added before the order " Forward " was 
given. We had some regular newspaper correspondents in our 
ranks, and the list of " occasionals " would have embraced half 
the membership. Many of the men used to boast that they had 
sent from ten to twenty letters by a single mail, and had received 
a number equally large. The general prevalence of this habit 
was especially remarkable, and there were comparatively few 
who did not send and receive at least one letter by every 
mail. It is estimated that on the arrival of each steamer at least 
fifteen hundred letters reached our camp. At home it was quite 
fashionable for young ladies to have a large number of army cor 
respondents, and columns of newspapers were filled with adver 
tisements asking for the addresses of those who were willing to 
write. Frequently the boys would receive letters from entire 
strangers ; not unfrequently they wrote first, and their replies 



9O FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

often resulted in establishing a most entertaining correspondence. 
Sometimes the real name would be given, but more frequently 
the correspondence would be conducted under a nom-de-plume. 
A large number of letters have been submitted to the committee 
for examination, and it is surprising how " chatty " and readable 




most of these missives are. This constant and frequent commu 
nication with home friends was undoubtedly very potential in 
keeping up the morale of the regiment. 

As our respected Uncle Samuel did not supply regimental 
tailors, and as clothes would wear out, buttons disappear, and 
holes be unexpectedly found in stockings, no small part of our 
leisure was devoted to mending. Some of the boys proved them 
selves very skilful in the use of the needle, while others made 



CAMP LIFE. 



but poor work of their attempts. Stockings were darned, but 
the verbal darning was far more in accordance with the feelings 
of the workman than the yarn process. Most of us were pro 
vided with " housewives " containing a supply of thread, needles, 
yarn, buttons, etc. ; and it was really pathetic to watch a poor fel 
low who had always depended on the kind offices of mother or 
sister or wife to keep his raiment in repair, trying to mend a rent 
or sew on a button, and the first sergeant calling on the company 

to " fall in, lively." It 
seemed too as if the 
repairs were always 
needed at the most 
inconvenient times 
and seasons ; as for 
instance just as the 
assembly for guard 




mounting or dress 
parade had sounded. 

Next to letters, news 
papers were more eagerly wel 
comed than anything that could 
be sent us. Our friends at home 
kept us well supplied with locals, 
but the only ones we could get of 

recent date were the New York dailies. These papers were not 
glanced at and then thrown aside ; they were read carefully, 
advertisements and all, and then passed along to our less fortu 
nate comrades who had failed to secure a copy. We are confi 
dent we were as conversant with all published news as any of our 
friends at the North. News from our own department received 
especial attention, and some of the correspondents would not 
have felt flattered could they have overheard the criticisms on 
their published letters. The correspondent of the " New York 
Herald " was a most entertaining, newsy writer, but correspond 
ingly unreliable ; as for instance giving the credit of our success 
at Kinston to the Ninth New Jersey, when all who participated 
in that action knew it was the charge of the Tenth Connecticut 
that decided the battle. If our boys could have interviewed that 



92 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

correspondent immediately after they had read his account of 
the expedition, the surgeons would have had another patient. 
There was a local paper published at New Berne, which con 
tained most of the general orders and some matters of local 
interest, but had very little general news. 

After the battle of New Berne the Twenty-seventh Massachu 
setts discovered several weather-beaten cornets, bearing the 
names of " Tolman & Russell, Boston," hanging from some trees, 
which the "Johnnies" had left in their hasty flight, and they 
naturally took possession of them. On learning when we re 
turned from the Tarboro expedition that these instruments 
would be placed at our disposal if we wished them, the idea of 
a regimental band suggested itself; a sufficient number of men 
were at once detailed, and practice began immediately. As 
early as December some of our members appealed to our friends, 
through the Boston press, to send us a new and complete set. 
The Goldsboro expedition delayed progress somewhat; but 
on January 4 the band made its first appearance at dress parade 
and was most enthusiastically received. It improved rapidly, and 
our demands for a complete set of instruments became more 
urgent. Early in this month, after waiting for some one else to 
take the initiative, Mr. George B. Foster, father of Corporal Fos 
ter of Company K, advertised that he would receive subscriptions 
for this purpose. Before noon of the day the notice appeared 
he had received fifty-nine responses, when Mr. George S. Hall, 
father of George F. Hall of Company I, called on him, requested 
him to cancel the notice, as he intended to supply these instru 
ments himself. They reached us February 14, and being a much 
fuller set than those we had been using, an additional detail was 
required. If Mr. Hall enjoyed half as much in giving them to 
the regiment as the regiment did in receiving them, he was 
many fold repaid for his generosity. After our return these 
instruments were sent to the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, but 
what became of them when that regiment was mustered out 
has not been learned. One of our men (Macomber, of Com 
pany F), in writing to a Boston paper, under date of Febru 
ary 17, says: 



CAMP LIFE. 93 

" Our band received their instruments by this steamer ( Augusta Dins- 
more ) and Sunday evening appeared on dress parade with them. If the 
people who so kindly and generously contributed towards presenting them 
to our regiment could hear the thanks which are literally showered on their 
heads by the boys, they would never regret their kindness, or the happi 
ness they have caused in all our breasts. It is with a feeling of gratitude, 
of contentment, and happiness, we witness the kindness and remembrance 
from our friends at home." 

The curiosity to see these instruments was most intense 
among the men, and on the day following their receipt Lieu 
tenant-Colonel Cabot, then in command of camp, issued the 
following order : 

General Order No. 30. 

Hereafter no person will enter the enclosure formed by the tents de 
voted to the band. 

Any person violating this order will subject himself to punishment. 
By command of, 

Lieut. -Col. E. C. CABOT. 

This order caused much indignation, as curiosity had been 
raised to the highest pitch ; but the order was enforced, and we 
did not see the new instruments till Sunday. 

Nothing excited more general interest than the arrival of the 
express. Indeed, it was currently reported that the coming of 
the Forty-third, Forty-fourth, and Forty-fifth Regiments obliged 
the express company to put on some additional steamers. We 
had many friends at home, and the most common way in which 
they expressed their interest was by sending a box of "goodies," 
which it would be superfluous to say was always kindly received. 
It would be impossible to mention one half the things that were 
sent us. "Corporal," in referring to this matter, gives the follow 
ing list of articles received in one box, as a model to be followed 
by those desirous of contributing: "A large sealed tin box of 
mince-pies and cake, a large paper of ditto, a tin box of sugar, 
a tin box of pepper, a jar of pickles, a box of eggs, together 
with apples, pears, pins, stationery, and last but not least, letters." 
The father of Hezekiah Brown of Company G sent down a large 
box of troches, which the son distributed with the utmost liber 
ality and impartiality. B. F. Brown & Co. contributed a gener- 



94 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ous supply of their liquid blacking. Regulations regarding the 
admission of any kind of spirituous liquor were very stringent, 
and many were the means adopted to evade them. The mother 
of one of our boys, although strongly opposed to the use of any 
intoxicant as a beverage, recognized the benefit of alcohol as a 
medicine, and fearing that her son would be unable to procure 
any except through direct application to the medical department, 
resolved to try and supply him. She took a quantity of nice 
oranges, removed the peel and quartered them, being careful not 
to break the thin covering of the pulp, put them into a large jar, 
and then filled it to the brim with choice whiskey. The jar was 
tightly sealed, and reached the young man safely. The day after 
its arrival chanced to be inspection of barracks. As the inspect 
ing officer was going his rounds, the soldier inquired of him if he 
had ever eaten any orange pickle. " Orange pickle ! " he replied ; 
"I never heard of it." "Would you like to try some?" The 
answer being in the affirmative, a sample was given him. The 
officer tasted, looked at the soldier, tasted again ; a peculiar smile 
passed over his face as he said, " I don t think pickling improves 
the orange, but I d like another sample of that pickle." Mason 
of Company E was especially favored by having large quantities 
of canned fruit and vegetables sent him, and the opening of 
his boxes always attracted a curious and sympathizing crowd. 
Thanksgiving and Christmas were the two occasions when our 
friends especially remembered us, and there were very few mem 
bers of the regiment who did not receive some reminder from 
home. About Thanksgiving Mr. Frederick Grant, of Boston, 
chartered a schooner, the " Flatten Sea," and started for New 
Berne with a load of delicacies for the Forty-third, Forty-fourth, 
and Forty-fifth Regiments. Unfortunately, the wind and weather 
were adverse, and the schooner was very long in making the 
passage. Most of the perishable articles were spoiled, and many 
of us were disappointed at not receiving our " Thanksgiving," as 
we had expected. 

Another box catalogued by " Corporal " contained tea, coffee, 
sugar, butter, pepper, salt, capsicum, cheese, gingerbread, confec 
tioner s cake, Bologna sausage, condensed milk, smoked halibut, 
pepper-box, camp-knife, matches, ink, mince-pies, candy, tomato 



CAMP LIFE. 



95 



catchup, apples, horse-radish, emery-paper, sardines, cigars, 
smoking-tobacco, candles, soap, newspapers, pictorials, letters, 
pickles, and cholera mixture. (Perhaps the latter was another 
name for orange pickle.) 

Mr. C. P. Lewis, of the firm of William K. Lewis & Brother, 
who had some friends in the regiment, was very generous, and 
kept them well supplied with condensed milk, olives, sardines, 
and a good assortment of canned meats and vegetables. One 




mess, on January i, 1863, dined off salmon and green peas 
furnished by this gentleman s liberality. The contents of one 
more box will perhaps suffice to show the endless variety of 
articles that were sent us: preserve, tobacco, two boxes cigars, 
matches, a ream of letter-paper, doughnuts, gingerbread, quills, 
sticking-plaster, envelopes, " Les Miserables" (sometimes called 
" Lee s miserables," but which was certainly a misnomer if ap 
plied to us) newspapers, apples, lemons, glue, butter, sugar, silk 
handkerchiefs, gun-rags, chocolate, woollen blanket, maple sugar, 
rubber boots, one or two packages for comrades of the recipient, 
some hairpins, shell back combs, and jewelry, for " properties " 



96 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

in our dramatic performances and opera; and an old jacket, coat, 
and hat, which were probably put in for " ballast." 

In this connection it may not be inappropriate to allude to a 
few of the names by which the Forty-fourth was sometimes 
designated, especially as one of them was deemed of sufficient 
importance by a candidate for the governorship of Massachusetts, 
himself an officer whose reputation is world-wide, to merit 
extended mention during the heated campaign of 1883. About 
the time we went to Readville, one of the Boston newspapers 
stated that we had in our ranks " the pets of many a household," 
and from this expression we were called the "pet" regiment. 
Our men paid more attention to dress and personal appearance 
than is usual among enlisted men, as they failed to comprehend 
w r hy the fact of being soldiers should cause them to become lax 
in this respect ; and from this circumstance we were sometimes 
referred to as the " kid glove," " patent leather," "white choker," 
or "gold watch" regiment. But the name by which we were 
most generally known, and of which the highly distinguished 
candidate above referred to meanly endeavored to rob us by at 
tributing it to the Forty-fifth Massachusetts, was that of " seed 
cakes." About Thanksgiving the Forty-fourth received a very 
large number of boxes from home, many more than the men of 
some of our sister regiments thought its fair share. One day 
quite a knot of soldiers had gathered in the town of New Berne, 
when one of our men rather exultingly spoke of the large 
number of packages we had been receiving. "There s nothing 
surprising in that," retorted one of his evidently envious com 
panions ; " your boys can t come down to salt horse and hard 
tack like the rest of us, and if your folks did n t keep you 
supplied with seed-cakes, you d starve to death ! " 

This joke had just enough foundation in fact to create a hearty 
laugh, and passed from mouth to mouth, both in the regiment 
itself and outside, until " the seed-cake regiment " became the 
principal sobriquet of the Forty-fourth, a nickname of which 
the boys are rather proud. 

It was much easier to get boxes into the department than it 
was to get them out. On the arrival of an express steamer 
packages were rapidly separated, then loaded on the regimental 



CAMP LIFE. 97 

wagons, and sent to the various camps for distribution. The 
guard, and some men specially detailed for that purpose, watched 
each box as it came from the vessel, and detained only such as 
they suspected might contain articles " contraband of war." To 
send a box out of the department, unless some stratagem was 
used, a provost-marshal s permit was required in every case ; and 
this was about as difficult to get, if it contained anything worth 
sending home, especially articles obtained while in the service, 
as it was for a private to be allowed to sit down in the Gaston 
House dining-room at any time subsequent to our first morn 
ing in New Berne. One of our men found a volume of " Audu- 
bon s Birds " in a deserted shanty just outside of Williamstown. 
He carried it on his back during the rest of the expedition, and 
on reaching New Berne tried to get permission to send it North, 
but did not succeed. It finally reached his home in Wisconsin, 
in spite of the provost-marshal. Most of the men who had me 
chanical tastes and ingenuity devoted part of their leisure to 
manufacturing brier or clay pipes, or horn jewelry. Brier-root 
was found in great plenty in the swamp just beyond our drill- 
ground. When dug it was very soft, but in drying it was apt to 
crack, a trouble that we found with the clay pipes as well. 
Those who experimented with horn jewelry were more generally 
successful, and many of our men now have studs, watch-charms, 
scarf-rings, etc., they made while in North Carolina. 

No place in the world will equal a camp for gossip. Rumors 
seemed to spring spontaneously from the ground, and no matter 
how improbable one might be it always found believers. One 
minute the report would come that the regiment was ordered to 
South Carolina or to the Potomac, followed immediately by the 
statement, " based on official knowledge," that we were to remain 
in camp till our muster out; the next hour came news that we 
were going on picket, and instantly would be circulated a counter 
report that we were to go on provost. All sorts of stories regard 
ing the prominent officers were in the air, as to what this one 
was going to do and that one was not going to do ; where this 
one was going and where the other was not going, etc. Did 
space permit, it would be interesting to give some specimens. 
One rumor which gained some currency may well be stated, 

7 



98 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

especially as it is one of the very few that can be traced from 
its inception. The morning of the I4th of March, the day of 
the attack on New Berne, all was excitement. The air was full 
of authentic statements of what we were going to do, of where 
we were going, of changes in command, of Rebel successes, of 
contemplated manoeuvres, etc. Davis Howard had been on guard 
that night and posted in front of the colonel s tent. As soon as 
the guard was relieved he rushed into the barracks and called for 
Corporal Haines. The latter was the regular correspondent of the 
" Boston Herald," and known as such to most of the members 
of the regiment. Whenever any startling news had been learned, 
Haines was always the first to whom it was given. " Corporal " 
was writing to his paper an account of the attack, when Dave 
came up apparently out of breath. " Corporal, I Ve just come 
off duty at the colonel s tent, and have got a piece of news that 
interests every man in the regiment. It s the most important 
thing that s happened to us for a long time." So many wild 
and improbable stories had been brought him, that the corporal 
was incredulous ; but the evident sincerity of Howard s manner 
was impressive. All the boys within hearing distance anxiously 
awaited the disclosure. " I Ve just come from headquarters," 
repeated Dave. " A little while ago one of Foster s orderlies 
came into camp with his horse on a run and handed colonel a 
letter. Lee wrote something in reply and the orderly went off 
on a gallop. Just as I was relieved, another one came, and as 
soon as the colonel read the paper delivered him he seemed very 
much excited and sent for the lieutenant-colonel and major. I 
made up my mind it was something very important, and that if 
I could, I would know what it was about." All of us had seen 
orderlies riding into the camp and then riding out again, and were 
ready to believe that some important movements were about tak 
ing place. We knew that Howard was a fellow of resources, and 
that if he could not succeed in getting this information probably 
others would fail. " I succeeded in overhearing what he told 
Cabot and Dabney," added Dave, with much apparent earnest 
ness, " and find that Pettigrew has sent over a flag of truce^ de 
manding the surrender of New Berne. Foster refused to give 
up the place. Pettigrew then sent back word that he would 



CAMP LIFE. 99 

shell the town immediately, and has ordered the removal of the 
women and children and the Forty-fourth Massachusetts before 
he begins, and has given Foster two hours to get us out. The 
general has asked Lee where he wants the regiment to go to. 
Colonel told Cabot that he thought it best to let the men vote 
on the question, so I suppose you will all hear about it quite 
soon. He says he wants to stay and let them shell." The laugh 
that followed Dave s disclosure was tremendous, but he had to 
run for his life. It is difficult to realize the surprise and amuse 
ment of our men when they read in the first New York paper 
that reached them after the raising of the siege of Washington, 
a full account of the sending and receipt of this flag of truce 
stated as an absolute fact, only the locality had been transferred 
to Washington. In this connection it is reported that some years 
after the war Colonel Lee was travelling in the West, when a gen 
tleman whom he met, finding that he had been in command of a 
regiment, asked him which one. On being told the Forty-fourth 
Massachusetts, he inquired if that was not the one ordered out of 
Washington with the women and children. " Yes," replied our 
colonel. " Well, if I were in your place I should be ashamed 
to acknowledge the fact," remarked his questioner. "Why so?" 
said our colonel ; " the Rebels well knew that they could not get 
into Washington as long as our regiment stayed there, and 
thought that if they sent such a message Foster might order us 
out. He was not kind enough to oblige them ; the regiment did 
not go out ; the Johnnies did not get in. I think Hill paid us 
a high compliment and have always felt proud of it." Whether 
this conversation ever occurred we do not know. We have been 
unwilling to ask the colonel, lest he might deny it and so spoil 
a good story. 

Soon after our return from the Goldsboro expedition it be 
came fashionable among the boys to sit for their pictures. A 
style called " melainotype " was most in vogue, and it was a 
matter of pride to see who could send home one showing the 
greatest appearance of dilapidation. A corporal of Company D 
had one taken which was a great success in this respect. A 
netted worsted smoking-cap replaced the regulation fatigue arti 
cle ; one suspender was visible, the other concealed ; one leg of 



100 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the pants was torn off just below the knee, the other showing an 
enormous hole made by friction of canteen and haversack ; the 
shoes were not mates. The original garments were worn by the 
owner for the last time when he sat for the picture, as they were 
immediately presented to one of the numerous contrabands who 
thronged the camp. Among the corporal s home friends was an 
elderly aunt, one of the kindest-hearted old ladies that ever lived, 
who looked at everything from the most charitable view, but was 
a warm friend of the "boys," and would quickly resent anything 
that she thought savored of inattention or neglect towards them. 
On receipt of this picture she was most indignant, and wrote 
Governor Andrew in very strong terms, requesting him to per 
sonally investigate and see that Massachusetts soldiers were pro 
vided with suitable clothing. J. J. Wyeth, of Company E, sent 
.home one of a similar character. His fond mother gazed at it 
sadly for some minutes and then remarked, "If John has become 
as dissipated and reckless as this picture shows him to be I hope 
he will never return." Little did we imagine such would be the 
effect of a desire to let our friends realize our appearance " in 
camp." It took a large amount of correspondence to explain 
matters. 

Most of our time was spent in the open air. Generally the 
weather was warm, and it was pleasant to sit in front of our 
barracks after tattoo and listen to the singing, which was one of 
our daily pleasures. Charley Ewer, till he was wounded at White 
hall, was the acknowledged chorister. There were good vocalists 
in all the companies, and rarely did a pleasant evening pass but 
" Kingdom Coming," " Louisiana Lowlands," " Rest for the 
Weary," or some other of the popular airs were heard in the 
camp. 

The entertainments given on Thanksgiving were so successful 
that they were followed by others, each more elaborate than 
those preceding. One was given on New Year s evening, the 
programme being as follows: 



CAMP LIFE. 



101 



S IE O O 3ST 



ramaiit 

Hfi 

BY THE 

44TH REGIMENTAL DRAMATIC ASSOCIATION, 

ON NEW YEAR S EVENING, JAN. 1, 1863. 




PROLOGUE (Original.) 

OVERTURE. 

RECITATION (Selected.) 
SONG. 

RECITATION. 
RECITATION (Humorous.) 



Harry T. Reed. 

Band. 

F. D. Wheeler. 

Quartette Club. 

C. A. Chase. 

E. L. Hill. 



:B 



]sr 13. 



After which the Grand Final Scene from 

The Merchant of Venice. 



SHYLOCK, 
DUKE, 
ANTONIO, 
BASSANIO, 
GRATIANO, 
PORTIA, 
SOLANIO, 


H. T. Reed. 
W. Howard. 
De F. Safforcl. 
F. I). Wheeler. 
J. H. Waterman. 
L. Millar. 
F. A. Sayer. 


B J N 13. 



To be followed by 



OPENING CHORUS. 
LOUISIANA LOWLANDS. 
DOLLY DAY. 
SHELLS OF THE OCEAN. 

SUSIANNA SIMPKINS. 
HAM FAT MAN. 



Company. 
H. Howard. 
F. A. Sayer. 
H. Howard. 
F. A. Sayer. 
J. H. Myers. 



The whole to conclude with 

A Terrible Cat-ass-trophe on the North Atlantic R.R. 

CHARACTERS BY THE COMPANY. 

Director, H. T. REED. 

Assistant Manager, De F. SAFFORD. 

Secretary, W. HOWARD. 

Treasurer, J. M. WATERMAN. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 
F. D. Wheeler, t. Millar, F. A. Sayer. 



IO2 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The next affair, which was entirely impromptu, occurred in the 
barracks of Company D, January 19. One of the boys was play 
ing a dancing tune on the flute. The idea of a ball was suggested. 
No time could be taken to prepare suitable costumes, but it is 
doubtful if the grandest society ball was more enjoyed by the 
participants than was this. It was all too brief; so a more elabo 
rate one was arranged for the following evening in the same 
barrack. The card of invitation was as follows : 

GRAND BALL. 

SIR, The pleasure of your company, with ladies, is respectfully solicited at a 
GRAND BALL, to be held in the Grand Parlor of the P IFTH AVENUE HOTEL, 
(No. 4 New Berne), on TUESDAY EVENING, January 20, 1863. 

MANAGERS. 

C. H. DEMERITT, WILLARD HOWARD, J. E. LEIGHTON. 

COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 

BHNJ. F. BURCHSTED, C. D. NEWELL, W. G. REED, H. D. STANWOOD, 

W. E. SAVERY, F. A. SAYER, F. M. FLANDERS, H. HOWARD, 

J. B. GARDNER, JOE SIMONDS, CHARLES ADAMS, G. W. HIGHT. 

MUSIC. 

Quintzelbottom s Grand Quadrille and Serenade Band. 
(One Violin.} 

Tickets $00.03 each, to be had of the Managers. 
No Postage Stamps or Sutler s Checks taken in payment. 
N. B. LADIES will be allowed to smoke. 

Persons wishing carriages will please apply to LIEUTENANT WHITE, of the 
Ambulance Corpse. 

Persons wishing anything stronger than Water are referred to the " Sanitary." 

The following was the order of dances : 

1. SICILIAN CIRCLE, March to Tarboro . 

2. QUADRILLE, New England Guards. 

3. POLKA QUADRILLE, Kinston Galop. 

4. QUADRILLE, Yankee Doodle. 

INTERMISSION. 
WALTZ, POLKA REDOWA, SCHOTTISCHE. 

5. QUADRILLE, Bloody 44th Quickstep. 

6. LES LANCIERS, Connecticut loth March. 

7. QUADRILLE, Lee s March. 

8. CONTRA ( Virginia Keel), Rebel s Last Skedaddle. 



CAMP LIFE. 103 

Shelter-tents, artistically draped, made excellent skirts for the 
ladies, albeit they were rather short and not over-clean. They 
were expanded by hoops procured from some of the quarter 
master s empty barrels. A blouse with the sleeves cut off at 
the shoulder and the collar turned down as far as possible 
made a very respectable waist, although not as low in the neck 
as many fashionable belles would demand. Evidently the cos 
tumes must have been effective, for a member of another com 
pany, after glancing in at the door, returned to his own quarters, 
polished his boots, brushed his hair, donned his dress-coat, and 
claimed to have tried to find a paper collar before he ventured 
into the ball-room. " I was n t going in among ladies looking as 
rough as I did," he afterwards explained. The last call of the 
" Lancers " was original : " Promenade to the bar for quinine 
rations." The barracks were crowded, and the officers enjoyed 
the novelty no less than the men. 

On January 24, Company E, determined not to be outdone, 
gave a masked ball at its barracks, and extended an invitation 
to members of other companies. It was wonderful, with the 
limited means at our disposal, what a variety of costumes were 
got up at such short notice. Among the characters represented 
were an old gentleman and lady of 76, attended by their negro 
servant. The lady wore a real crinoline and wished the specta 
tors to know it. There were personifications of " His Satanic 
Majesty," " Pilgrim Fathers," policemen, farmers, harlequins, 
clowns, monks, ladies tall and ladies short, ladies stout and ladies 
slender, ladies white, black, and Indian red. Nearly all the char 
acters were admirably sustained. Several of the officers of the 
Tenth Connecticut were present on invitation and evidently en 
joyed the occasion. 

The rivalry between Companies D and E not being settled, 
they agreed to combine efforts, and the result surpassed all pre 
vious attempts. The managerial card is here reproduced : 

GRAND MASQUERADE BALL. 

SIR, The pleasure of your company, with ladies, is respectfully solicited at a 
GRAND BAL MASQUE to be given under the auspices of the 44th Regimental 
Dramatic Association, at the Barracks of Companies D and E, on 

MONDAY EVENING, FEB. 23, 1863. 



104 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The management desire to state that nothing will be left undone to render it 
the party of the season. 

FLOOR MANAGERS. 
WILLARD HOWARD, J. B. RICE, HARRY T. REED. 

COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 

SERGEANT G. L. TRIPP, Company D PRIVATE F. A. SAYER, Company D 

" H. A. HOMER, " E " H. HOWARD, " D 

CORPORAL Z. T. HAINES, " D " J. H. WATERMAN, Jr. " D 

J. B. GARDNER, " D " A. H. BRADISH, " E 

J. \Y. CARTWRIGHT, " E " C. H. DEMERITT, " D 

" M. E. BOYD, " D " D. HOWARD, " D 

C. E. TUCKER, " E " E. L. HILL, " A 

In order to defray the expenses, Tickets will be placed at 10 cents each, to be pro 
cured of the Managers. No tickets sold at the door. Visitors are expected to appear 
c costume. 

Music by the New Berne Quadrille Band, five pieces. 

The Management desire to express their sincere thanks to the Officers of this 
Regiment for the many favors granted by them in aid of this undertaking. 

The hall will be appropriately decorated. 

By permission of the officers the partition was removed be 
tween the barracks of the two companies, making a large room 
about thirty- eight by one hundred feet. The decorations were 
elaborate; and thanks to Charley Wheeler s skilful brush, the 
walls were adorned with appropriate mottoes. Corporals Rice 
and Cartwright of Company E, and Willard Howard and Corporal 
Gardner of Company D, acted as floor managers. Harry Reed 
attended to other duties equally important. Generals Foster and 
Wessells were present, as were also a number of field, line, and 
staff officers. Our regimental band furnished military music, and 
a string band played for the dancing. The barracks were liter 
ally packed. We regret that space forbids giving a full descrip 
tion. "Corporal" and one of our diarists wrote home full and 
glowing accounts. 

Just after one of these entertainments the colonel met Willard 
Howard and congratulated him on its success, adding, " I am 
proud of what the boys are doing and will help them in any way 
that I can." This conversation was repeated to one or two of the 
men, among whom was Corporal Haines. He immediately pro 
posed to write the text of an opera if Howard and others would 



CAMP LIFE. 105 

attend to the music and staging. The idea was most favorably 
received, committees were appointed, and the result was " II Re- 
cruitio." No one would confess to a knowledge of Italian, so, as 
we wished to call the opera " The Recruit," we translated it after 
the rule given by some humorous author as nearly as we could. 
This opera was founded upon the imaginary adventures of one of 
our members, and described his enlistment at Boylston Hall; the 
hardships and trials endured on his introduction to military life ; 
his perils by sea and by land ; recounted in glowing verse his 
valorous deeds in pursuit of personal safety and forage; and 
finally bade him adieu in Plymouth, a captive to the charms of a 
pretty " Secesh " maiden, one " Nancy Skittletop." 1 Where so 
many contributed to the success, it would be invidious to particu 
larize ; but we think none will deny that a large share of the credit 
belongs to Willard, Davis, and Henry Howard, the "Howard 
boys," as they were universally known, and to our incomparable 
scenic artist and " Nancy Skittletop," Fred. Sayer. Scenery from 
the old New Berne theatre was placed at the disposal of the 
committee, and shelter-tents, flags kindly loaned by different 
regiments and the Navy, and red and blue shirts and drawers 
furnished by the hospital department were utilized in the deco 
ration. Companies B and F were on picket at Batchelder s Creek, 
so their barracks were used for the performances. A stage was 
erected at the lower end of F s barrack, toward the sutler s. The 
orchestra, composed mainly of members of our regiment, with 
Charley Hooke as leader, was reinforced by Captain Daniel of 
the One Hundred and Fifty-eighth New York, and Mr. McCready, 
a civilian. 

The opera was given on Wednesday evening, March II, to an 
audience composed principally of members of our own regiment. 
On Thursday evening the performance was complimentary to 
General Foster and staff, and one diarist notes that by actual 
count there were twenty-seven ladies present. On Friday even 
ing it was given for the third time, to satisfy the demands of 
those who had failed to gain admission to cither of the previous 

1 It was intended to reproduce " II Recruitio " in the Appendix, but the Committee 
have decided that, although very amusing a quarter of a century ago, it is not of 
sufficient interest to warrant reprinting. 



IO6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

representations. At the close of the final performance the com 
mittee and actors, with the approval of the colonel, who thought 
they had earned some privileges, adjourned to the quarters of the 
officers of Company B, where they enjoyed quite a nice supper, 
the bill of fare being a decided change from the usual regi 
mental diet. After our return to Boston, the opera, with but a 
few changes in the cast, was given at Tremont Temple, and 
received most favorable comment from dramatic critics. 

Another scheme to employ part of our leisure was that of 
debating clubs. These were formed in several companies, and 
proved quite attractive to many of our men. Some of the topics 
discussed were rather abstruse, but at the age we then were that 
fact did not trouble us, and we settled them all to our entire satis 
faction. Another literary enterprise attempted was that of the 
establishment of a magazine. It was called " The Bay State 
Forty-fourth," being printed and published in Boston, but edited 
by DeForest Safford of Company F ; the articles, which related 
wholly to regimental matters, were contributed by different mem 
bers. Only one number was published, as various causes pre 
vented the continuation of the enterprise. 

February 25, General Foster reviewed the corps. The ground 
on which the review took place was on the other side of the 
Trent River. The march was short, we left camp at 8.30 A. M. 
and returned at 3 P. M., but it was one of the most fatiguing days 
in our experience. Colonel Lee was in command of the brigade, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Cabot had charge of the regiment. Un 
doubtedly it was a fine sight to the spectators, but the men cer 
tainly thought " the play was not worth the candle." Colonel 
Lee told us afterwards that General Foster gave the Twenty-fifth 
Massachusetts the credit of doing the finest marching of any 
regiment that participated, but that the general s staff were 
unanimously of the opinion that none deserved more praise than 
the Forty-fourth. 

Whenever we went off on an expedition there was always 
a percentage who from illness or other causes were unable to 
accompany us. These men were styled the " Home Guard." 
While we were absent their duties were light, camp and police 
guard being the only ones they were called upon to perform. 



CAMP LIFE. lO/ 

Once or twice they were alarmed by an attack on the pickets, 
and were called out for defence of the town, although they saw 
no actual fighting. On one occasion Harry Hunt, who was act 
ing as sutler in absence of his father, bravely shouldered his 
musket and took a place in the ranks, thus showing his willing 
ness to share in the fortunes of the regiment, whatever they 
might be. 

At last we all had the experience of an attack on the place. 
March 14 was the anniversary of the capture of New Berne. 
An elaborate programme had been arranged to commemorate 
that victory. We were to raise a flag on a new staff just erected ; 
Belger s battery was to fire a salute ; his officers and ours \vere 
to provide a collation ; and we were anticipating a pleasant and 
mildly exciting celebration. Just before daybreak we were awak 
ened by the sound of a cannon. We thought it early for the 
salute, but in a few seconds it was followed by another, this one 
evidently shotted. Thoroughly aroused, we sprung from our 
bunks, and going outside the barracks, could distinguish, in the 
gray of the morning, that Fort Anderson, on the other side of 
the Neuse River, was being attacked. Shot and shell were drop 
ping into the water just opposite our camp, and occasionally one 
would reach the vicinity of the officers stables. No reveille was 
needed that morning to induce the boys to turn out. There had 
been an affair of the pickets the previous evening, of which we 
were all aware, but none of us thought it was anything more 
serious than was happening frequently. Probably our officers 
knew more about it than we did. The men were ordered to put 
on all equipments, including knapsacks, and the morning was 
passed in waiting orders. The Ninety-second New York garri 
soned Fort Anderson, and soon after the attack began were 
reinforced by the Eighty- fifth New York. A rumor was circu 
lated that our regiment would be the next sent across the river; 
but word came that they had all the men that they could use 
to advantage, a fact for which we hope we were duly thankful. 
That night Companies A and K were sent out on picket, and the 
next morning were relieved by Companies I and H. The attack 
was not serious, although for a time the excitement among the 
men was intense and the air was full of rumors. 



io8 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



The next evening, Sunday, about 5 P. M., we received orders 
to go to Washington, and within an hour or two were on our 
way to the wharf. Our camp experience was ended, as imme 
diately on our return we were assigned to provost duty and 
remained in town until we left North Carolina for home. 




CHAPTER VI. 

THE TARBORO MARCH, AND THE AFFAIR OF LITTLE CREEK 
AND RAWLE S MILL. 



" Strike up the drums ; and let the tongue of war 
Plead for our interest." 



N Sunday evening, Oct. 26, 1862, after 
an afternoon s ride on platform cars 
through a drenching rain-storm, we 
arrived at New Berne from the trans 
ports. Only three days later the sev 
eral companies were called out before 
their quarters for the distribution of 
cartridge-boxes and ammunition, when 
we were informed that we must make 
immediate preparation for a move in 
to the interior ; for early the following 
morning we were to leave camp in 

light marching condition, surrendering our knapsacks and their 
contents to be stored here until our return. The cooks were 
instructed to prepare five days rations, and most of the night 
they toiled over their fires. Rumors and speculations regarding 
the duty to which we were so suddenly summoned filled the 
camp, and few eyes closed in restful slumber. 

At four on Thursday morning we were turned out to draw 
rations. At six, regimental line was formed and we marched to 
the transports which were found waiting to convey a portion of 
the force to " Little " Washington, on the Tar River. 

The First Brigade, under command of Colonel T. J. C. Amory, 
and the artillery, cavalry, baggage-wagons, and ambulances, had 
started early to march across the country. The Second Brigade, 




HO FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

under Colonel Stevenson, and the Third, under Colonel H. C. 
Lee, were to go by transports. 

Six companies of the Forty-fourth, with the field and staff, 
went aboard the steamer " George C. Collins," and Companies 
A, B, G, and K, the remainder of the regiment, under command 
of Captain James M. Richardson, were taken in tow on the 
schooner " Highlander," which latter also carried two companies 
of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts. 

We soon got under way, and sailing down the Neuse, passing 
the batteries silenced by Burnside at the capture of New Berne 
and the vessels sunk in the river as obstructions to his advance, 
entered Pamlico Sound about three in the afternoon, and after all 
day and night aboard found ourselves at Washington the next 
morning. 

Disembarking about noon, we marched through the principal 
street, wide and shaded with fine elms, to an open cornfield on 
the east side of the town, where we stacked arms and encamped 
to await the arrival of the forces coming by land. The field and 
staff took possession of an old saw-mill on the field of our en 
campment. This town, the capital of Beaufort County, about 
forty miles from the sound, we found neat and pretty. Its streets 
ran at right angles, were broad and well shaded, and bounded by 
many old-fashioned, pleasant houses with fine gardens of orna 
mental shrubs and trees. In abundance were fig, aloe, Spanish 
bayonet, mulberry, magnolia, and large rose trees, and English 
ivy gave a cosey and charming effect to many of the dwellings. 
One house was approached by a romantic arbored walk, over 
three hundred feet in length, of red cedars, the branches of 
which were so closely interlaced as scarcely to admit the rays 
of the sun. 

The place was garrisoned by a small number of Union soldiers, 
supported by gunboats which were anchored in the river. Quite 
a number of the buildings bore evidence of the recent Rebel raid, 
being seriously marred by shot and shells, and at certain dis 
tances the streets were now barricaded by chevaux-de-frise to 
guard against a sudden dash of cavalry. 

We were shown the place where the raiders entered the town 
through the field of one Grice, who was one of the few whites 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 1 1 I 

remaining since the occupation by our forces. He called him 
self a Unionist, but was much suspected of sympathy with the 
enemy, and was accused by the garrison of covertly advising and 
assisting the raiders upon their visit. 1 

On the field of our camp were remains of the enemy s intrench- 
ments six or seven hundred feet in length. 

Wandering about on the second day of our arrival, the explo 
sion of a torpedo, which had lain in the bed of the river where 
it passes the town, reminded us that the occupation by Union 
soldiers was not originally welcomed. This engine of destruction 
had been planted before our forces took possession. Its prob 
able location was pointed out by the blacks, and a number of 
fruitless efforts from time to time had been made to explode it 
by the sailors on the gunboats.- On this day, however, the hulk 
of an old vessel, drawn for that purpose over the spot, caught the 
trigger and accomplished the object. The craft was blown into 
the air and the water strewn with debris. 

Colonel Amory and his force did not arrive until late on Satur 
day, having been delayed by obstructions placed in the line of 
their march and by skirmishes with a guerilla force. Meanwhile 
we fully improved our opportunity to explore the town and make 
friendships among the garrison. On Sunday, Nov. 2, we were 
awakened by a conflagration in the camp which deserves descrip 
tion. Soon after we were marched on to this field, to camp until 
the arrival of the remainder of the force, our boys discovered in 
a building near by, which had evidently been used as a sugar- 
box manufactory, a large quantity of planed boards of convenient 
length for the construction of shelters, and in an incredibly short 
time most of these boards were transferred to the camp, and the 
field was covered with little wooden huts. Just before sunrise 
some of the guard, finding their fires low and the air frosty and 
cold, knowing we were to march, with a spirit of mischief took 
the boards of an adjoining hut and threw them upon the fire 
for fuel. The inmates, who had been wrapped soundly in slum 
ber, awakened by the sudden admission of the frosty air, startled 
by the proximity of the flames, jumped to their feet, and, taking 

1 He proved himself loyal just before the arrival of the Confederate troops to 
attack Little Washington, in April, 1863. 



112 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

in the situation, showed their appreciation of the joke by per 
petrating the same upon their neighbors, who in turn did the 
same, until soon over the entire field were roaring, soaring fires 
of dry pine boards, which afforded a weird and novel sight. 

After fully enjoying the scene, we began to boil our coffee and 
make preparation to march from the town. Although deprived 
of our knapsacks, and the change of clothing which they con 
tained, upon departing from New Berne, yet we had been per 
mitted to take along our woollen blankets ; but now that we were 
about to tramp, we were told that we must surrender those like 




wise, and leave them here to await our return, it being the inten 
tion of General Foster to put us in the best possible condition to 
cover long stretches. Remembering the frosty nights, reluctantly 
we parted with them, and at five o clock we took up our line of 
march in the direction of Williamstown, about twenty-two miles 
north, on the Roanoke River. 

Our brigade (the Second), commanded by Colonel Stevenson, 
took the advance, the New York cavalry preceding as scouts, 
followed by the Tenth Connecticut as skirmishers; then came 
the marine artillery, with four guns ; the Fifth Rhode Island ; the 
Forty-fourth Massachusetts and the Twenty-fourth ; and Belger s 
battery, in the order named. Following us were the First and 
Third Brigades ; the whole force consisting of about five thou 
sand men and twenty-one pieces of artillery, under the personal 
command of General Foster. 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 113 

We marched out through an open field and entered the woods 
by a road leading from the north of the town, when we were 
halted and ordered to load our muskets. Continuing the march, 
we made the woods ring with " Coronation " and other hymns 
and songs, until about ten o clock, when firing was heard ahead, 
first volleys of musketry, then some artillery, and a column of 
smoke arose a quarter of a mile or more away to the left. We 
were stopped, and soon a cavalryman rode down the line lead 
ing a wounded horse to the rear, and we learned that the head 
of the column had encountered and driven a company of the 
enemy s cavalry pickets, capturing one prisoner. 

The line was again set in motion, and we soon arrived at the 
place of the skirmish. By the side of the road stood a horse 
with its hoof mangled by a bullet, and close by it another with a 
shattered leg. There were many evidences of the hasty departure 
of the enemy. Fires still burning, haversacks hanging upon 
branches of the trees in the grove where they were surprised, 
and blankets, quilts, and other articles scattered along the road. 
Their quarters were in a mill near a bridge, which latter, set on 
fire to cover their retreat, caused the smoke we had seen. The 
prisoner was a youth of about seventeen years, armed with a 
double-barrelled shot-gun. He appeared pleased to have been 
taken without being injured. 

Our five days rations, distributed on the morning of departure 
from New Berne, lasted but three, and provisions being short, 
permission was given to forage, and the deserted houses and 
outbuildings scattered along our route were searched for food. 
A number of horses and mules were found, confiscated, and 
made to do service with the Yankee force. Chickens, geese, and 
turkeys were run down and captured, and many hives of honey 
emptied of their contents to tickle the palates of hungry soldiers. 

Soon we reached fine plantations. About one o clock we 
passed a planter s house where the family were all seated upon 
the piazza., reminding us of the peaceful Sunday at home. Here 
we were filed off into a large field for rest and dinner, and we 
cooked our poultry and boiled our coffee over fires of fence-rails. 
After a short stay we were ordered to fall in once more and 
resume the march. 

8 



114 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The sun had become quite hot, and the roads, of fine, loose 
sand resembling the sands which border our sea beaches, were 
hard to walk in and extremely dusty. There were many swampy 
places where the water flowed across the road from a few inches 
to two or more feet in depth, and sometimes three hundred yards 
in width. Wading through these, our shoes took in the dry sand 
beyond, which, held by the water, worked through the woollen 
stockings and blistered and lacerated our feet. Some of the 
deeper of these wet places had along one side rude foot-bridges 
constructed of a single line of hewn logs raised upon upright 
posts, which, though convenient for a lone traveller, were of no 
avail whatever unto us. Being inviting, however, to the weary 
and now footsore men, Colonel Lee was for some time kept busy 
in vigorously discouraging those who, contrary to his orders, 
persisted in mounting the logs to cross the water. 

When the sun was setting, we approached a bend in the road 
turning to the left, within a few miles of Williamstown. Our 
advance was here fired upon from the woods, and two of the 
pieces drawn by the sailors were unlimbered and brought to bear 
upon the spot where the enemy seemed to be. Our regiment 
being now the second in the advance, the Tenth Connecticut, 
which was leading, was filed off to the right into a field and 
formed in line of battle, and our right flank companies, H and C, 
under Captain Smith, were detached as skirmishers and started 
at the double quick. Passing the Connecticut boys, they were 
encouraged by such kind exclamations as " Bully for the Forty- 
fourth ! " " Go in, boys ! " " Give em hell ! " " Drive them 
out ! " etc. Coming to where the sailors stood at their guns, they 
found a creek called Little Creek, about fifty yards in width, 
crossing the road. Here they received orders from an aide to 
Colonel Stevenson to advance through the water and hold one 
company in reserve upon the other side, deploying the other 
forward until they met and felt the enemy s force. 

Captain Smith, therefore, after ordering them to drop their 
overcoats and rubber blankets, advanced them down the slope 
into the water. Before they had got over, and while most of them 
were submerged to their waists, out of the blackness of the woods 
which surrounded them suddenly there came a flash, as a volley 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 115 

of musketry opened within a few yards. There being no sus 
picion that the enemy had remained so near our artillery, our boys 
were thrown into momentary confusion, and the command, " Fall 
back ! " being given by an officer upon the bank, a portion of 
Company C, which was in the rear, obeyed ; the others, not hear 
ing, pressed on with a cheer, gained the opposite side, and shel 
tered themselves under the bank formed by the edge of the road. 
Here they opened fire to the right and left up the road, valiantly 
keeping their position against a brisk fire of musketry. It was 
soon discovered that much of their ammunition had become wet 
in crossing, and the firing on our side was consequently light. 
Word was sent that they had been ordered back ; and, still sub 
jected to the volleys of the enemy, slowly they made their way 
across the creek again, firing as they retired. Here they shel 
tered themselves in a shallow sand-pit on the right of the road, 
and, as far as their wetted ammunition would permit, kept up 
their fire until, finding that they were endangering the gunners 
on the left in front, they were ordered farther back to guard the 
overcoats of Companies E and I. Had the enemy directed his 
fire lower, the casualties w r ould have been very great. As it was, 
private Charles E. Rollins was killed, and Lieutenant Briggs, 
Sergeant Pond, Corporal Smith, and Privates Peakes and Small- 
idge of Company C, and Privates Parker and Jacobs of Company 
H were wounded. 

While this affair was taking place, the column had advanced to 
within a few rods of the ford, and was greeted with a shower of 
bullets which went whistling by unpleasantly just over our heads. 
Thereupon we were ordered to lie down ; and, footsore and tired, 
we gladly threw ourselves upon the ground. The remainder of 
the brigade was filed off to the left, aides galloped back and 
forth, the artillery at the rear was brought forward, and Belger s 
battery and the Napoleon guns were soon pouring shot and shells 
thick and fast into the woods. Volley after volley of musketry 
came from both sides, and the wounded went by on stretchers 
and were laid in a little grove near by, where the surgeons and 
aides were busy with instruments, lint, and bandages. 

Companies H and C having been ordered back, Companies E 
and I, under Captain Spencer W. Richardson, were ordered to 



Il6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

relieve them. Company I was stationed on our side of the creek 
as a reserve, and Company E, first loosening cartridge-boxes that 
they might hold them above the water, pushed across and de 
ployed at once in the woods to the right and left. Advancing 
gradually up the declivity, exchanging shots with the enemy, 
they dislodged and drove him before them. 

A signal officer sent up a rocket to inform the general that the 
enemy had fallen back, and Companies E and I \vere then with 
drawn, having lost one killed, Private Charles Morse, and one se 
verely wounded, Private Charles E. Roberts, both of Company E. 
They brought back with them three prisoners, captured severally 
by Parsons, Tucker, and H. T. Pierce, of Company E. Private 
De Peyster of Company H, the colonel s orderly, while bravely 
attempting to recover the body of an artillery man in front of 
our lines, was so badly wounded that Surgeon Otis was obliged 
to amputate his arm in a cabin upon the field. 

The remainder of the regiment was now ordered to " fix bay 
onets " and cross the stream ; so, holding up our cartridge-boxes, 
silently and slowly we marched down and into the ford. It was 
pitchy dark, and, heated and perspiring as we were by our long 
and hurried tramp under a scorching sun, the water seemed an 
Arctic current. 

The firing had ceased for about half an hour; but while in the 
stream, some of us to our middle, we w r ere again opened upon, 
this time with artillery, and crashing through the woods sur 
rounding us came their shells, tearing down trees and branches, 
and bursting all about and near by. We now got through as 
quickly as possible, and were ordered again to lie down in the 
road. They had quite accurate range, many of their cannon- 
shot burying themselves in the bank of the road close above 
our heads, their shells bursting uncomfortably near, and small 
trees and heavy branches tumbling among us where we lay. 

We did not reply to their fire, but after they ceased and re 
treated we were ordered up and on. The enemy had retired to 
Rawlc s Mill, about a mile beyond, where they made another 
stand. The Twenty-fourth was now thrown forward as skirmish 
ers, and obstructions having been placed at every practicable 
point, our progress was greatly delayed, and the advance made 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 1 17 

very fatiguing. Word was quietly passed that we were expected 
to take some works on the left. Line was to be formed upon the 
field, our regiment to deploy on the right and left of the road, 
with the Tenth Connecticut on our right flank and the Twenty- 
fourth on the left, and we should first deliver one round and 
then charge. 

Cautiously and noiselessly we moved. After midnight we en 
tered a side-cut road, having an extensive cornfield on its left, 
and came to a halt just at a little bend. The stillness was pain 
ful, for we felt ourselves to be near the enemy. Suddenly a 
volley of musketry was poured into us at the head of the column, 
seemingly from no greater distance than a couple of rods. There 
was a rush upon our front, and tumbling into the narrow road 
where we were cooped up came horses and men of the marine 
battery in wildest confusion. Lieutenant Stebbins of Company 
D was wounded, Colonel Lee was knocked down, and those for 
ward were thrown back in great disorder ; but the word " Steady ! " 
being given by the lieutenant-colonel, the men at once recovered 
and stood firm. The colonel, regaining his feet, gave the order 
to fall back, and we retired to a position farther back in the road, 
while Belger s battery and a battery of the Third New York Artil 
lery Regiment, drawn up in the field, commenced shelling the 
enemy. The roar of the guns and screeching of shells gave to us 
a grand experience, and the woods shook with the fearful din. 

The enemy replied at first with his artillery, but soon ceased ; 
and it being ascertained that he had fled, burning the bridge as 
he crossed, at about two o clock on Monday morning we were 
permitted to lie down on our arms and sleep in the field, in line 
behind the batteries. 

Cold, wet, and exhausted as we were, with nothing over us but 
our rubber blankets, in that frosty field under the open sky, after 
twenty hours of almost constant marching and engagement, we 
were thankful for the privilege, and in a short time were soundly 
wrapped in slumber. 

The general established his quarters at a small house adjoin 
ing Rawle s Mill, a little in advance of our position, near to the 
bridge which had been burned at our approach. The dead were 
gathered, and solemnly and hurriedly buried by the light of 



Il8 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

lanterns in the grove of pines on the left, before crossing the 
creek. 

During the latter part of this day s experience many became 
so tired that they slept while standing in the road during the 
numerous little halts when we were cautiously advancing; and 
when softly the order " Forward ! " was given, they would topple 
like tenpins before they could recover themselves. Whenever 
permitted to lie down, in spite of the roar of cannons, the rattle 
of musketry, and bursting of shells, most would be asleep in an 
instant, only to be awakened by that recurring " Forward ! " 
which seemed to be the only sound that reached their compre 
hension. There was something so curious about this that it ex 
cited universal attention. On the Goldsboro march, a soldier, 
sleeping, tired, and weary, with his feet to the burning stump of 
a tree for warmth, rolled over upon it and set his clothing afire. 
Two or three of his comrades seized and vigorously shook him, 
shouting themselves hoarse in trying to awake and warn him of 
his danger; but he rolled like a dummy in their hands, and slept 
on as placidly as if undisturbed, until one mischievously uttered 
the command " Forward ! " when he was on his feet in an in 
stant, rubbing his eyes, and gathering himself together ready to 
march. 

About three hours later we were awakened, and stiff and sore 
we got on to our feet. The water in our canteens was frozen, and 
a thick white frost covered our rubber blankets and such parts 
of our arms and equipments as had been exposed. We were 
obliged to move about briskly for a while to take the stiffness 
out of our joints and give circulation and warmth to the blood. 
The pioneers had rebuilt the bridge during the night. With little 
delay we fell into line, Companies A and G being placed at the 
right, and moved on toward Williamstown, passing some of the 
enemy s dead lying torn, ghastly, and unburied where they fell. 

At about twelve o clock we marched into the town and halted 
for breakfast, stacking arms in the street before a fine mansion. 
The inhabitants had deserted at the sound of our guns the night 
before, taking with them much of their furniture and goods. 
Like Washington, the streets were broad and finely shaded, bor 
dered with residences having enclosures containing many pretty 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 119 

trees and shrubs. We found that several gunboats had sailed 
up the Roanoke and arrived here, waiting to co-operate with us. 
Blacks in great numbers had joined us on our march and soon 
began to ransack the deserted houses. Some of the soldiers 
partook too freely of discovered apple-jack, and under its influ 
ence joined in pillage and destruction of furniture and orna 
ments, until forcibly prevented by the provost-guard. With 
pleasure I relate that the Forty-fourth took no part in such 
depredations. 

Our object in coming here was to attempt the defeat and cap 
ture of a force of the enemy which had gathered upon the river 
below, near Plymouth, threatening to attack and retake that town 
garrisoned by United States troops. They had already con 
structed a bridge over which to transport their artillery; but, 
warned of our approach, a portion went up to Rawle s Mill to 
hold us in check, while the remainder passed to the interior. 
Their rear-guard passed through Williamsto\vn very early this 
morning in full retreat and much demoralized. We also expected 
to intercept large convoys of provisions which the Rebels were 
transporting from the section to the east and south of Plymouth. 
This we failed to accomplish. 

Refreshed a little by our rest, we left Williamstown between 
three and four o clock in the afternoon and advanced westerly 
toward Hamilton, passing scenes similar to those of yesterday 
and this morning. The country grew higher and more undu 
lating. Substantial and extensive plantation buildings, with pic 
turesque cotton-presses and ginning-houses, stood in the fields 
and added to the beauty of the landscape. The soil, a rich 
sandy loam without a stone, was easy for the plough, and furrows 
three quarters of a mile in length, as straight as a line, were seen 
on either side. Great fields of white, full-rowed corn, on stalks 
ten to twelve feet in height, stood unharvested, and acres upon 
acres of cotton were still unpicked. 

The planters dwellings, surrounded with broad verandas, 
standing back from the road, almost hidden by clumps of acacias 
and other ornamental trees, presented a most hospitable appear 
ance. Beyond extended the forest, with its leaves turned to a 
liquid amber, relieved in places by the deep evergreen of the bay 



120 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



and myrtle and by the richer colors of the large-leaved oak, 
while here and there the stately and majestic cypress presented a 
deep golden tint. Nearer the road persimmon-trees with heavily 
laden branches invited us to partake, and the fruit being fully 
ripe was plucked and greatly enjoyed. 

This day was also hot; but being upon higher ground, and 
no longer compelled to wade through creeks and swamps, 
marching was more easy, and we did not suffer as on the day 
previous, though many were forcing themselves along, blistered 
and ulcered, some without shoes, having had to remove them to 
relieve their swollen and lacerated feet 







Long after dark we were filed by brigades into one of the great 
cornfields to bivouac. Every other man in the files, having 
passed his musket to his comrade, took a couple of fence-rails 
upon his shoulder for fuel. Soon the lines were distinctly 
marked by fires, with dark figures moving over and around them. 
Sweet potatoes, found in an adjoining field, were roasted and 
enjoyed with our coffee, and cornstalks and husks were gathered 
as fodder for the horses. 

It was another cold night, and in spite of the fires, we suffered. 
Rubber blankets are neither warm nor soft. Few could sleep, 
and many wore away the night revolving before the scant fires in 
futile attempt to keep all sides comfortable at once. 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 121 

The next morning we fell in at daylight and continued on until 
eleven o clock, when we were delayed about two hours while the 
pioneers rebuilt another bridge which had been burned by the 
enemy. The road had followed the river for some distance, and 
\ve were halted near to Rainbow Bluff, where was constructed an 
elaborate fortification to command the river, and many embraced 
the opportunity afforded to examine it. At this point, where the 
river makes a bend or bow, the bluff rises perhaps more than a 
hundred feet; and here was placed the fort, so high that, the 
river being narrow and winding, boats could not elevate their 
pieces to bear upon it, making it a place of great natural defence 
from that side, and enabling the enemy to prevent the farther 
passage up the river of our gunboats. On the land side, how 
ever, it was unprotected except by a light breastwork which had 
recently been thrown up ; so the garrison wisely concluded not to 
stay and contest the place with us. It had been mounted with 
field pieces, which ungenerously they carried off with them. 

From this eminence was viewed a charming prospect of the 
river and surrounding country, extensive fields, some golden 
with yellow stalks, others white with cotton as if covered with 
snow, dotted here and there with little nest-like groves containing 
inviting mansions, the homes of the planters. The silvery stream 
wound in and among these, and bounding all was the forest, rich 
in its autumn-hued foliage. While examining this fort and the 
fine prospect afforded, six gunboats steamed by in succession up 
the stream, each of which in its turn was heartily greeted by 
rounds of cheers. 

On our march to this point the fifth division of our regiment, 
Companies A and G, were sent out on another road with some 
cavalry and two Napoleon guns to endeavor to entrap the gar 
rison of the fort. They were led down a road leading to the left 
and into the woods. Proceeding some distance, they halted at a 
place very similar in appearance to that where we met the enemy 
on Sunday evening. It was expected that they would pass 
through here, so the infantry was drawn up in the woods above 
the road at a point which commanded it, the guns were pointed, 
and the cavalry placed among the trees out of view. Here they 
waited patiently and in silence about two hours, and until the 



122 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

videttes came in and reported that the enemy had taken another 
route ; when, felling trees to prevent future approach on this road, 
they were turned back to join the main force, which was over 
taken waiting for the building of the bridge before spoken of, 
having previously destroyed and made useless the fortification. 

The bridge being soon completed, we marched to Hamilton 
about three o clock in the afternoon. Here, by the surgeon s 
orders, thirty of our wounded, sick, and disabled were put on 
board of a small steamer, with about two hundred others of 
the various commands, and sent back to New Berne. 

Being on short rations, foraging parties were detailed from 
each regiment to enter the town and collect food, the inhabitants 
having also retreated and gone to Tarboro , a place of some 
importance on the railroad, upon the line of direct communication 
with Richmond. The streets soon resounded with despairing 
cries of fleeing pigs and poultry relentlessly pursued by des 
perately hungry men. Without leave, some stole into the town 
to forage upon their own account, and commenced wholesale 
pillage which the officers vigorously attempted to restrain ; but 
the streets soon became full of these, many of whom, made fren 
zied by apple-jack, which was found in plenty, commenced to 
deface and destroy household articles and carry off furniture and 
goods. Our boys, here as at Williamstown, refrained from such 
unsoldierly conduct, and, beyond searching for and securing 
articles and animals for food, they respected the property of the 
citizens. 

Sitting around our camp-fires in the evening, our attention was 
called to a cloud of smoke arising above some of the houses, 
which rapidly increased in volume, and it was seen that a con 
siderable portion of the town was in flames, caused by the care 
lessness or malice of some soldier or sailor. After eight o clock, 
by the light of the burning houses, we were marched through the 
town and a few miles beyond, where we bivouacked. 

Before leaving Hamilton, and at the suggestion of Colonels 
Stevenson and Amory, who had already made similar represen 
tations, our field officers waited upon the general and represented 
to him that the men were fatigued, footsore, and broken by the 
continuous marching, lack of rest and sufficient food, and would 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 



123 



be unable to proceed much farther. He expressed regret at 
being obliged to press his force so hard, and said that he would 
only have to move them a little farther, where there was im 
portant work which would soon be accomplished, after which he 
would at once turn homeward to New Berne. 

At daylight Wednesday morning we broke camp and went on 
in the direction of Tarboro . We met large numbers of pigs, lean 




and active as hounds, many of which were sacrificed to appease 
our hunger. Had it not been for the pigs, fowls, and sweet pota 
toes which we foraged, we could hardly have gone so far into the 
enemy s country, for no meat was given out after our start. Our 
five days rations were consumed in three, and three pieces of 
hard bread, with a little coffee and what we could pick up, had 
been for some time our daily ration. At one period of this 
march, during forty-eight hours some of us received but a single 
piece of hard-tack. 

We were halted at noon and allowed to make coffee and cook 
whatever we had foraged during the forenoon. There was here a 
fork in the road, one branch leading directly to Tarboro and 
the other by a circuitous route to the same place. After lunch 



124 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the same detachment sent forward yesterday namely, Com 
panies A and G of the Forty-fourth, under Captain James M. 
Richardson, with a few of the cavalry, and two small brass how 
itzers, all commanded by Major Garrard of the cavalry were 
sent forward on the direct road to make a demonstration, while 
the main body followed the other road, which passed through 
many swamps. The air was close and murky, and the marching 
very hard upon the footsore and hungry men. 

The two companies proceeded without adventure until about 
the setting of the sun, when they passed a house on the left of 
the road with the doors standing open, apparently just deserted. 
On the opposite side of the road was a blacksmith s shop with 
the fires in the forge still lighted. There was unnatural quiet, 
only broken by the complaint of a grumbler who was declaring 
his belief that there was not a Rebel within twenty-five miles, and 
that it was a confounded shame thus to march the legs off the 
men, when flash, bang ! from the brush on the side of the 
road came a volley, emptying two or three saddles and wounding 
two of the horses at the head of the little column, bringing it to 
a sudden halt. Company A, with some of the cavalry and one 
howitzer, was in the advance, and Company G, with the remain 
ing cavalry and howitzer, followed. Immediately upon firing the 
volley, and before our men could recover from their surprise, the 
ambushers fled across the fields to the woods beyond. Looking 
across to the left near to the wood, around some hay or fodder 
stacks could be seen men cautiously moving with guns in their 
hands. Order was given to face to the left, and the fences were 
torn down for the cavalry to pass into the field. This order, 
however, was countermanded, and facing again forward they were 
marched a little farther on, both howitzers were planted in front 
pointing up the road, and Company G was put into position to 
support them, with Company A as reserve. The major rode a 
few feet in advance of the guns, and with his glass tried to make 
out the position of the enemy. He had hardly applied it to his 
eye when a rifle-shot was fired, and the involuntary ducking of his 
head told how near the bullet passed. A scout who had been 
sent out cautiously to examine and ascertain what force was be 
fore them, at this time came in from woods on the right, reporting 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 125 

that strong works with many men and guns opposed farther 
advance. In front, where the road entered the forest, it appeared 
as if intrenchments crossed, and it was said that the glass dis 
tinguished guns in position to sweep the road whereon our men 
stood. This caused alarm to our diminutive force, and with little 
hesitation the order was given, " About, face ! forward, march ! " 
and after a few steps, " Double-quick, march ! " Thus for nearly 
four miles they were compelled to run before the command was 
given, " Halt ! " Notwithstanding the intimation given that if 
any fell out they would be sabred by the cavalry bringing up 
the rear, so that the enemy might not be able to get informa 
tion of the littleness of the force, a few gave out completely in 
this rapid retreat, and were put upon the gun-carriages so as not 
to be left behind. One of the dead cavalrymen was also taken 
along upon a gun. Arriving at the place where they had halted 
for lunch at noon, exhausted, they stopped to rest and bury the 
dead. 

The main force was gone. They were in the midst of the 
enemy, and, lest their presence should be betrayed, it was ordered 
to hold no conversation, not even in a whisper, and pickets were 
stationed with directions to shoot without challenge any one who 
approached. It had been dark for more than half an hour when 
this spot was reached, and the men threw themselves down upon 
the ground for rest. Now it began to sprinkle, and soon to rain 
heavily. Scouts were sent forward, some of whom returned say 
ing the road was clear, and the men were awakened and ordered 
to advance. Stiff, tired, and footsore, they hobbled along in the 
rain for about two miles, when another scout came in who re 
ported he had found the camp some distance ahead, and that 
General Foster had sent word for them to rest where they were 
until morning. Thereupon they sought soft places in and near 
the road, and despite the falling rain and chilly atmosphere soon 
fell into sound slumber. 

In about an hour one of the posted guard came in saying that 
a considerable force of the enemy had just crossed the road be 
tween them and the camp, about half a mile ahead. For a short 
time things looked serious, and it seemed doubtful if they would 
be permitted to join the main force ; but about two hours later 



126 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

a messenger from the camp found and gave them directions to 
move there immediately. 

The mud was now deep, and so sticky that walking was more 
difficult. It was sunrise when they reached camp, jaded and 
worn. 

After hot coffee and something to eat, it having been ascer 
tained that Tarboro was strongly reinforced with artillery and 
cavalry from Richmond, the general, after a council of his offi 
cers, determined it not to be prudent to make an attack, for the 
reason that the infantry force was insufficient to protect the guns, 
the loss of which he could not afford to risk ; and therefore he 
faced us homeward. 

All that day until dark we marched through mud, rain, and 
snow, back to Hamilton, many falling out through exhaustion, 
who were taken up by the ambulances and baggage-wagons, 
the enemy s cavalry in considerable numbers hanging on our 
skirts and rear, watching an opportunity to cut some of us off. 
At Hamilton, wet to the skin, we took possession of the de 
serted buildings, the first shelter which we had had since leav 
ing " Little " Washington. Getting what rest and sleep we could, 
on the next morning, Friday, we awoke to find an inch of snow 
upon the ground, and the flakes falling as thick and merrily as 
on a Christmas Day in New England. 

Fearing an attack under disadvantage, we were not permitted 
longer delay ; so we fell in and wearily marched to Williamstown, 
reaching there about half-past four in the afternoon, where we 
were once more quartered in the empty dwellings. On this day s 
march large quantities of honey were secured from the many 
hives abounding in the vicinity, and officers as well as privates 
were seen tramping on, their dippers filled with the luscious 
comb, regaling themselves by the aid of clean-licked fingers, 
their besmeared faces giving silent but expressive voice to feel 
ings of gratitude for the unexpected treat. 

At Williamstown we remained until Sunday morning to give 
us rest, being now under protection of the gunboats. Many 
were here obliged to go into a temporary hospital established in 
one of the houses, Colonel Stevenson being among the number. 
Yesterday, forty more from our regiment, entirely used up, were 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 1 27 

put upon gunboats at Hamilton. Other regiments suffered pro 
portionately more than ours, the youth of our men proving more 
elastic in recovery from the effects of hardship and privations. 
Our long marches at Readville, too, which at the time seemed 
so unnecessary, had done much to toughen and prepare us for 
this kind of work. 

It being considered unwise to leave the protection of the gun 
boats, instead of marching us back to Washington we were to 
continue down by the Roanoke River to Plymouth, about twenty- 
two miles away. Therefore at daylight Sunday we resumed the 
road. Notwithstanding our rest, we were still lame and unfit to 
march, and must have resembled a host of beggars. Those in 
the worst condition were placed at the head of the column where 
marching is easier, and many officers kindly gave up their horses 
for them to ride, while they varied their own experience by pro 
ceeding on foot. Walking limbered our joints and took the stiff 
ness from our limbs, and after the halt for dinner, the roads being 
much improved, the near approach of the termination of our jour 
ney revived our spirits, and one or two breaking forth in song, 
the others joyously took up the refrain, and "We re going home " 
was rendered with deep and appreciative feeling. 

At four in the afternoon we filed into a cornfield as usual to 
encamp, and the invalids, Assistant-Surgeon Fisher being now 
among that number, were comfortably established in a neigh 
boring farm-house. The day had been fine, the air cool and 
bracing, and the marching, on account of better roads, much 
easier. The moon arose bright and charming, and with serious 
feelings the officers and men assembled around the fire at head 
quarters, where hymns were sung, Chaplain Hall offered prayer, 
and afterward addressed us, impressively alluding to the com 
rades we had lost and the hardships we had shared. At the 
close we broke up and retired, much overcome by the novel 
scene and our reflections. 

The following morning we started early, and halted just outside 
the town of Plymouth at noon. The weather was fine, and many 
embraced the opportunity of taking a bath in the river. The 
transports expected here to convey us to New Berne not hav 
ing arrived, we were again introduced to a cornfield to use for 



128 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

our mattress. Our former good spirits had now fully returned, 
and we looked forward to a happy arrival at our comfortable 
barracks. 

Some got a chance to enter and view the town, which was 
found to be, like Washington, picturesque. The trees overhung 
the streets, and meeting formed a vista like the nave prolonged 
of a Gothic cathedral, and the houses with chimneys built on the 
outside, gathered in at the second story, many of them covered 
with ivy, seemed homelike and cosey. 

The next day, Tuesday, November 1 1, at noon, our regiment em 
barked on the transports " Collins " and " Northerner," the former 
having the schooner " Recruit " in tow, carrying a portion of an 
other regiment Soon by some mismanagement the schooner was 
upon a shoal, over which the captain of the " Collins " attempted 
to haul her, thereby quickly getting her into a bad position. 
Colonel Lee ordered him to shift the hawser and pull her off stern 
first, which the captain refused to do, whereupon the colonel at 
once put him under arrest and sent him to his cabin. General 
Foster, coming up in the " Pilot-boy," approved this action, and 
gave charge of the " Collins " to the captain of the " Recruit," 
which was soon taken off the shoal and proceeded on its way 
with the rest down the river. The behavior of the captain of the 
"Collins" aroused suspicion in all minds, for he seemed in no 
hurry to relieve the vessel from her condition, where in case of 
an attack we would have been in a very embarrassing situation. 
He, however, professed great indignation at his arrest and con 
finement, and informed the colonel that he intended to " meet 
him on the field of honor," and also in the courts of law. 

Our run down the river was greatly enjoyed; for though the 
banks were low, yet the growth of trees, shrubs, and brakes, 
the former draped with moss, and the richly-colored reeds, 
foliage, and grasses, rendered it pleasant to the view. 

That night we cast anchor, but early on Wednesday morning 
we again steamed away through Albemarle Sound, passing Roan- 
oke Island, into Pamlico Sound. The "Northerner" ran upon 
a bar and was compelled to wait some hours before it could be 
got off. Soon it was again fast, and all were taken aboard another 
steamer until it was relieved. The day was fine, and the monoto- 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 1 29 

nous sound from the engines, combined with our fatigue, caused 
us to pass the time in charming rest and dozing. In the night the 
" Northerner " once more was aground, and about ninety horses 
aboard were taken upon another boat before she could be floated. 

After another day upon the water, at half-past eight on Thurs 
day night, those upon this vessel, because of its drawing too 
much water to get to the wharf, were taken upon the " M. S. 
Allison," and at about nine were safely landed at New Berne, 
when they hastened to the barracks, where, to their joy and sur 
prise, a princely supper of baked beans, fried onions, sweet 
potatoes, hot coffee, and hard-tack awaited them, prepared by the 
boys who had been left in charge. Joyously and ravenously they 
set to and devoured the repast, filled with gratitude for their 
present relief from hardship. 

The boys upon the " Collins " did not land until daylight on 
the next day, November 14, when they too were treated to a 
generous meal at their barracks, which was truly a " break fast " 
for them. 

They had just been experiencing lively times at New Berne, a 
serious attack having been made at various points and the pickets 
driven in. But the enemy had delayed too long, for many of 
the troops connected with our expedition having returned were 
immediately sent out to repel them, and the iron-clad car " Moni 
tor " ran up on the railroad and shelled the woods, driving them 
off with some loss. Our casualties were one man killed of the 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, and six wounded. 

Thus was accomplished our first expedition. Its object, to 
destroy the iron-clad ram " Albemarle," then constructing at Tar- 
boro , to save Plymouth from capture by the enemy, and if 
possible to entrap the force gathering for that purpose, was but 
partially successful, as they were too wary and strong for us. 
But we gained valuable experience, which was well calculated to 
try our mettle as soldiers. Under our baptism of fire we had 
stood firm and unflinching. Though by the blunder of an offi 
cious staff officer overruling the previous order of the colonel 
our two right flank companies, unsuspicious of danger, were 
massed in the waters of the creek just before the sheltered 
enemy, yet they hardly wavered under the murderous volley so 

9 



130 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



suddenly poured into them, but rushed forward with enthusiasm 
without waiting for orders. Of our demeanor, at an inspection 
had immediately after our return, General Foster took occasion 
to say publicly that we " behaved like veterans." In marching, 
too, the best did not surpass us, and in every manner we won 
the praises of our commanding officers, as also the esteem and 
respect of the older regiments. The good humor manifested by 
our boys under adverse circumstances drew forth remark Toil 




ing weary miles over the worst of roads, with blistered feet and 
clothing saturated by water from the skies above and swamps 
beneath, with no prospect ahead more cheering than that of a 
bivouac under the open sky, upon the damp and frosty earth, 
often some genial comrade would enliven the spirits of his com 
panions by a witty remark, or make them forget their discom 
forts by breaking forth in melody to be contagiously taken 
up in chorus by all. In that dismal swamp on our return march, 
closed in by the gloom of the surrounding woods and the night, 
on such an occasion, the " Old Mountain Tree " was rendered 
with such feeling that it left an impression which will never be 
effaced. 

The friendship entered into upon this march between us and 
the other regiments of our brigade, strengthened by subsequent 



THE TARBORO MARCH. 131 

common hardships and dangers, will never be severed. Dear 
to us always will be our comrades of the Fifth Rhode Island, 
Tenth Connecticut, and Twenty-fourth Massachusetts; and " Lit 
tle Creek," "Rawle s Mill," and the "Tarboro March" will 
ever be subjects of interest to the survivors of the Massachusetts 
Forty-fourth. 





CHAPTER VII. 

GOLDSBORO EXPEDITION. 

ARLY on Thursday, morning, 
Dec. 11, 1862, all was life 
and bustle in camp, the final 
touches were given to our 
preparations made the day 
before, and by 6 A. M. regi 
mental line was formed. But 
our start soon proved rather 
the prelude to one of those 
tedious waits that often accom 
pany the moving of a large 
force except when near the 

enemy; and, for our field of operations, it was indeed a large 
force that was now about to cut loose from its base, and, relying 
largely upon the resources of the country, to penetrate into the 
interior of the Old North State. 

The brigade of which we formed a part was composed of the 
Twenty-fourth and Forty-fourth Massachusetts, Fifth Rhode 
Island, and Tenth Connecticut Regiments, and was commanded 
by Colonel Stevenson. The rest of our force consisted of Colonel 
H. C. Lee s brigade, the Fifth, Twenty-fifth, Third, Forty-sixth, 
and Twenty-seventh Massachusetts Regiments ; Colonel Amory s 
brigade, the Seventeenth, Twenty-third, Forty-third, Forty-fifth 
and Fifty-first Massachusetts Regiments ; Brigadier-General Wes- 
sell s brigade, the Eighty-fifth, Ninety-second, Ninety-sixth New 
York, Eighty-fifth, One Hundred and First, One Hundred and 
Third Pennsylvania Regiments. Also the Ninth New Jersey In 
fantry and Third New York Cavalry; six batteries of the Third 
New York Artillery, and Belger s Battery of the First Rhode 



134 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Island Artillery, with sections of Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth 
New York Independent Batteries, numbering in all about ten 
thousand infantry, forty guns and six hundred and forty cavalry, 
and all under the personal command of Major-General J. G. 
Foster. 

Our previous expedition had inspired us with absolute confi 
dence in the skill and resource of our commander, and we were 
ready to be led wherever he chose, confident that with him suc 
cess was certain. 

We beguiled the tedium of our various halts with stories of our 
last expedition and conjectures on what the Rebs might have in 
store for us. Proverbially light-hearted as the soldier fortunately 
is, we joked each other on this or that peculiarity of outfit which 
our late experiences had taught us was useful; but indeed we 
were carrying much more than before, for fifty rounds of cart 
ridges, instead of forty, had been served out to each man, besides 
his woollen blanket, overcoat, and well-filled knapsack. 

At last, by 2 P. M., our part of the line was fairly started, and 
we kept on without noticeable incident till about 7 P. M., when we 
halted for the night. Being towards the rear of the column, the 
camp-fires of the troops in advance of us were blazing in all direc 
tions as we turned into the cornfield where w r e were to bivouac. 
Place yourself in one of our public squares at night and see the 
long lines of gaslights radiating in half a dozen directions ; then 
imagine each light a camp-fire, each street a regimental or brigade 
line rising and falling with the undulations of the ground, horses 
neighing, men shouting, the great white-topped wagons of the 
supply-train drawn up in line, the flames here shooting high and 
there turned to glowing embers, and for a background the dark 
night with the sentinel pacing to and fro, and you have a wild 
and inspiring scene, such as greeted us ; but we soon fell into our 
proper position, and ourselves became part of the scene, eager to 
put an end to our cold and hunger. The middle of the day and 
early afternoon had been very hot, so oppressive that many nearly 
fainted ; but at dark it grew cold, and water froze in our canteens 
during the night. Camp-fires, however, made us comfortable; 
and with our feet to the fire and plenty of fence-rails both for bed 
and fuel, we slept soundly till early reveille. 



GOLDSBORO EXPEDITION. 135 

On Friday the column started by sunrise, but it was not till 
about half-past nine that our regiment moved out from the field. 
Our march was a hard one. The roads were muddy, and as the 
column will always open out at a mud-hole, so when it comes to 
good travelling again, the lost ground must be regained ; thus we 
had a succession of halts and double-quick, with mud and water 
between. Our strong pioneer force did capital service this day 
in clearing the road of the felled trees with which the Rebels had 
sought to delay our progress. Much of our way also was through 
deep sand ; and indeed we had specimens of the several compo 
nent parts of the foundations of the State ; namely, sand, clay, 
and water. 

We halted for dinner about one P. M., but before we could get 
our fires ready to boil our coffee the order came, " Fall in, Forty- 
fourth, lively ! " and we were hurried off two or three miles on 
the double-quick. Early in the afternoon our adjutant told us we 
were within five miles of Kinston, and should march but a short 
distance farther that night, tantalizing information indeed it 
proved to be ; for it was not until ten o clock that we bivouacked 
for the night, and then we had neither seen nor heard anything 
of Kinston. 

All this was better understood a few days later, when we learned 
that the enemy had felled trees, planted cannon, dug rifle-pits, and 
in various ways had prepared to meet us and drive us back on 
the main road ; while our ever-ready General Foster had learned 
of their plans, and at daylight had sent out some cavalry who had 
a skirmish with the enemy about four miles beyond our camp. 
Coming to a cross-road known as Vine Swamp road, three com 
panies of this cavalry pushed rapidly up the main road towards 
Kinston and found the bridge over Beaver Creek partially 
destroyed. Hastily repairing this, and leaving a regiment of 
infantry the Fifty-first Massachusetts and a section of the 
Twenty-third New York Battery, which had now come up, to 
hold the bridge, the cavalry kept on, occasionally skirmishing 
and keeping up the show of an advancing force, while the main 
body turned off by the Vine Swamp road. 

To continue this digression : the next day, Saturday, a detach 
ment was sent up another road to engage the attention of the 



136 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



enemy, and at Southwest Creek, about six miles from Kinston, 
found them posted in force, but after a sharp fight drove them 
from their position and took one gun. Some Rebels who had 
fled into the woods came in and gave themselves up. The de 
tachment slept on the wet ground in sight of the enemy s fires, 
but were not allowed any for themselves. 




But to resume the account of our own special movements. We 
left camp on Saturday about 8.30 A.M. and marched till I P.M., 
when we turned into a cornfield and formed line of battle in rear 
of a battery. In front of us was a thick wood in which the enemy 
were supposed to be. Soon we heard heavy cannonading at the 
front, with dense smoke. After waiting in suspense for about 
two hours, momentarily expecting orders to move, we w r ere told 
to prepare to camp, and as fires were not to be allowed, a squad 
was detailed to cut pine boughs for shelter. Fortunately for us, 
however, the prohibition against fires was afterwards removed. 
Provisions were nearly out, but the quartermaster issued fresh 
rations when the wagons came up, so we passed a comfortable 
night. Sunday morning we left camp soon after eight o clock, 
and after marching about five miles, occasionally hearing heavy 



GOLDSBORO EXPEDITION. 137 

cannonading ahead, we turned into a cornfield in support of a 
battery. After a short time we returned to the road, and march 
ing past a thick piece of woods, turned into another cornfield on 
our right and again formed in support of a battery. Meantime 
the firing at the front grew louder and more distinct every mo 
ment, and unslinging our knapsacks and leaving them in charge 
of one man of each company, we prepared to move on towards 
the front. 

To make more clear the position and the action in which we 
were now about to take a part, though not a leading one, it is 
necessary to go back a little. 

Directly in front of the position which we then occupied, the 
upland sloped down through a piece of woods on the right of the 
road to a narrow belt of swamp, which was thick with small trees, 
vines, briers, and all the luxuriant and tangled growth of a South 
ern jungle ; beyond the swamp the ground rose very slightly, just 
enough to clear the water, and became a nearly flat plain, covered 
on the right of the road with an open growth of heavy pine-trees, 
each large enough to afford considerable protection to a sharp 
shooter. Near the road, in this grove of pines, and perhaps three 
hundred feet beyond the swamp, was a rudely built church, giv 
ing an admirable shelter to the enemy. A short distance further 
on was the river, running at right angles to the road, and crossed 
by a bridge. On the hither side of the river, across the road from 
the wood, the ground rose into an open cornfield which stretched 
away to the river-bank, rising slightly without interruption except 
for a trifling earthwork just at the bank of the stream, which all 
along here was twenty or thirty feet below the level of the fields. 

The action (to which was given the name of the battle of 
Kinston) began by our force, with Wessell s brigade in front, 
advancing down the road and being met and checked by the 
enemy, who were posted on both sides of the road beyond the 
swamp. A line was then deployed on the right of the road, 
on our side of the swamp, and was slowly and persistently moved 
forward to meet the enemy, who were in strong force ; and upon 
our brave fellows, struggling knee to waist deep in the mud-holes 
and tangled in the vines and briers of the swamp, their fire rained 
with pitiless and most destructive violence. Following the Tenth 



138 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



Connecticut and Forty-fifth Massachusetts, the right wing of our 
regiment pushed its way through the swamp and joined the left 
wing, which meantime had led the way down the road and had 
formed line in the cornfield on the left and beyond the water. 
Almost at that moment there was a loud shout in front, and we 
saw the gallant Tenth Connecticut, with other troops, in hot pur 
suit of the enemy towards the bridge. So close was the pursuit, 
that though the enemy succeeded in firing the bridge, for which 
they had made full preparation, yet our men soon extinguished 




it and crossed over, passing the charred body of the poor fellow 
whose duty it had been to set the fire, but who, struck by our 
bullets, had fallen into the flames he himself had kindled. Our 
advance pressed on to the town, but the Forty-fourth had to 
march back for its knapsacks ; and when we returned to the 
bridge we had to wait some time before crossing, and many of 
us talked with the Rebel prisoners whom we found waiting there 
also. They seemed perfectly miserable, and several said that 
they were quite ready to take the oath of allegiance. 

The road on our side of the bridge was at right angles with the 
river, but on the other side divided right and left, with a consid 
erable earthwork with six guns opposite the end of the bridge, 



GOLDSBORO* EXPEDITION. 139 

and a long line of rifle-pits stretching down river to the right. 
The enemy retreated in great confusion, most of them to the left 
towards the town, but a considerable portion to the right down 
the river-bank. We followed the left-hand road towards Kinston, 
and all along it was strewn with their trappings, which they had 
thrown away in their flight, blankets (an old comforter or a 
piece of carpet), haversacks, canteens, cartridge-boxes, etc. 

We marched directly into the town. It was a remarkably 
pretty place, well laid out, with broad streets at right angles, 
neatly painted houses, well-kept yards, and a decided air of thrift 
about it. In the street were huge piles of corn and cotton burn 
ing; but the houses were unharmed, and their occupants had 
mostly remained. The railroad station had been fired, but was ex 
tinguished before much damage had been done ; and after march 
ing about town some time, we formed in line near this station 
to support a couple of batteries which were shelling the outskirts 
of the town. Presently they started along the road leading 
beyond the town, shelling occasionally as they advanced, and 
we after them. After about a mile of this we all returned and 
bivouacked near the station. A well-stocked grocery-store near 
by was confiscated to our use ; and many a man will remember 
the welcome corn-dodger, baked on a shingle and sweetened with 
molasses, with which he regaled himself that night. 

We afterwards learned that General Foster, after our occupa 
tion of the town, had sent a staff officer with a flag of truce to 
General Evans, commanding the Confederate forces, summoning 
him to surrender. This, however, General Evans declined to do, 
and moved back for the night to a strong position at Falling 
Creek, about six miles from Kinston, towards Goldsboro . 

Next morning we recrossed the bridge, and, passing the scene 
of the previous day s fight, took the road for Whitehall and Golds 
boro . We realized then, even more than we did the day before, 
what an iron rain we had passed through ; for the pine-trees 
around the church were literally riddled, and in many cases cut 
in two, by the shot which had poured upon them. Our march 
that day, of about fifteen miles, mostly through sandy, fatiguing 
roads enlivened by an occasional ford, was without special inci 
dent; and towards dark we turned into a cornfield, and foraging 



140 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

parties having replenished our scanty larder, we got our suppers 
and slept in peace. 

The following morning, Tuesday the i6th, we broke camp as 
usual, but had gone a short distance only, when, about nine o clock, 
heavy firing began. Advancing slowly, we at length turned to 
the left into a path which wound through a rather open wood, up 
a slight ascent and on to a ridge overlooking a cornfield, beyond 
which was a thin belt of woods bordering on the Neuse River. 
The road which we had just left kept along the flat land and 
crossed the river by a bridge, near which the Rebels were build 
ing a gunboat. The few houses scattered along this road, and 
mainly on the other side of the river, formed the village of White 
hall. We marched through the open wood, receiving on our 
flank a heavy fire of shot and shell from the batteries across the 
river. One shot crashed through our ranks, instantly killing two 
men of Company A. Reaching the crest of the ridge, we turned 
sharp to the right, came down into the cornfield, crossed it, and 
formed line along a rail fence at the edge of the woods bordering 
the river. Here for nearly two hours we received the fire of the 
batteries and the sharpshooters who were posted in the trees 
across the river, but with little opportunity ourselves to make 
any effective return. At last we were withdrawn, after some loss 
in killed and wounded, and posted in rear of Belger s Rhode 
Island Battery, which began shelling the other side of the river. 
When at last the Rebel batteries were silenced, and nothing was 
heard from the enemy but the occasional fire of their sharp 
shooters, then our batteries were withdrawn, a few of our men 
were detailed as sharpshooters to keep the enemy employed, and 
the force resumed its march. 

Among the numerous incidents of the day was the following, 
the truth of which many of our regiment can doubtless vouch for : 
One of our men, while lying behind the rail fence, was struck by 
a Rebel bullet ; clasping his hand to his side, he felt his life-blood 
gushing from the wound. His captain approached, and to him 
the soldier whispered the words of farewell which he wished sent 
to his friends after his spirit had departed. The captain, failing 
to see any blood, asked where he was wounded. "A bullet right 
through my side, captain ; I know there s no hope." " I don t 




^ -C 



GOLDSBORO EXPEDITION. 141 

see any blood," the captain replied ; " perhaps you are not hit as 
hard as you think." " What ! no blood ! " cried he, his voice 
gaining sudden strength and for the first time looking at his side. 
The dying man suddenly came to life, and seizing his musket 
resumed his place. A Rebel bullet had shot away the top of his 
canteen ; the water was warm, and pouring over his hand, he im 
agined it to be blood, and so dictated his last will and testament. 

That night we encamped near a small settlement about eight 
miles from Goldsboro . During the night, which for our own 
regiment was a quiet and uneventful one, active preparations were 
being made on both sides for the struggle, which all expected to 
come the next day, for the possession of the railroad bridge, 
the key of communication between the Confederate army in Vir 
ginia and its Southern sources of supply. The destruction of this 
bridge was, in fact, the main object of our whole expedition. 

The Confederate General Gustavus W. Smith, then in command 
of the Department of North Carolina and Southeast Virginia, had 
for some days been telegraphing urgently to his Secretary of War 
for reinforcements for Goldsboro and vicinity, and had been 
promised six regiments and two batteries from Richmond, three 
regiments from Petersburg and its vicinity, and five thousand 
infantry and three batteries from Beauregard, then at Charles 
ton, S. C. The Petersburg reinforcement had arrived on the morn 
ing of the 1 6th, the day of the action at Whitehall; but only one 
regiment of infantry, with six hundred dismounted cavalry and 
a battery, all under command of General Robertson, had taken 
part in that engagement. General Evans in the mean time had 
returned to Kinston, in the expectation of crossing the Neuse 
bridge and harassing our rear. Finding, however, that we had 
destroyed the bridge, Evans returned and was ordered to report 
at Goldsboro , where he arrived early on the morning of the 
1 7th. Meantime, we on our side were not idle. Five companies 
of the Third New York Cavalry, with a couple of pieces of artil 
lery of the Twenty-third New York, had been sent towards the 
railroad south of Goldsboro and struck it at Mount Olive sta 
tion, about fourteen miles from Goldsboro , in the direction of 
Wilmington. The little village was taken completely by surprise, 
the track was torn up, station and water-tanks destroyed, and the 



142 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

work of destruction completed by detachments sent up and down 
the road for several miles. By midnight all these outlying parties 
had returned to the main body. 

The position and action of the opposing forces on the i/th was 
as follows : On the south side of the river, near the railroad bridge 
and in the line of our advance, lay Clingman s Brigade of infantry 
and artillery. In his rear, towards the county bridge, which was 
about half a mile higher up stream, Evans s Brigade was posted. 
On the north side of the river, artillery was posted at both bridges, 
and also at a bend in the stream between them, so as to brine 

o 

an enfilading fire to bear on the southern approach to the railroad 
bridge. Having little or no cavalry, the enemy early in the day 
had made a reconnoissance in force with infantry, and soon dis 
covered our approach. 

At early dawn our force had moved forward and taken up a 
commanding position on high ground about a mile from the river, 
from which position our artillery began to pour a destructive fire 
upon the enemy on both sides of the stream. Meantime a portion 
of our infantry, under cover of our artillery fire, advanced across 
the open fields towards the high embankment of the railroad, and 
for a while the struggle for the possession of this important posi 
tion was severe, both sides fighting with great obstinacy. The en 
emy was finally driven back, Evans retiring by the county bridge 
and Clingman by the railroad bridge. As soon as the latter had 
crossed, their battery at the other end of the bridge was pointed 
directly down the track, and in face of this murderous direct fire, 
and of the fire from the flanking battery up stream, volunteer 
after volunteer advanced to set fire to the bridge. At last Lieuten 
ant Graham of the Twenty-third New York Battery, acting as aide 
to Colonel Heckman of the Ninth New Jersey, who commanded 
the advance, succeeded in firing the structure and it was soon 
enveloped in flames. 

Our own part in this battle was simply that of spectators ; and 
it was indeed a sight rarely to be seen except in pictures of battles. 
Our brigade was posted on rising ground, overlooking the low 
land bordering the river, through which ran the railroad embank 
ment leading from the bridge. Below us, in full view, were the 
bodies of troops moving hither and thither, while the incessant 



GOLDSBORO EXPEDITION. 143 

boom of cannon, the rattle of musketry, the screaming of shells, 
the smoke, now obscuring now revealing the action, all com 
bined to make a scene we shall never forget. When the volumes 
of smoke rising from the bridge showed us that the final object of 
our expedition was at last accomplished, we knew what was to 
follow, and our own brigade commander, our loved Tom Steven 
son, drawing his sword half way from its scabbard and thrusting 
it back again, called out to us, " We 11 go home, boys, we 11 go 
home ! " Such shouting as arose when the order came down the 
line, " Fall in, sling knapsacks, by the right flank countermarch, 
and you re bound home," had never been heard before in that 
lonely country ; and the cheers we gave General Foster, whom we 
passed just as we filed into the road homeward bound, were wild 
enough to awaken all the echoes of the Old North State. 

Though the batteries were still keeping up an occasional shell 
ing, yet we all supposed the battle was virtually over, and our 
brigade had marched perhaps a mile and a half when we heard 
the cannonading fiercely resumed, and along the line came the 
order to countermarch ; and back we went on the double-quick 
nearly to our former position. 

It seems that the enemy, after the destruction of the railroad 
bridge, determined if possible to save the county bridge and its 
communications, and for that purpose despatched a strong force 
under General Evans to cross the bridge and advance to feel our 
position. It was their intention to attack us on both wings at 
once and to turn our flank. Meantime, however, our force was 
moving off, returning towards Kinston ; and as the enemy came 
in sight only one battery and a small force of infantry and cavalry 
appeared opposed to them. Thereupon the Fifty-first and Fifty- 
second North Carolina Regiments of the Confederates were or 
dered to charge and take our battery. On they came, almost a 
perfect line, in gallant style ; the cool and determined officer in 
command of Morrison s Battery waited till they were within very 
short distance, when he gave the order to fire ; the guns belched 
forth their deadly missiles, and the advancing ranks were mown 
down like grain. Re-forming, they again and again advanced, 
only to be pitilessly slaughtered by the intrepid and relent 
less battery. Meanwhile Belger s Battery had returned near to 



144 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



Morrison s position, and at once opened fire to the left, where the 
woods were lined with Rebel infantry. The enemy then replied 
with a well-directed fire from a concealed battery. Riggs s Bat 
tery was then ordered to Belger s left, and after an hour of vigor 
ous cannonading the fire of the enemy, both musketry and 
artillery, was silenced, and the fight was over. 

After remaining for some time in suspense in this our last 
position, we were ordered to resume our homeward march. 

Somewhat less light-hearted than we 
had been some hours before when 
first turning our steps homeward, we 
now trudged on, till towards night 
we reached our previous camping 
ground and there bivouacked. 

Next day we continued our march, 
wearily for the most part, the road 
sometimes a mere causeway through 
a swamp, sometimes between neg 
lected corn or cotton fields, some 
times through forests of blazing 
trees, whose flaming trunks of resi 
nous pine were like colossal torch 
es; enlivening ourselves with songs, 
while occasionally a band would 
strike up and make our march easier, 

as we insensibly fell into a steady swing in time to the music. 
The cheering and inspiriting effect of music, which the history of 
many a campaign often recites, was time and again realized by us 
as we plodded along through sombre forest or dreary clearing, 
the excitement of battle over, wearily longing for the end of our 
tramp and for what then seemed to us the unspeakable comfort 
of our old barracks. That night we halted not far from Kinston, 
and next morning, proceeding nearly up to the town, took the 
main road towards New Berne by which the Rebels had expected 
us to come when we started out on our march, but which the 
wariness and strategic skill of our General Foster had avoided, 
though he kept up a show of advance upon it, thus rendering 
useless the very considerable defences and obstacles which the 




GOLDSBORO EXPEDITION. 145 

Rebels had prepared for us, and which we now saw in reverse as 
we marched for home. That night we all understood that New 
Berne was only about twenty miles distant, so making a start 
about seven o clock the next morning we pushed on ; but the 
way seemed longer and longer, and as the afternoon wore away 
we were still an unknown distance from the town. The colonel 
halted us and said that all who wished it might push on with him 
for camp, but the others might stop where they were for the 
night. Many of us kept on, and about eight o clock that Satur 
day night the lights in our old barracks came in sight, and soon 
we were greeted by the few comrades who had been left be 
hind, unable from sickness or other causes to go with us, and 
were cheered by the enlivening music of our new regimental 
band which Drum-major Babcock had been training during our 
absence. 

The next morning the stragglers came in, and excepting only 
those whom death or wounds had taken from us, we were all at 
home again and our expedition was over. Its labors and achieve 
ments are commemorated in the following General Order, which 
was read on dress parade, Jan. 17, 1863, namely: - 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 

NEW BERNE, Jan. 15, 1863. 
General Orders, No. 18. 

In consideration of, and as a reward for, their brave deeds at Kinston, 
Whitehall, and Goldsboro , the Commanding General directs thai the 
regiments and batteries which accompanied the expedition to Goldsboro 
inscribe upon their banners these three victories, 

KINSTON, Dec. 14, 1862. 

WHITEHALL, Dec. 16, 1862. 
GOLDSBORO , Dec. 17, 1862. 

The Commanding General hopes that all fields in future will be so fought 
that the record of them may be kept by inscription on the banners of the 
regiments engaged. 

By command of 

Major-General J. G. FOSTER. 
SOUTHARD HOFFMAN, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

The casualties of the Federal troops on this expedition were as 
follows: Officers, killed 4, wounded 19; enlisted men, killed 88, 
wounded 468, missing 12 : total 591. 



146 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



The compiler of this chapter has drawn freely from numerous 
and interesting letters of various members of the regiment, and 
from the following publications : " Wearing of the Blue," " Sol 
diering in North Carolina," " History of Ninth New Jersey," 
" Confederate War Papers by General G. W. Smith ; " and from 
advance sheets of Government War Records, both Union and 
Confederate. 




CHAPTER VIII. 



THE PLYMOUTH EXPEDITION. 



HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA, 
i8TH ARMY CORPS, NEW BERNE, Jan. 31, 1863. 

(OLONEL FRANCIS L. LEE, Commanding 

forty -fourth Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia : 

COLONEL, You will embark your com 
mand to-morrow morning at 7 o clock 
on the steamer " Northerner " and pro 
ceed directly to Plymouth, N. C. 

The " Massasoit " will be at the wharf 
at the foot of Middle Street for the pur 
pose of transferring your regiment to the 
"Northerner." 

Upon your arrival at that place you will 
assume command of the post, and immedi 
ately after consultation with Captain Flusser, United 
States Navy, and Major Bartholomew, Twenty-seventh 
Massachusetts Volunteers, take the necessary steps to 
drive in the enemy s pickets. 

It is reported here that the enemy is in force (about 1,000) at James- 
ville. Should you find this report corroborated by the information you 
may receive at Plymouth, you will advance on that place and whip the 
enemy; and if upon consultation with the above officers it should be 
deemed advisable, you are authorized to advance as far as Williamston. 

It is necessary that the advance should be made very shortly after your 
arrival, so that the enemy may not receive information of your arrival at 
the place ; and you are therefore advised to close the lines. 

Captain Flusser, United States Navy, will furnish you with some boat 
howitzers and crews, and he, as well as Major Bartholomew, are strongly 
recommended to you from their long experience at the post. 




148 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Much of course must be left to your own discretion, and the greatest 
confidence is placed in your judgment and abilities. The general s desire 
is to drive the enemy back and prevent their annoying our forces at 
Plymouth. 

Yours very respectfully, 

SOUTHARD HOFFMAN, 
Assistant Adjutant- General. 

In obedience to this order the regiment was in line at 7.30 
next morning, February I (Sunday), and soon moved to the 
wharf in New Berne, whence we were transferred to the steamer 
" Northerner," of blessed memory, which was waiting to re 
ceive us. We soon started, and, following the well-known course 
through Pamlico Sound, past Roanoke Island, anchoring for the 
night, next day keeping on through Albernarle Sound into the 
mouth of Roanoke River, and, as the shores drew nearer, between 
swamps of low trees and shrubs, bordered with golden rice, pine 
woods, cornfields, and solitary houses, at 4 P. M. on Monday, 
the 2d, we made fast to the wharf at Plymouth. Since our pre 
vious visit in November Plymouth had suffered the fortune of 
war. Then it was a pleasant, peaceful town, upon which the 
shadow of strife had not fallen. A month later it had been 
raided and partially burned by the Rebel cavalry, and now the 
scars were deep and black upon it. 

But why were we here? Rumor told of Rebel forces who were 
building earthworks, and possibly gunboats, at Rainbow Bluff 
(the Rebels called it Rainbow Bend), some miles farther up the 
river, 1 and that we were to move upon them in the morning. 

But we lay at the wharf that night. The evening was brilliant 
with the light of a full moon, the atmosphere soft and pleasant. 
The band on deck played, the darkies on shore danced around 

1 That this rumor was not unfounded, witness a letter from Colonel J. F. Gilmer, 
of the Confederate Engineer Bureau, to Colonel Walter Ovvynn, commanding de 
fences in eastern North Carolina, which says (under date of Nov. 3, 1862 three 
months before our trip to Plymouth) : " I am glad to hear that so satisfactory a posi 
tion for the defence of the Roanoke River has been found at Rainbow Bend. The 
line of infantry to cover one and one-half miles to the pond, causing the enemy to 
make a detour of fifteen miles, seems a good suggestion. It is not possible at present 
to furnish all the armament required ; still, platforms and positions should be pre 
pared for formidable river batteries (a part of these platforms should be prepared for 
siege carriages)." 



THE PLYMOUTH EXPEDITION. 149 

blazing fires, the " boys " sang, smoked, and discussed the cam 
paign. The climate seemed that of New England under the 
harvest moon ; and so the evening closed. 

Next morning (this too might have been New England) six 
inches of snow lay upon the ground. Light, fluffy stuff to be 
sure, but snow all the same, snow that makes water; snow that 
makes mud ; snow that makes the intended movement, the sur 
prise of the garrison at Rainbow Bluff, impossible ; snow that 
was not to be stained with the blood of Rebel or of Patriot, else 
some would have died that day. Who? Whose life hung with 
the snowflake in the air that winter night? Did yours, comrade, 
or yours? Did mine? Who knows? 

W T e only know that the snow came, the course of the expedi 
tion was changed, and from that hour it became impossible to 
regard it seriously from a military point of view. 

It became simply a picturesque incident of our service in North 
Carolina. 

For six cold, raw, disagreeable days we remained in Plymouth. 
The " Northerner " was crowded. To give more room to all, 
Companies A, C, D, E, G, and K were removed to a large un 
occupied warehouse upon the wharf. It was like an ice-house. 
We tried to read, to write, to whittle. We smoked, some of us 
danced anything to keep alive, pass the time, and hold our 
selves together. There was dress parade, of course, even if there 
was no blacking; and the gloves ! Well, they were at New Berne, 
in the barracks, which some "sanitary engineer" was white 
washing against our return. 

But dress parade seemed to amuse the darkies and encourage 
the " Union men," of whom there were several living though 
pallid examples in the town ; but chiefly it served to get at the 
effective force of the regiment at the moment. " All present or 
accounted for," said a second sergeant, on one of these occasions. 
" Except thirty privates, six non-coms, one orderly, and 

two commissioned officers," added the captain of Company , 

between his teeth. For were there not warm houses, and chairs, 
and tables ; hot sausages, hoe-cake, and apple-jack, all danger 
ously near? Were there no attractions just outside the lines, 
and no enemy nearer than Rainbow Bluff? All were not present, 



150 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



but most could be accounted for; and if they did not turn in at 
taps, they generally turned up at reveille. 

But, if we had failed of the " object of the expedition," and 
missed a possible tragedy, something was yet in store for us, and 
rumor said there were several tons of it ; to wit, of savory hams, 
sides and shoulders of bacon, killed " in the full of the moon," no 
doubt, " for luck," some moons before, and now hidden in the 




mysterious recesses of certain smoke-houses a night s march out 
side the lines, and only awaiting favorable opportunity for trans 
port to some hungry quartermaster of the forces of the Southern 
Confederacy. This would never do. From Rainbow Bluff we 
had been turned back by the driven snow; should soot and 
smoke-houses baffle us too? We had been dissuaded by the 
elements of light; should the powers of darkness also prevail 
against us? Should the succulent ham be lost to the cause of 
the Union? Forbid it, commissaries and commissioned officers ! 

So an expedition was organized for the rescue of the hams, and 
Companies A, B, C, D, E, and G were selected for the hazardous 
duty. The line was formed at 1.30 (Saturday, February 7), and 
at 2 P. M., under the immediate command of the colonel, moved 
out upon the Washington road, making a detour to pass obstruc 
tions, trees which had been felled across the road to check any 



THE PLYMOUTH EXPEDITION. 151 

attempt that might be made to surprise the town. We were 
soon in the wild country lying between Plymouth upon the north 
and " Little" Washington upon the south, these towns being con 
nected by a main road from which, a few miles out from Plym 
outh, a less frequented thoroughfare branches at a right angle 
toward the east. This is known as the Long Acre road. On pass 
ing our picket line, orders had been given to take possession of 
all carts, wagons, horses, mules, or other means of transport, 
together with the owners thereof, the latter being temporarily 
held in custody to prevent information of our movements being 
conveyed to the enemy. These men were mostly left at the 
junction of the Washington and Long Acre roads, in charge of a 
guard consisting of Company B and a part of Company C, under 
command of Captain Griswold, which force picketed the roads 
and kept open a line of retreat for the main force. Here was a 
blacksmith s shop, in which the prisoners were allowed to huddle 
for shelter from the (to them) severe and inclement weather, 
while the forms of their more hardy guard of Northern men, 
grouped about the fires by the roadside, under the keen winter 
sky, filled in the ever-present element of the picturesque. 
An officer of Company B describes the scene thus : 

" Early in the evening the scene was somewhat striking. The rude 
blacksmith s hut, near which was our picket reserve, was glowing with 
light from fires which the prisoners had been permitted to make inside. 
Two sentries stood at the door, half in light, half in shade. Outside, 
groups of our men were huddled about three or four charcoal fires, which 
gleamed redly from the roadside. Captured carts and horses were tied to 
the fence. Stacks of arms stood in the road. Occasional laughs from the 
prisoners inside, the subdued conversation of our men, the clank of offi 
cers swords, the distant barking of dogs, the tinkling of a cow-bell, the 
grunting and squealing of rooting hogs, the clattering of geese, the doleful 
cry of the coon, mingled to render the sounds of the night more apparent, 
and to puzzle our pickets, placed as they were in lonely and secluded 
spots. During the night - s platoon, picketing the Washington road, 
was alarmed and drawn up in line to repel what turned out to be a row 
of stumps." 

A cypress-swamp has peculiarities of its own. Insidiously they 
creep upon you. You are marching along the dry, dead level of 
the open country. Soon trees appear skirting the road on either 



152 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

hand, growing closer and closing in as you advance, until pres 
ently you find that you have passed completely within their 
shade, and the road sinks as you proceed within the gloom of the 
thick masses of rank green foliage, with gnarled roots, half out 
of ground, the trees on tiptoe, as it were, struggling to overtop 
each other and free themselves from the muddy ooze from which 
they spring. 

Midway of the breadth of this belt of darkness runs a deep 
and narrow stream, at right angles to the road, which has now 
sloped down until it is at the summer level of the stream, 
which it crosses at a single bound by means of a bridge, always 
of wood, springing high above the current in order not to be 
swept away in the wet season, when the waters are abroad and 
fill the swamp from side to side and cover the road to unknown 
depths; stealing out from the darkness upon the one hand, to 
gleam above the sunken track for an instant, and then to dis 
appear in silence and gloom upon the other. 

In the days before the war there had been maintained along 
side each road through the swamp a walk, consisting of a line of 
single planks, or of logs with the upper surface hewn flat, these 
being supported upon posts set somewhat away from the wagon- 
track, and just at the edge of the woods. Upon these the skilful 
native passed, dry-shod, over the raging waters. On the night of 
Feb. 7, 1863, a swamp of this character one-half mile (some said 
one and one-half miles) in width, lay between us and our booty. 
Twas ever thus in North Carolina. Were we to halt for dinner, 
were we to bivouac for the night, were we to do anything in par 
ticular, the happy spot, the shining shore, was always the farther 
shore of a swamp, and the waters were abroad. 

But who that passed through this swamp this night will ever 
forget it? The path through the black woods; splash a little 
water; splash again more water; over the shoes cold; over 
the ankles ice-cold, with the blood of the snow melted into it. 
But we are in and must go through. No use dodging; though 
some get upon the remains of the foot-walk, they slip and plunge 
into deeper water beyond ; or, saving this, are induced by the 
mildly persuasive voice of the colonel to forego their advantage 
and share the lot of their fellows in the road, whose legs by 



THE PLYMOUTH EXPEDITION. 



153 



this time knee-deep in the water are fast losing all feeling, and 
are but little better than legs of wood as we mount the bridge 
and enter the flood upon the farther side. 

In due time we reached dry ground and, passing over a few 
miles of high, rolling land covered with plantations, finally 
reached our destination (namely, the smoke-houses, which were 
situated about fourteen miles from Plymouth) at 9 P. M. 

Here some time was spent in collecting such of the fatness 
of the land as it was thought best to transfer to loyal posses 
sion. This work the regular part of it was done by detach 




ments to whom the duty was assigned ; while considerable vol 
unteer foraging was accomplished by numbers of enterprising 
privates and non-commissioned officers, resulting in the capture 
of the usual fowls, pigs, and apple-jack, tin cans, coffee-pots, odds 
and ends, and one man reported a lot of hymn-books. The 
official result, as stated by the colonel in his report, consisted of 
twenty-two horses and mules, sixteen carts, and 3,385 pounds 
of bacon, which latter circumstance gave to this night s work 
the name of the " Ham Fat March." Of this, little more remains 
to be said. Our guards were called in, and the return march 
commenced at midnight. 

It was the fortune of the writer to be with the rear company 
upon the return trip. Since we had passed the swamp upon our 
outward way, and while our foraging was going on, the moon 
had come up high over the woods, and the spectacle of that 
home tramp through the water was one long to be remembered. 



154 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Straight out before us, in the brilliant moonlight, went five hun 
dred men, laughing, shouting, splashing and tossing the water, 
still as cold, and now, in the clear moonlight, as brilliant as jewels 
of ice. In the midst of all this were mounted the field officers, 
and, hurried along by their escort, came the teams which had 
been impressed into the service for the night, and for any duty 
that might be put upon them. 

If comrades and thought to save a second wetting, 

and took possession of a disengaged mule-cart for the return trip, 
and if in the midst of the deepest water the pin came out and 
they went under, to the great delight of their fellows, the Muse 
of History shall record the fact, but will hide their names (which 
she knows) in her heart, lest future descendants of these heroes 
fall out among themselves and call her a beldame and an igno 
ramus for not recording (what she does not know) who got the 
first wetting. 

At 5.30 the next morning, Sunday, February 8, we reached 
Plymouth, wet, tired, and hungry, and at once sought such food 
and shelter as were to be had. This was our last day in Plym 
outh, the lack of fuel obliging the " Northerner " to leave the 
river earlier than might otherwise have been the case. We went 
on board that afternoon, passed down the river, and, after anchor 
ing at Roanoke Island and securing a supply of coal, arrived at 
New Berne on the evening of Tuesday, February 10. 

Landing upon the south side of the Trent River, we crossed the 
bridge, whence a march through the city soon brought us to our 
barracks, which opened their gleaming and freshly whitewashed 
arms to receive us. 

Thus ended the Plymouth expedition of February, 1863. To 
give historical finish to the narrative, Colonel Lee s official 
report is given in full below. 

REPORT OF COLONEL FRANCIS L. LEE. 

HEADQUARTERS FORTY-FOURTH REGIMENT MASS. VOL. MILITIA, 
CAMP STEVENSON, NEW BERNE, Feb. 14, 1863. 

CAPTAIN, I have the honor to report that in obedience to order of 
Jan. 31, 1863, I embarked my command on steamer "Northerner" and 
arrived at Plymouth, N. C., at 4 p. M. on February 2. 



THE PLYMOUTH EXPEDITION. 155 

Upon landing I consulted with Major Bartholomew, Twenty-seventh 
Massachusetts Regiment, commander of the post, in regard to closing the 
lines ; but learning from him that information of our arrival and probable 
force had undoubtedly been sent forward to the enemy even before our 
arrival, I deemed it unwise to interfere with existing arrangements in 
regard to passing the lines. 

Learning that Commodore Flusser was absent, I proceeded in company 
with Major Bartholomew to inspect the location of his pickets and his 
preparations for defence, and found the pickets well placed, his precau 
tions against surprise sufficient, and every advantage taken of the nat 
ural defences of the town, the major having almost completed a ditch 
connecting the two swamps lying south of the town. Inside of this 
ditch, which is about six feet in depth and about fifteen feet wide, the 
earth is thrown up sufficiently high to afford shelter for sharpshooters. 
Major Bartholomew proposes to erect a small block-house where the 
Long Acre road crosses this ditch, and also one upon the Jamesville 
road at the crossing of the ditch. My carpenters built drawbridges for 
each of these roads, and I would respectfully suggest that two field how 
itzers would render the defence of these roads easy against any force 
likely to be brought against them, and that they are most earnestly de 
sired by Major Bartholomew. I would also recommend a further supply 
of axes and shovels, as the want of these tools prevents Major Bartholo 
mew from availing himself fully of the services of the contrabands in 
his command. 

Upon the Long Acre road the picket is stationed at the ditch, about 
three-quarters of a mile from the custom-house, with an outer picket of 
five men half a mile in advance at the junction of the road with the Lee s 
Mill road. At this point there is a blockade of trees fallen across the 
road. 

Upon the Columbia road the picket is established just west of the 
bridge, crossing Coneby Creek, about two miles from the custom-house. 
This bridge is taken up each night and affords an easy and sure defence, 
as the creek is very deep. 

Upon the Jamesville road the picket is at the ditch, about one mile 
from the custom-house, and a cavalry vedette is stationed about half a 
mile in advance. 

Upon inquiring as to the probable force and location of the enemy, I 
learned from Major Bartholomew that he, in company with Commodore 
Flusser, had, on January 30, made a reconnoissance as far as Jamesville 
on the gunboat " Commodore Perry," shelling the woods at various points 
but finding no signs of the presence of the enemy. It was the opinion of 
Major Bartholomew that the position and strength of the enemy was as 
follows : Two companies of the Seventeenth North Carolina Regiment at 
Rainbow Bluff, with two field pieces ; the remainder of that regiment, with 



156 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

four field pieces, in the vicinity of the bluff, anywhere between Hamilton 
and Williamston ; four companies of infantry some seven miles northwest 
of Washington, and the remainder of their regiment at or near Greenville ; 
three companies of cavalry scouting anywhere between the Tar and 
Roanoke Rivers. 

A cavalry scout to Ward s Bridge, some four miles from town, failed to 
discover any signs of Rebel scouts, though they learned that parties of two 
or three cavalrymen had been seen in that vicinity within a week. 

Commodore Flusser arrived on the evening of the 2d of February, and 
after consultation I arranged to go with my regiment on his three gunboats 
to Williamston, starting the next morning at seven o clock and landing at 
Williamston or Jamesville as might be thought best, the landing party to 
be supported by three boat howitzers and their crews, under command of 
Lieutenant Furness, of the " Valley City." On the following morning a 
drifting snow-storm rendered any advance by land or water impossible ; 
the impassable state of the roads also prevented an expedition to Windsor 
to confiscate bacon packed for Rebel use. 

On Friday, February 6, finding that no coal could be furnished to our 
transport by the Navy, and that my pioneers were unable to supply the 
requisite quantity of wood, I was obliged to send out some three miles to 
buy and draw some dry wood belonging to Mr. Harrison, a loyal man 
living on the Long Acre road. Before starting the wagons Major Bar 
tholomew told me that he had good reason to believe that many of the 
inhabitants upon that road had abused their protection papers by smug 
gling out salt in larger quantities than they needed for home consump 
tion ; that they had packed large stores of bacon intended for the use 
of the Rebel troops; that he thought an examination and confiscation of 
a portion of their bacon, if found in such large quantities, would be de 
sirable. I therefore took four of my companies and went some thirteen 
miles out, taking on the way the horses, mules, and carts to transport 
the pork if found. I examined the farms of the persons suspected, and 
finding from two to three tons of bacon, took from four of them 3.385 
pounds, leaving much, for want of transportation, which I think would 
properly have been brought away. This bacon, with twenty-two horses 
and mules and sixteen carts, I handed over to Major Bartholomew, leav 
ing it to his judgment to return any of the horses and carts to persons 
in whose loyalty he had confidence, and directing him to see that quar 
termaster s receipts for the property taken should be given to the parties, 
in order that if they could rebut the testimony with regard to their sym 
pathy and aid for the Rebel cause they might receive payment from the 
Government. 

On Sunday morning, being informed by the captain of our transport 
that unless we started then he would be obliged to lay at Plymouth until 
coal was found him, and my rations not being sufficient for over two days 



THE PLYMOUTH EXPEDITION. 157 

longer, I left Plymouth that afternoon, and after anchoring at Roanoke for 
coal, arrived here on the evening of Tuesday, February 10. 
Yours, with respect, 

FRANCIS L. LEE, 
Colonel Commanding Forty-fourth Regiment M, V. M. 

Captain ANDREW STEWART, 

Assistant Adjutant- General. 

P. S. Enclosed please find instructions received from headquarters 
relative to the movement above stated. 

[Indorsement.] 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 

NEW BERNE, N. C., February 15, 1863. 

Approved and respectfully forwarded. 

H. W. WESSELLS, 
Brigadier- General Volunteers. Commanding. 



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CHAPTER IX. 

WASHINGTON. 1 




^ "^ N Sunday, March 15, 
"**& (, the day following the 
, Y ; attack on Fort An- 

/ /^^*r 

: J derson, things had 
seemingly returned to 
their usual state ; the 
ordinary routine of inspec 
tion, etc., was followed, and 
nothing uncommon happened 
until late in the afternoon. 
At half-past five o clock, 
while Company G were draw 
ing their supper at the cook-house 
window, Lieutenant Odiorne came 
in, saying, " Boys, we Ve got march 
ing orders," adding that we were to 
carry shelter-tents, and in fact could 
" go heavy," as we should probably have no marching to do, 
" and be ready to move in half an hour." 

The manner in which the news was received was in marked 
contrast with the wild excitement caused by the orders for the 
Tarboro and Goldsboro expeditions ; few remarks were made ; 
the knapsacks had been packed since the day before ; the men 
went on getting their supper, and ate it quietly, without any 
hurry; and in half an hour the company was ready to fall in, 

1 The author of this chapter wishes to state that it was put into his hands by the 
Historical Committee at the last moment, having been then given up by the one 
first selected to write it; and that it has been impossible, in the short time allotted 
to him, to look up any material except what was placed in his hands by the Com 
mittee, and what he could draw from his own recollection and memoranda. 




160 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

haversacks and canteens full, blankets rolled, and knapsacks ready 
to sling. Our winter s experience had given us that quality of 
the veteran by virtue of which, realizing the uncertainty of any 
present condition, he troubles himself about no future, but ac 
cepts in a philosophic spirit what the day may bring forth. 

Our destination was understood to be " Little " Washington. 
At seven o clock the whole regiment, with the exception of Com 
panies F and B, which were on picket, was on board the " Escort." 
It was pretty close packing ; the men slept on the decks every 
where ; the writer found his place in the starboard gangway on 
the freight deck, and woke in the morning in about three inches 
of water, which was brought in by the paddle-wheels, the boat 
being very low in the water. I remember one squad of men 
pitched a shelter-tent on the upper deck near the pilot-house ; 
however, as we knew the trip was to be a short one, this crowding 
was regarded with great unconcern. A mail of newspapers was 
distributed while we were on board, which were very welcome, 
and served to pass the time, always tedious enough on these 
passages. 

At about three o clock of Monday, the i6th, the boat drew up to 
the wharf in Washington ; the houses in the town still bore the 
marks of the raid made upon it the autumn before by the enemy; 
one house was pitted all over with a stand of heavy canister-shot ; 
another had two eight-inch shot-holes through it. In the river just 
below the bridge lay the gunboat " Louisiana," thereafter looked 
upon by us as a tower of strength ; and many a time within the 
next four weeks did we welcome the roar of her eight-inch pivot- 
gun as an assurance of safety. 

The whole town turned out to see us land ; the street swarmed 
with darkeys, " without regard to age, sex, color, condition, or 
previous condition of servitude ; " many of the women with ginger 
bread and fruit for sale drove a roaring trade. Among the crowd 
were many of the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, and some North 
Carolina volunteers, but the native white civilian was scarce. 

After waiting awhile here in the street we were marched to the 
westerly end of the town, to a large cornfield in the rear of the 
house of J. Grist, Esq., afterwards better known to us as a (sup 
posed) bitter Rebel; but who, I have since been assured, was our 



WASHINGTON. 



161 



stanch friend, having done us substantial services during our stay. 
Ranks were broken, with orders to pitch our shelter-tents and 
camp for the night. The tents were pitched that night with 
muskets for tent-poles ; and no regular order of lay-out having 
been given, the result was most picturesque, particularly after 
dark, when the tents were lighted up. In some cases as many as 
ten or twelve sections of shelter would be used to form a tent to 
cover as many men. Myself and mates smoothed down the corn- 
hills of our floor, in so doing scraping the dry sand from the 
surface, a piece of work which we bitterly rued before morning. 
After pitching the tents we walked out to investigate our situation. 
It was near where Fort Gouraud afterwards stood ; south of us 
was the river, east of us the town, north and northwest the line 
of earthworks, and west, at the point where the line touched the 
river, Blockhouse No. I, afterwards familiar to Company D. 

It was a clear, cold night, and with only a rubber blanket be 
tween us and the raw surface of sand we had more rawly exposed, 
myself and mates 
shivered through 
it; the writer 
hopes never to 
sleep so cold 
again he never 
has, so far. Upon 
rising in the 
morning we 
found a thick 
feathery coating 
of hoar-frost on 
the outside of our 
tent and over 

everything; as soon as the sun had removed this, orders were 
given to strike the tents and pitch them with proper tent- 
poles, in regular streets, two streets to a company, three men 
to a tent. Most of them were properly pitched and ditched 
about; but some, ambitious of more headroom, dug six or 
eight inches below the surface to lay their floors, with disas 
trous results in the rains which occurred later. This work was 




1 62 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

finished by noon, and cooking-shanties of quite picturesque 
appearance were also built at the upper end of each company s 
camp. 

This was Tuesday, the i/th; during the day the enemy s ad 
vance made its appearance south of the river, though we at the 
time did not know it. The "Louisiana" pitched a few shells into 
the woods in the afternoon, but it caused little excitement in the 
camp, as we did not then know that it was the enemy s advance 
that was being shelled. In the afternoon details were made to 
work on the intrenchments, principally in lengthening and height 
ening traverses, besides laying out a few new ones. 

Washington lies on the north side of the Tar River, at its junc 
tion with the Pamlico (or Pamplico, as some maps give it) ; before 
the war it was actively engaged in the lumber trade, and its river 
front is lined with wharves and warehouses, one of which latter, 
of brick, had been loopholed to be used as a place of refuge and 
defence for the garrison in case of need. 

The town extends for about a mile along the river-bank, and 
back into the country for perhaps half that distance ; it is almost 
surrounded in the rear by low swampy ground, from which rises 
a row of hills encircling it from the river above to the river below ; 
on the south side the river-bank is wooded, and the swamp 
extends inland some distance ; the banks of the river below the 
town are comparatively high, and clayey, and afforded excel 
lent positions for the blockading batteries afterwards placed 
there. 

On the north side three roads run out from the town : beginning 
on the left, the Greenville road running nearly northwest, the 
Jamesville road running northeast, and the Plymouth road nearly 
eastward ; on the south side, only the New Berne road, which 
crosses the bridge. 

The defences of the town consisted, at the time of our occupa 
tion, of a line of earthworks, of good profile but \veak trace, ex 
tending from the river-bank about a mile above the bridge to the 
creek about as far below, following the line of low hills next the 
town; in the centre was Fort Washington, on a slight rising 
ground, commanded however by the main line of hills before 
referred k to, about half a mile away. It was a small, square, 



WASHINGTON. 



163 



bastioned work, mounting four thirty-two-pounders, one of them 
rifled, two six-pound steel Wiard rifles, and two twelve-pound 
Napoleon guns. Fort Hamilton, on the extreme right, was of 
irregular trace, and mounted two twelve-pound Napoleons, one 
thirty-pounder Parrott, and one thirty-two-pounder Rodman gun. 
Blockhouses numbered from one to four in the order in which 
they are here mentioned were placed at the extreme left on 
the river, at the Greenville road, between the Jamesville and 
Plymouth roads, and on the extreme right at Fort Hamilton. 
They were strong log buildings, loopholed for musketry, banked 




. ; 



and ditched, and armed as follows: Nos. i, 2, and 3, each one six- 
pounder; No. 4, one twelve-pounder. In an epaulement command 
ing the Jamesville road was mounted a thirty-two-pounder. 

Around Fort Washington was a line of rifle-pits and a good 
abatis, and the intervals between the blockhouses Nos. I and 2 
and the lines were also filled with abatis. Traverses had been 
thrown up at various points along the main line, and were after 
wards extended and added to as occasion demanded. 

During the investment a small work was thrown up on the 
Grist place near our first camp, named, as I have always under 
stood, from Major Gouraud of the Third New York Cavalry, 



1 64 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

though on the map it is called Fort Ceres ; it mounted one thirty- 
pound Parrott and one twelve-pound rifled howitzer. 

In the river lay the gunboats " Louisiana," " Eagle," and " Com 
modore Hull," which contributed materially to the defence of the 
place. Just above the bridge and near our camp lay the wreck 
of the gunboat " Picket." 

The garrison before our arrival consisted of eight companies of 
the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, one company First North Car 
olina Volunteer Infantry, Captain Lyon, one company Third New 
York Cavalry, and Battery G, Third New York Artillery, about 
600 men in all. Our arrival and the arming of a force of negroes, 
which was done by Colonel Lee, raised our numbers to 1160. 

By Wednesday, the i8th, we had settled down to routine work, 
guard-mounting, company and battalion drills, as usual. This 
day there was a brigade dress-parade ; but the writer, being on 
guard, was not present. The guard was quartered in a corn-barn 
belonging to Mr. Grist. 

In the evening a violent shower and gale demoralized many of 
the tents ; but, thanks to the Tapleyish spirit of the boys, the 
demoralization spread no farther. This night the roads were 
picketed by Company I. 

Thursday, the iQth, it began to rain. At night Company D 
was sent out on picket, and an attack was evidently expected. 
At about half-past four the next morning, Friday the 2Oth, Com 
pany E was ordered out and marched to the edge of the swamp 
beyond Blockhouse No. I. The rest of the regiment were also 
turned out and stationed on the lines, where we remained until 
daylight. The tents having become very damp, the regiment 
was now sent into the town and quartered in various deserted 
buildings, Company G being in the Farmers Hotel. 

Saturday, the 2ist, the rain still continuing, we were routed out, 
for a change, at 3.30 A. M., and remained under arms, as before, 
until roll-call. While we lay behind the lines we saw the light of 
a considerable fire on the farther side of the river. This day 
came in two deserters from Roger A. Pryor s brigade, who stated 
that the enemy had been in heavy force within twenty miles of 
us, but that the rain had so cut up the roads that they were 
impassable to their artillery ; which was not improbable, as they 



WASHINGTON. 165 

were difficult for our cavalry. They said also that the officer in 
command at Charleston had called away all the troops that could 
be spared. 

Sunday, the 22d, it was still raining. Services were held in 
several churches. This night Company G picketed the Jamesville 
road ; the writer was in the reserve, and has a most vivid memory 
of sitting and shivering in the drizzle, with a tour of sentry duty in 
the road about dawn as a variation, until it was time to go in. 

The next day, Monday the 23d, the steamer " North Shore " 
arrived with ten days rations and our sutler; which, looking like 
a longer sojourn here, rather discouraged the majority of us who 
had come away with only the clothes we stood in, leaving our 
others with the "aunties" who had taken them to wash in New 
Berne. In the afternoon we were ordered back to our tents on 
the Grist estate. 

Tuesday, the 24th, was a day of routine duty; drill, etc., being 
the staple of the diaries. Our friend Grist went out of the place 
this day, but little regretted by us. 

From this time until the 30th our life was simply the usual 
monotonous routine of camp duty; there was more or less heavy 
rain, and those w r ho had sunk their tent floors below the level of 
" the surrounding country " were drowned out and thrown upon 
the hospitality of those in drier shelters whose " chums" were on 
guard or other detail. 

On Monday, the 3Oth, General Foster and his staff arrived from 
Plymouth, and the effect of his presence was at once manifest in 
an increased activity. He at once inspected the works, and took 
measures to improve their defensibility, details being set to work 
everywhere ; orderlies rode to and fro, and reconnoitring parties 
were pushed out on all the roads. It is with the one on the New 
Berne road that this history chiefly has to do. 

About eleven o clock Companies A and G were assembled, 
carrying only arms and canteens, and under the command of 
Captain James M. Richardson of Company A marched down 
toward the bridge; on the way we were joined by about a dozen 
cavalrymen under Lieutenant " Teddy " O Brien, and a squad of 
artillerymen drawing a Wiard three-inch rifle ; the whole party 
was under command of Captain Richardson. 



1 66 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Passing out upon the bridge, the tread of the column caused it 
to shake before our whole length had fairly got out upon it. I 
remember Captain Richardson turning and calling out, " Break 

step, boys, or we ll shake the d d thing down into the river ! " 

which was accordingly done. Passing off the bridge we came 
upon the road, bordered on both sides by the swamp, of unknown 
depth ; about a mile out a halt was made, and a shell fired up the 
road, with what effect, if any, I do not know. This was repeated 
several times ; about a mile farther on we came to a low line of 
earthworks at the crest of a slight rise, where some one picked 
up a bright tin canteen of a different pattern from ours. Here we 
assumed a formation not set down in the tactics, marching by the 
right flank undoubled, each rank on its side of the road, Company 
G taking the advance ; the writer, being in the rear rank, was on 
the right of the road ; at the head was a sort of squad of skirmish 
ers consisting of Orderly Sergeant Hobart, Corporal Lawrence, 
Adams (VV. W.), Leonard, Holden, Eliot, and Jones of Company 
G ; with them, and on the left of the road, were Captains Hunt and 
Richardson and Lieutenant O Brien. At the foot of the little 
hill a brook crossed the road ; the planks had been taken up, leav 
ing only the roughly squared string-pieces, on which we crossed. 
I do not remember seeing anything of the cavalry or infantry 
after crossing the brook, until we returned to the earthwork 
above mentioned. We moved out beyond the brook perhaps a 
hundred yards ; in front of us was a brush barricade across the 
road, which gave no signs of being occupied, so far as the writer 
knows, until, when we were within some fifty yards of it, a volley, 
immediately followed by another, was fired from it in our very 
faces; a third volley followed before we could start to deploy, 
which we did at once without waiting for the order; that, how 
ever, came promptly in Captain Hunt s voice, " Deploy ! deploy ! " 
We formed an irregular skirmish-line, taking the benefit of such 
trees as offered, and opened a fire, noisy if not effective. The 
fire of the enemy, from smooth-bore muskets with both buck- 
and-ball and the half round " Mississippi" bullet, was principally 
confined to the road. After a few minutes of this we heard the 
call, " Fall back, men, fall back ! " which we did, keeping as long as 
we could in the shelter of the swamp, but finding the water growing 



WASHINGTON. 1 67 

deeper as we approached the stream, were at last forced to take 
to the road ; the writer was one of the last to get in. When we 
struck the road, about a hundred yards from the barricade from 
which the enemy were firing, w r e at once found ourselves under a 
heavy and close musketry-fire from apparently a hundred men or 
more ; we knew nothing of what might have happened, but we ran 
literally " for dear life." The dust pattered up in the road where 
the bullets grazed, and it seemed as if the next shot must bring 
one down, but the writer for one ran fast and straight. The man 
preceding me slipped on the timber and soused up to his neck in 
the brook ; but before he had scrambled out I was across the log 
and on my way up the slope. As we got farther away the fire be 
came less serious, and presently we were beckoned by some one 
at the top of the hill to take the sides of the road ; as we did so 
a shell from the VViard rifle passed us. We assembled at the 
little line of earthworks, one or t\vo stopping by the way to take 
a last shot ; then we looked around to see who was missing. 

Orderly Sergeant Hobart, Corporal Lawrence, Private Leonard, 
killed or wounded, no one seemed to know definitely. Captain 
Richardson sat on a horse belonging to one of the cavalrymen, 
looking weak, and evidently " hard hit." As the companies fell 
in, Captain Hunt went to him for orders. " Do the best you can, 
Charley," I heard him say. We immediately started on our return, 
a platoon of Company A under Lieutenant Coffin being detailed 
to act as rear-guard. The march was quick, though not espe 
cially hurried, that I can remember. Once we halted to transfer 
Captain Richardson, who had become too weak from loss of blood 
to sit his horse, to the gun-carriage. About half-way back the 
now familiar shriek of an eight-inch shell made us all duck and 
then grin at each other as we realized that it was going in the 
direction from whence we were coming, and was in fact from the 
" Louisiana," and fired to cover our retreat. 

We arrived in camp without further misadventure. Our losses 
turned out to be as follows: Captain Richardson, flesh wounds 
in left arm and shoulder, and had lost much blood ; Sergeant 
Hobart, seriously wounded, perhaps mortally; Private Leonard, 
apparently seriously wounded ; Corporal Lawrence, unknown. 
We had brought in Captain Richardson, but the others we had 



1 68 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

been obliged to leave, General Foster, upon application for per 
mission to send out a flag of truce with an ambulance, saying that 
he doubted if a flag would be respected just then ; but those who 
escaped unmarked, at least in Company G, were few, grazed 
skins, cut clothes, and damaged arms and equipments being the 
rule. It seems we were sent to find where the enemy s -picket 
reserves were ; we found them. 

Lieutenant O Brien was said to have left for the rear at the first 
volley, his clothing wounded in divers places, with the remark 

that " He d be d d if he was going to be killed in any little 

infantry skirmish ! " It appears to have been at this little party of 
officers and men on the left of the road that the first volley was 
principally directed, as all who were wounded seem to have been 
hit by this volley. 

At the same time the enemy appeared on the roads on the 
north side of the river, driving in the pickets, and a general attack 
being apprehended, measures were taken accordingly. The regi 
ment was ordered out on the line of the works; Companies E, C, 
and D, with a company of the First North Carolina, were formed 
in line as a reserve in the rear of Fort Washington. 

The weather, which had been bright and warm in the forenoon, 
had by this time become overcast and cold, and towards night 
it set in to rain, much to the discomfort of the men on the line. 

About dark a rocket was sent up from Fort Washington, burst 
ing over the Greenville road, as a signal to direct the fire of the 
gunboats. 

We lay behind the line in the rain all night, the gunboats 
shelling the woods in our front, their shells passing over our heads 
at short intervals. 

In the evening Captain Lyon of the First North Carolina, with 
a force variously stated as one and two companies, was sent down 
the river to Rodman s Point with orders to intrench and hold it 
against the enemy. The gunboat " Commodore Hull " also 
dropped down the stream to cover his position. At daybreak 
they were attacked and driven to the river-bank with a loss of 
eight wounded, in spite of strenuous resistance on their part, 
seconded by the fire of the " Hull." 

While they were trying to put off, one of their flatboats grounded 



WASHINGTON. 169 

hard and fast; the men were lying flat to escape the terrible 
musketry-fire ; one of the negro boatmen remarking, " Some 
body s got to die to git us out of dis, and it may as well be 
me," deliberately got out of the boat and pushed it off, falling 
into it pierced by five bullets. Dr. Ware afterwards amputated 
a leg and cut out part of the bone of one arm, " but the man 
died/ an instance of pure heroism unsurpassed by any the 
war affords. 

The enemy who seized Rodman s Point brought with them a 
battery of English Whitworth guns, which they afterwards placed 
in the battery they threw up there ; and more than once or twice 
during the siege the peculiar sound of their projectiles was heard 
passing over Company G s position from the right and rear. Much 
to our comfort we learned that two of them were burst by trying 
to use home-made ammunition. 

On this day, the 3ist, it is said that Hill ordered an assault on 
our works. The men were already drawn up and all dispositions 
made for the attack ; but the apparent strength of the works when 
reconnoitred, and the evident unwillingness of the men, caused 
the attempt to be given up. Be this as it may, this morning 
Hill summoned the town to surrender. The summons was ad 
dressed to "The Colonel in Command," and offered twenty-four 
hours to send out the women and children. General Foster 
would not allow the flag to enter the place, but sent out officers 
to meet it. When they reported at the Fort, officers of Battery G 
heard him say, " Go back and tell them if they want Washing 
ton, come and take it." When this reply was returned as com 
ing from the General, the Confederate officer is said to have ex- 

o 

claimed, " My God ! is General Foster here? " 

This day the enemy began to throw up works to shelter 
their batteries at the edge of the woods near the left of their line, 
and upon being discovered were promptly shelled from Fort 
Hamilton and Blockhouse No. 4. 

To-day also Virgil Gilbert, a civilian from the " Louisiana," ran 
the blockade in a lighter, with despatches for the gunboats below. 
The blockade consisted of a row of piles in the river nearly opposite 
Hill s Point, crossing the stream and leaving only an opening 
close under the guns of the battery there. Batteries were also 



I/O FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

planted at other points, notably Rodman s Point, the guns at 
which place afterwards caused us much annoyance. In short, 
we found we had to do with an active and enterprising enemy. 

The batteries at Hill s Point were cut in the high clay bank so 
as to be practically invulnerable to the guns of our fleet. 

Wednesday, April I, the battery at Rodman s Point, mounting 
two Whitworths and a Parrott rifle, and also a battery some dis 
tance above, with one thirty-two-pounder, opened on the right 
of the line and Fort Hamilton, where Company C was stationed ; 
one Whitworth shot went through the corner of Blockhouse 
No. 4, tearing blankets, knapsacks, etc., and scattering the con 
tents of a big box of cayenne-pepper, causing much sneezing; 
the town also came in for a share of these favors. 

The " Louisiana " could hardly be sprung so as to bring her 
broadside to bear on the upper battery, but the enemy s fire was 
returned briskly by all the gunboats. Between eight and nine 
o clock the " Commodore Hull " was obliged to change her posi 
tion, and in doing so, grounded, the water in the river being very 
low on account of several days westerly winds. She became a 
target for the enemy s Whitworths, being hit over a hundred 
times, and two or three shells exploding on board. Several of 
her guns were disabled, and three of her crew wounded; but the 
engines escaped without injury. 

The working parties in Fort Hamilton spent a good part of 
their time in dodging shells ; and along the whole line details 
were at work, heightening, extending, and thickening traverses. 
At the one where the writer was posted, a return at a considerable 
angle was thrown up to cover us from the W hitworth projectiles 
from Rodman s Point. The transports, with Prince s brigade, ar 
rived in sight this day. Foster sent down orders to Prince to land 
his troops ; but Prince reported it to be impracticable, and it was 
not done. The town was now completely invested, and all commu 
nication with our forces outside had to be held by running the 
blockade in sail-boats and lighters. Ammunition also was found 
to be running short. The investing force consisted of Daniel s 
Brigade of Infantry, five regiments ; Garnett s Brigade of Infantry, 
six regiments ; Pettigrew s Brigade of Infantry, six regiments ; 
Robertson s Brigade of Cavalry, three regiments ; artillery 



WASHINGTON. I/I 

amounting to forty guns, and some independent battalions, which 
made up the total to close upon 15,000. 

No regular siege operations were carried on, but the enemy 
seemed to rely upon starving us out, and annoyed us in the mean 
time with his artillery. We often heard from his pickets that they 
had " got us just where they wanted us," had " got us bagged," 
etc. About midnight the " Hull " got afloat, and took position 
abreast of the town ; firing ceased on both sides at nightfall. 

The New Berne road was picketed this night by a detachment 
from Company C, who learned from the Rebel pickets that our 
wounded were at a house some two miles up the road, with good 
medical attendance, and in care of ladies, and doing well. Hobart 
was shot through the left lung, not considered dangerously, 
Leonard had lost his right eye, and Lawrence was slightly 
wounded in the neck with a buckshot. 

Thursday morning, the 2cl, the gunboats below ran up and 
engaged the Hill s Point battery, but without effect, and after 
considerable expenditure of valuable ammunition dropped down 
the river again, being the first of a daily series of such perform 
ances. Renshaw says of the boats within the lines : 

" The 2d instant one hundred and twenty-one shot and shell of various 
calibre and description were fired at the gunboats and town by the enemy 
without doing any material damage. After consulting with General Foster 
I ordered that no notice should be taken by returning their fire. The 
enemy were briskly engaged during the latter part of the day erecting bat 
teries opposite our intrenchments." 

Virgil Gilbert ran the blockade up the river with despatches 
to-day; reports Rebel pickets all along the river-banks. A brisk 
fire was kept up on the right of our lines through the day by the 
Rodman s Point battery. 

Friday, the 3d, a new battery on Ellison s Hill, near the 
enemy s left, opened on the forts, making things especially lively 
for those in Fort Hamilton. Commodore Renshaw says: - 

" On the 3d instant, together with the two batteries that had been playing 
on us, a third one opened directly abreast of us, containing a rifled twelve- 
pounder distant about six hundred yards ; they succeeded in firing five 
shots, when it was silenced, our shells completely demolishing the work. 
The other two batteries fired ninety-eight shot and shell during the day." 



172 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The writer was on guard this day, and while on post saw a 
mounted man ride out from the cut in Red Hill, through which 
the Jamesville road passes, and, dismounting within some six or 
seven hundred yards of our lines, take a leisurely survey of them ; 
several thirty-two-pound shots were fired at him, but he paid 
them no attention until he got ready to go, when he mounted, 
and deliberately rode back into the cut. About ten o clock the 
gunboats below came up for the usual diversion at Hill s Point. 

Commodore Renshaw sent a small despatch-boat down to the 
fleet, under Master s Mate McKeever; he was fired at twenty-one 
times from Rodman s Point, and narrowly escaped being hit; 
was fired upon twice from Hill s Point. At 6 P.M., despatches 
were again sent down to General Palmer, who was below, but the 
boat was not fired upon. 

At night the " Ceres " gunboat, acting volunteer Lieutenant 
McDearmid commanding, ran the blockade with a supply of am 
munition, which, as already mentioned, was running short, as well 
as our commissary stores, with the exception of coffee ; meat had 
by this time disappeared from our rations, and we were reduced 
to two-thirds rations of bread ( eight hard-tack per day). Two 
men of the Twenty-seventh were badly injured in Fort Hamilton 
by a premature explosion of the thirty-two-pounder, being blown 
over the parapet. 

Saturday, the 4th, the Rodman s Point battery being reported 
abandoned, Companies H and K and two companies of the 
Twenty-seventh were sent down on the " Ceres " to occupy it, 
but with orders to return if the battery had not been removed. 
When well towards her destination two guns opened fire, and she 
turned to come back, but the river was so low that she grounded. 
Boats were immediately sent to her assistance, and the troops 
were brought back with the loss of three wounded. Commodore 
Renshaw says : 

"Fortunately no damage was done excepting two men who were 
wounded by the enemy s shrapnel. While the Ceres was aground she 
did good work with her guns. For want of ammunition, or being de 
ceived by her appearance, the enemy ceased firing, and all the troops, 
fortunately, were safely landed." 

In the evening the " Eagle " towed the " Ceres " off. 



WASHINGTON. 173 

About 2 P. M. a new battery was opened by the enemy on the 
Widow Blunt place, in rear of Fort Hamilton, but was soon 
silenced by our guns. They had two six-pound rifled guns, but 
their shot mostly fell short; they were seen from Fort Hamilton 
to come up and fire their guns, then run back and hide. We 
learned from the previous night s pickets that our wounded had 
been removed to Greenville. A tobacco ration was this day 
served in Company G, from the company fund, and thereafter 
every two or three days. 

Sunday, the 5th, was comparatively quiet on our part of the 
line by Blockhouse 2, but Hall (" History Third New York Artil 
lery") says under this date that the fire on the fort began to 
grow heavy. Ammunition was short and our fire slow and accu 
rate; the supply was now brought up by sail and row boats at 
night. The weather began to be warm, and we also began badly 
to feel the need of our spare clothing left at New Berne, as most 
of us had only what we wore when we left there, and wanted a 
change badly. Heavy firing reported, as usual, down the river; 
it was said that nine gunboats were seen below. 

Monday, the 6th, was warm and pleasant. Company G was 
formed in rear of its place on the line, and each platoon de 
ployed as skirmishers, and the skirmish-line marched up to the 
works ; then each man was directed to mark his place on the 
line, and construct a loophole to fire through, with a shelter for 
his head, which was done. The loopholes were revetted with 
sods, and in many instances were very neat and workmanlike 
affairs, commanding a good sweep, and completely sheltering 
the rifleman. Camp-fires were visible all about us. This day 
General Foster visited Fort Hamilton and directed the abatis 
strengthened on the land side ; also had the parapet loop- 
holed as above. Commodore Renshaw s report says : 

" An occasional shot from thirty-two-pounder in Rebel upper battery. 
The enemy busy at Rodman s clearing the woods and building a raft. 
About 4 p. M. an explosion at that point followed by the burning of a large 
building. At 8 p. M. started a dummy down the river ; the wind being 
light and the tide slack, it did not arrive off Rodman s until nearly 
IIP. M., when they opened fire from their batteries upon it, also volleys 
of musketry." 



174 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Tuesday, the /th, there was quite a lively little fight between 
the Rodman s Point and Widow Blunt batteries on the enemy s 
side, and Fort Hamilton and the " Eagle " on ours. Renshaw 
says : - 

" Having been informed that the enemy were fitting a steamer and two 
flats to come down the river, also that they were well protected by cotton- 
bales, I conferred with General Foster, and determined to build a naval 
battery in a position that commanded the channel above. At 10 P.M. a 
thirty-pound Parrott gun from the Ceres and a twelve-pound rifled how 
itzer from the Louisiana were in battery ready for action. The river 
was well protected two miles above by our torpedoes. One hundred and 
twelve shot and shell were fired from the enemy s batteries during the day 
at the gunboats and town without material injury ; none were replied to 
except one in the swamp, which was instantly silenced." 

With regard to the above, another account says : 

" The Rebels planted a gun in the swamp this morning and opened on 
the gunboats, which opened broadsides of one-second shells and canister, 
the range being only about one hundred yards. The firing from the boats 
was terrific, but for all this they managed to fire the gun once more, and 
I have not the least doubt that nearly every man there was killed, as they 
did not fire again." 



Another account says of the boys in the lines: 



" Opened again towards night. Down we go into the dirt. Both bat 
teries directed here, Widow s and Rodman s, also from 32 across the 
river. Shells burst directly over us. Some one stands on parapet to 
watch ; when he sees smoke at Rodman s cries out, and down we go 
close to the bank in that direction. Soon he is up again and cries 32 ! 
Down we go again. Again he rises, cries out Widow s ! Down again. 
Sometimes two batteries fire at the same time, but it s always all of thirty 
seconds after we see the smoke before the shot strikes." 

Thursday, the Qth, we were turned out at half-past three in the 
morning, but nothing unusual happened. Two schooners came 
up in the fog about one A. M., with fifteen tons of ammunition, 
and were fired into by our sentries. Nothing else of note hap 
pened this day. Artillery firing was heard during the afternoon 
which proceeded from Spinola s column, who had run against the 
enemy at Blount s Bridge. 

About noon of the 8th General Spinola, with a force of some 
5,000 infantry, including the Third, Fifth, Eighth, Seventeenth, 



WASHINGTON. 1/5 

and Forty-third Massachusetts, and the Fifth Rhode Island, with 
Riggs s, Ashbay s, Howells s, Belger s, and Ransom s batteries, 
started from New Berne to come overland to our relief. 

About noon the next day, the Qth, the head of the column 
came upon the enemy in force, in a strong, natural position at 
Blount s Creek. He was posted on a hill on the farther side of 
the creek, his flanks covered by a swamp, and his position was 
approachable only by a narrow mill-dam, completely enfiladed 
by his guns. Belger s battery was at once ordered forward, 
and opened, under a heavy fire of grape and canister from the 
enemy. Belger himself was wounded ; and some eight or ten 
more casualties having occurred in about two hours firing, 
Spinola gave up the idea of proceeding, and drew off" his men, 
having made no attempt either to force or to flank the enemy s 
position. He retreated direct to New Berne, marching with con 
siderable haste, and reached that place on the evening of the loth, 
with his men well used up with marching. So ended the only 
attempt made to relieve us from New Berne. An officer of the 
Seventeenth in a letter to a friend says : " It was considered a 
most perilous one, a forlorn hope. Most of the officers con 
sidered we were marching to entire defeat, and to death or a 
prison." There certainly seems to have been a plentiful lack of 
energy and capacity shown in the conduct of the expedition, and 
it seems very strange that the extended line of the enemy could 
not have been broken through by a force of at least one third of 
his own entire number, and with his forces divided by a river, the 
only bridge by which direct crossing could be made being closed 
to them. If the same dash and push had been shown as was 
done at Southwest Creek in the previous December, in a some 
what similar situation, it appears to the writer that a way might 
have been found to force or flank the position. 

Spinola s loss of the confidence of the men was quaintly ex 
pressed thereafter by a transposition of the letters of his name, 
he being familiarly mentioned as l< Pz-snola ; " he was also known 
as " General By-Jesus," and " General Dickey," in allusion to the 
high white collars which he then did and does still, we hear, 
make himself conspicuous by wearing. 

It was the custom of each company on the land side to picket 



1/6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

its own front; this night, the Qth, among Company G s detail 
were the writer s two tent-mates, Dolbeare and Atwood. We 
occupied a tent about the right of the line held by the company, 
and very near the second traverse on the right of Blockhouse 
No. 2. The well, on the top of the plateau on the western slope 
of which was our tent, was about a hundred yards to our right 
and rear; it was an old-fashioned affair, with curb and sweep and 
a "dug-out" trough, and with the tree beside it, and Company 
G s cook-house which stood " convanient," must have been a 
conspicuous object from the enemy s batteries on Red Hill. 

On the morning of Friday, the loth, my two comrades had 
come in from picket duty, and had turned in to make up their 
sleep ; about nine o clock I was engaged in hanging out my 
blanket to air behind the tent ; a squad of men were at the well, 
drawing water and washing, some of them stripped to the waist; 
some firing was going on as usual, but attracted no attention, until 
one shell seemed rather nearer than common, when I looked up 
just in time to see it burst, seemingly almost overhead ; the group 
at the well stood not on the order of their going, but scattered 
with more haste than dignity, some of them making comical ex 
hibitions in their endeavors to combine rapid locomotion with the 
completion of their interrupted toilet. I started to seize my gun 
and equipments, and to warn my comrades in the tent ; as I 
emerged with my traps in my hand, a second shell cracked as 
near as the first, and I saw a splinter come spinning and bound 
ing down the slope as I ran for my place at the next traverse ; 
when I got into its shelter I found most of the boys of the second 
platoon comfortably seated in the sand, with their backs to the 
traverse, laughing at those who had to come in later under fire, 
which was quite severe, coming apparently from eight guns in a 
new battery, the first to reach our part of the line; as we were 
on the left face of the salient between the fort and Blockhouse 
No. 2, the fire enfiladed us and took us slightly in reverse ; the 
mark of a shell in the inside of the line was noticed by the writer 
later in the day. 

The fort and blockhouses promptly turned their attention to 
the stranger, and in half an hour the firing was stopped so far as 
we were concerned. When this seemed definitely ascertained, a 



WASHINGTON. 



177 



detail of twenty of us were despatched to the town to see what 
lumber we could raise to make a roof for a splinter-proof. We 
went straight to the Grist place, where we found that his gin- 
house had disappeared, with the exception of its floor ; this we 
raised bodily from its foundations, and bore it back with us on 
our shoulders, with many groans but much satisfaction, and it 
became the principal factor in the construction of our " rat-hole," 
as we called it, of which the illustration will give as good an idea 
as I can do in writing ; it was a fair sample of the shelters made 




all along the line, though there were as many differences in detail 
as there were varying circumstances. 

The tent in the traverse ditch was occupied by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Cabot, who commanded that part of the line, and Cap 
tain Hunt; and according to the former was known to the officers 
as " Hotel Hunt." 

The enemy opened on us again about noon from the new bat 
tery, and again at dark ; but by that time our " rat-hole " was 
nearly finished, in spite of these interruptions. On the forenoon 
of this day Dr. Ware died. The news of his death cast a sadness 
over the whole regiment, as he had won his way into the confi 
dence and regard of the entire command. The fire on the fort 
this day was very intense, amounting, Hall says, to two hundred 
shots per hour. " The topmast of the flagstaff was shot away, 
bringing the flag down by the run. David Myrick of Battery G, 
Third New York Artillery, climbed the mast and nailed the flag 



178 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

to its place. Shots struck the pole above and below him while 
he was up there, and one of them jarred him down." 

When Colonel Cabot was quartered at our traverse, he asked 
for a man to act as orderly; upon which Colonel Lee called Cor 
poral Stephen A. Powers of Company G, and presented him in 
these words : " Here, Colonel, here s Corporal Powers ; he 11 sing 
you a comic song, dance you a jig, or shoot you a Rebel, which 
ever you want." Powers was thereupon duly accredited as Lieu 
tenant-Colonel s orderly, and obeyed and respected accordingly. 
He really was the life of the company, making fun of everything. 
On one occasion as we sat in the splinter-proof listening to the 
whir of the shell overhead he remarked, " Oh, thim s only pigeon- 
wings, boys ! " and shortly after broke into song with a parody of 
one of the songs of" II Recruitio," itself a parody: 

" We re the boys that s awful hungry, 

For there s nothing we can eat ; 
The bloody Rebs are trying to starve us, 
And we cannot now retreat ; " 

and all hands joined in the chorus. 

The position of sentry on this traverse was rather trying during 
the " morning exercises," and in one or two cases was filled, when 
a volunteer was called for, by Private Alden J. Adams, who was 
as gay when under fire as when safe and snug in the " rat-hole." 

And here it may be as well to explain hoiv we did guard duty 
at Washington. Each man of the platoon went on in rotation, 
there being two posts on the line between the traverse and the 
blockhouse, and the ceremony of a sentinel at Lieutenant-Colonel 
Cabot s headquarters being dispensed with. The tour of duty was, 
during the day, two hours ; at night, one. The sergeant of the 
guard sat with the corporal by a fire behind the works, at the 
meeting of the two beats ; at night, when a man s time was up, 
the corporal would hail him as he came to that end of his beat, 
"Your time s up, who relieves you? " " Cogswell, sir." "Well, 
go and wake him up." Having obeyed which order, the ex- 
sentry would turn into his own blankets without further cere 
mony. We thought this was getting guard duty " right down 
fine ; " and it certainly was a contrast to the elaborate guard- 
mountings of our New Berne quarters. 



WASHINGTON. 1 79 

Saturday, the nth, the batteries opened on us promptly when 
the river-fog cleared, about 8 A. M. The firing was quite rapid; 
most of the projectiles were twelve-pound Parrott fuse-shell, few 
of which burst, but most of them " tumbled " handsomely, making 
a great racket as they passed. There seemed to be also a few 
six-pound smooth-bores. Some of the shot reached the extreme 
left to-day, one falling in the river, very near two of Company 
D s men who were washing there at the time. 

Yesterday, when I returned to my tent to get my blankets, as 
we were to sleep in the splinter-proof, I found a shot-hole 
through the side toward the batteries ; in Company A one shot 
plunged through the " guy" end of a tent, picked up a knapsack, 
and out with it through the other side of the tent, tearing the 
guy to ribbons, and dropping the knapsack a little farther on, in 
a very demoralized condition ; in fact, as a knapsack, its useful 
ness was over when the shot got through with it. 

Some of Company D s men found on the Schenkl fuse-plugs of 
some shells picked up in the lines the mark of Messrs. George D. 
Fox & Co. of Boston ; perhaps they came to Mr. Hill, in care of 
Maj.-Gen. John D. Pope, the summer before. The companies on 
our right, nearer the fort, seem to have experienced more annoy 
ance from the enemy s fire than we did ; and it seems very singu 
lar that there were absolutely no casualties in the regiment after 
March 30. 

This night, about 1 1 P. M., Company E s sentry heard a noise 
in their front, and gave an alarm which turned out the company ; 
on investigation a man was found wandering about who proved 
to be one of our own pickets ; how he got there was not 
explained. We were ordered back to our tents to sleep this 
night. 

Sunday, the I2th, we were all busy pitching our tents near our 
place in the line, so that we could all be on hand in case of 
alarm. About 9.30 A. M. the enemy commenced the ordinary 
morning diversion, which lasted about three quarters of an hour, 
with the usual results. General Palmer arrived below this day. 
To-day we were served a ration of flour in the shape of soft bis 
cuit instead of hard-tack ; but it was questionable whether the 
change was for the better. 



ISO FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Renshaw says : 

" 1 2th instant, finding that the enemy had repaired their fort in the 
swamp abreast of us with sand-bags and cotton-bales, I directed the gun 
boats to fire on it, at the same time ordering small pieces of port-fire to be 
put in the shells, which had the desired effect of setting fire to the cotton. 
The enemy, under the galling fire of the gunboats, attempted to extinguish 
the flames, but their efforts proved unsuccessful. They then placed a red 
flag with a dark cross directly in an embrasure and left it ; when we ceased 
firing there was but little vestige of fort or flag left. One hundred and 
four shots were fired during the day at the gunboats and town ; the latter 
suffered slightly." 

At night the enemy opened on the "Louisiana" and bridge, 
but without effect; at the same time the " Widow Blunt" scolded 
at the fort for a while, but also without results. 

Monday, the I3th, we woke and found it raining Fire was 
opened from the fort on the Red Hill batteries about eight 
o clock, but drew no reply. After the enemy left we found that 
they made a practice of bringing up their guns each morning and 
putting them in battery under cover of the river fog ; when this 
cleared away they would open fire, often with a volley, and when 
things got too warm for them they would haul them off out of 
range again. 

Commodore Renshaw says of this day s operations : 

"Our batteries on shore fired a few shots, but no response from the 
enemy. Rodman s and the battery containing the thirty-two-pounder above 
fired one hundred and twenty shots at the gunboats and town ; the 
Eagle was struck twice, producing but little injury. At 5 p. M. a thirty- 
pound rifled gun opened fire on the Louisiana, one-half mile distant on 
the New Berne road, doing no damage except cutting some of the light 
rigging and blocks away, the shots mostly passing over and taking effect in 
the town ; this gun was silenced in fifteen minutes by the Louisiana. 
During the night I directed the mastheads to be decorated with bushes to 
correspond with the woods, the enemy having range of us from both 
sides. Having understood that the Rebel infantry were in the habit of 
keeping guard on the river below to prevent our small boats coming 
through, I ordered acting volunteer Lieutenant MacDearmid to take any 
small schooner he could find, mount a howitzer, and drive the Rebel 
pickets from the water. About i o p. M. he encountered the Rebel boats 
filled with infantry ; after exchanging a few shots they were compelled to 
retire, since which they have not ventured on the river to prevent our 



WASHINGTON. l8l 

small boats from passing up and down. At 11.25 p - M - tne steamer 
Escort gallantly ran the blockade with reinforcements for our army." 

Towards midnight there was heavy artillery firing on the river, 
increasing in intensity and nearness, followed by great cheering 
and shouting in the town. We were turned out, but soon found 
that instead of the Rebels having assailed our works, the " Escort," 
with our old comrades of the Fifth Rhode Island, Colonel Sisson 
on board, had successfully run the blockade and arrived at the 
town. 

The boat was loaded with baled hay, and the men protected 
as much as possible ; and although they ran the gauntlet of a 
heavy artillery and musketry fire, their losses were slight, being 
only a few wounded. 

The New York " Herald " says : 

" It appears that on Saturday night, April 1 1, just after the return of 
General Spinola to New Berne, and before any time had been given them 
to recover from the fatigues of their previous labors, the officers of the 
Fifth Rhode Island called on General Palmer, and stated that their men 
had en masse requested permission to run past the batteries below Wash 
ington, or to land and capture them bodily. 

" The offer to do this former was gladly accepted, and the transport 
Escort having been selected, the brave boys of Little Rhody, with the 
mud of their previous march not yet dry upon their clothing, went on 
board at midnight, hardly any one but themselves knowing of the circum 
stance. So completely exhausted were the men with their four days hard 
marching and fighting, that when they found themselves on board the 
steamer they sank down to rest and sleep upon the bare decks, as only 
tired warriors can. . . . 

" A run of seventeen hours brought them to the fleet of gunboats, five 
miles below the battery at Hill s Point, where delay was necessary in order 
to arrange a plan for running the Rebel blockade. This displeased the 
Rhode Islanders, who wished to face the music at once ; but they were 
obliged to wait the trial of their heroism till Monday night. 

"About ten o clock on Monday night the gunboats which had taken 
position just below the Hill s Point battery opened a brisk fire upon the 
Rebel works, but were unable to elicit any reply. 

" During the cannonade the Escort, loaded with supplies and troops, 
steamed up past the gunboats, and before the Rebels could realize the 
fact, was abreast of the battery, and had entered the pass of the blockade, 
which had been buoyed out by Captain McDermott [MacDearmidJ of 



1 82 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the Ceres/ through which she passed in safety. The Hill s Point battery 
did not molest her in passing, owing to the fact that the gunboats kept up 
such an incessant and well-directed fire upon the fort as to make it impos 
sible for the Rebels to get their guns into position. 

" But after the steamer had passed the blockade her trip was a decid 
edly exciting one. The Rebels had posted their sharpshooters on rafts in 
the river, in the bushes on the shore, and they also had planted light field 
batteries along the south bank of the river, near which the channel runs, 
from which they kept up a continuous firing of volley after volley of mus 
ketry, and roar upon roar of artillery, until the craft was lost in the distance. 
For six miles she ran the fiery gauntlet, a part of the time being within 
three hundred yards of a shore which swarmed with gray-backed riflemen 
and butternut-colored artillerists, whose every word of command and shout 
of defiance could be distinctly heard by those on board. 

" When she arrived opposite the battery on Rodman s farm, the guns 
which had so nearly demolished the Commodore Hull, belched forth 
their hostile welcome, and for twenty minutes the thunder from the Rebel 
guns was continued. Guided only by the firing upon shore, the brave 
pilot headed her on until the last discharges of cannon and musketry were 
heard far astern, and he knew he was close upon Washington. Then he 
espied the low black hull of one of our gunboats, and heard the watch-bell 
upon the deck tolling out the hour of the night ; then he saw the dim 
lights of the town, and heard the half-suppressed voices of our men on 
shore, and he doubly realized that the immediate danger was over. 

" You know that I have seen many feats of valor during the war, and 
can judge somewhat of the boldness and nerve requisite for them, and can 
also approximate unto something like a reasonable comparison of such 
events ; and here allow me to say that this feat of the Escort and those 
on board has had no parallel during the war. Gunboats and iron-clads, 
to be sure, have run past batteries in wide rivers, as it was their place to 
do, and the events have been telegraphed far and wide ; but I have yet 
to learn of an unarmed transport loaded with a regiment of men and a 
cargo of supplies and ammunition even attempting such a thing as here 
narrated." 

At the same time three schooners laden with provisions and 
ammunition ran the blockade, being manned by thirty volunteers 
from the Forty-third Massachusetts, who were also lying below. 

Tuesday, the I4th, the fog cleared early. We were all feeling 
happy that now the " charm was broken," and we were both 
physically and morally reinforced by the arrival of our old com 
rades of the Fifth Rhode Island. 

While Company G was drawing breakfast in the hollow between 



WASHINGTON. 



183 



the traverses, the batteries opened on us; those who had al 
ready received their eight hard-tack and their coffee suddenly 
evaporated ; those who had not, hung on, cocking their eyes up 
at each passing shot like a hen in a shower, but keeping in line 
for their turn, and vamosing with remarkable suddenness as soon 
as their dippers were full. The writer had to wait for some five 
or six, and it is still fresh in his memory how he stumbled in the 
drain which was dug from the traverse ditch, just as he was ready 
to dive for shelter, losing half his coffee up his sleeve, to the huge 
and undisguised amusement of his laughing comrades. The 
firing was of short duration this morning. 




" The enemy," Renshaw reports, " attempted to raise again 
their flag on the swamp battery ; a few well-directed shell from 
the Commodore Hull tore it to pieces." 

At night the writer was on outside picket; it rained steadily all 
night, and we were entirely unmolested and quiet, and came in 
next morning at daybreak very tired and sleepy; had had just 
about time to eat breakfast when, as my diary says, " the ball 
opened at twenty minutes before seven," and continued the usual 
forty-five or fifty minutes ; this day they pelted us with six-pound 
round fuse-shell, which burst well and made things particularly 
interesting for the sentry on the traverse. 

Meanwhile the firing all round had been severe, in fact, since 
we came in from picket; we afterwards heard that General Foster 



1 84 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

had run the blockade down the river in the " Escort," and had 
gone to New Berne to bring up a column overland to raise the 
siege. He left us the following farewell order : 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 
WASHINGTON, N. C., April 14, 1863. 

The commanding general announces to the garrison of this town that 
he is about to leave for a brief space of time the gallant soldiers and sailors 
of this garrison. Brigadier-General Potter will remain in command, and 
in him the commanding general has the most perfect confidence as a 
brave and able soldier. The command of the naval forces remains un 
changed ; therefore that arm of the service will be as effective and perfect 
as heretofore. The commanding general leaves temporarily, and for the 
purpose of putting himself at the head of a relieving force. Having raised 
the siege, he expects soon to return ; but before leaving he must express 
to the naval force here, and to the soldiers under his command, the 
Twenty-seventh and Forty-fourth Massachusetts regiments, detachments 
of the Third New York Cavalry and First North Carolina volunteers, his 
thanks for and admiration of the untiring zeal, noble emulation, and excel 
lent courage which have distinguished them during the sixteen days of the 
enemy s attack on this post ; and he feels confident that the display of 
those qualities under General Potter will hold the place till the siege be 
raised. 

J. G. FOSTER, 
Major- General Commanding Eighteenth Army Corps. 

The "Escort" left Washington on the morning of the i$th at 
5.30 A. M., having on board General Foster and his A. A. G., 
Lieut-Col. Southard Hoffman, and others of his staff. When the 
boat arrived within range of Rodman s Point the batteries opened 
upon her, and as she approached the shore she came under 
heavy musketry fire ; the boat, however, kept on, passing at last 
the Hill s Point battery; she was struck by eighteen shot and 
shell ; her upper works were literally riddled with bullets (the 
writer afterwards saw her at New Berne). The pilot, Mr. Pethe- 
rick, a loyal North Carolinian, was killed at his post as the boat 
passed Rodman s Point 

Thursday morning, the i6th, the writer was detailed for guard at 
the traverse upon turning out; this was the critical tour of the 
day, as it included the daily artillery exercise ; so I kept a very 
sharp lookout on Red Hill as the fog cleared away, and grew 



WASHINGTON. 185 

more and more anxious ; time wore on, and still " no reports." 
After a while a small squad of men in butternut appeared on the 
Jamesville road, coming in the direction of our lines ; after pass 
ing out of sight behind Fort Washington they did not reappear; 
but in a short time a column of men in blue filed up the same 
road to the cut in Red Hill, and then to the right along the 
hillside. A platoon was deployed as skirmishers and began to 
move cautiously upward toward the Rebel works. By this time 
all of us were on the line, watching anxiously for the smoke and 
flash of a volley from the works, but none came ; and on coming 
within fifty yards the skirmish line made a rush, and in a moment 
the yellow sand parapet was crowded with blue-coats, and we 
could hear their cheering as they swung their caps in exultation. 
It was Companies E and B, Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, who 
had been immediately sent out upon receipt, from the party of 
deserters who had just come in, of the news of the enemy s de 
parture. These men reported that the enemy were in bad condi 
tion. They had been put on shorter rations than ourselves; 
namely, one quart cob meal and one quarter of a pound of bacon 
per day; their artillery was all light (we knew of one thirty-two- 
pounder, and the writer still has a piece of shrapnel from it). 
They were falling back up the roads toward Greenville and 
Kinston. 

Meanwhile on the New Berne road beyond the river Company 
E s pickets had made the same discovery; their historian says: 

" While we were on picket last night we heard noises which were un 
accountable, on which a few shells were thrown into the swamp. At four 
o clock this morning we heard the Rebel drums beat for roll-call, at five 
o clock the bugle call for advance ; so we suppose the Rebels have 
started. They came near to the creek, but it was so dark we could not 
make out much. We saw a man on a white horse at the picket-post, as a 
lantern was in a position to throw a strong light on him. To-day Com 
pany I s picket advanced to the old earthworks, where Hobart, Leonard, 
and Lawrence were taken, and found everybody gone from that side of the 
river." 

Renshaw says : 

" Discovering that the guns had been removed from Rodman s Point, 
I ordered the Commodore Hull, Ceres, and Eagle to shell the 
point well before landing our troops. Acting third Assistant-Engineer 



1 86 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Thos. Mallahan of the Ceres, while attempting to land in one of her boats, 
was killed by a musket ball." 

It seems a small party were still left in the works, and when 
Mr. Mallahan, Master s Mate Hudson, and two men attempted to 
land and raise the colors on the works, about fifty of the enemy 
rose from behind rifle-pits and fired into the boat, with the result 
above stated. A small schooner with four or five men of the 
Forty-third, who had come up the night previous with ammuni 
tion, was running close to the shore when the enemy opened fire, 
wounding Francis Tripp mortally and one other of the Forty- 
third slightly. The gunboats came back, and at 2 P. M. the 
"Eagle" went down again, running as close to Point as she could, 
and sending shell into the batteries with great precision. Mr. 
Lay with eight men of the First North Carolina, his gun s crew, 
went ashore, followed by Master s Mate Tucker, with a howitzer 
and five men, and planted the colors on the Rebel works. Half 
an hour later, three hundred of the Fifth Rhode Island, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, and one gun of Third New York Artil 
lery under Lieutenant Mower, arrived, and proceeded out on a 
reconnoissance ; they surrounded four Rebels, one of whom was 
killed in trying to escape, but the other three were captured, 
being Captain Parker of the Fiftieth North Carolina Volunteer 
Artillery, Brigade Commander, Drum-Major Mott, and a private 
of the same regiment. The captain reported Hill s force at 
6,000, and 3,000 at the Cross-roads. He said that town would 
be stormed again within three days. 

Two of their guns a twenty-pound Parrott and a Whit- 
worth were found burst ; and also the following notice was 
found posted up. 

YANKEES. 

We leave you, not because we cannot take Washington, but because it 
is not worth taking ; and besides, the climate is not agreeable. A man 
should be amphibious to inhabit it. We leave you a few bursted guns, 
some stray solid shot, and a man and a brother who was rescued from the 
waves to which some foray among his equils consigned him. 

But this tribute we pay you : you have acted with much gallantry during 
the brief siege. We salute the pilot of the " Escort." 

Co. K, 32d Regt. N. C. Vols. 
FORT HILL, April, 1863. 



WASHINGTON. 1 87 

Renshaw says : " Enemy burst four guns at Rodman s, two 
Whitworth and two Parrott, rifled, latter marked Tredegar Works 
Richmond. " 

In the afternoon the following order was received : 

HEADQUARTERS, April 16, 1863. 
Special Order. 

Colonel Lee, commanding Forty-fourth Massachusetts, will detail three 
companies to proceed on board steamer " Eagle " at 6.30 o clock to 
Hill s Point. The men will take three days rations, blankets, over 
coats, etc. 

The three companies will, with two companies of the Forty-third 
Massachusetts, be under command of the major of that regiment. 

By order of 

General POTTER. 
G. W. ATWILL, A. A. A. G. 

In accordance with this order Companies C, D, and I were 
detailed under Major Dabney, to whom the command of the 
entire force was afterwards transferred, and went on board the 
" Eagle," where they slept. 

Next morning, the i/th, they landed in small boats at Hill s 
Point. " Corporal" says: 

" It was the strongest point of the Rebel blockade. Behind the earth 
works, which were mostly erected at an early day in the Rebellion, are a 
plenty of bomb-proofs. . . . Between the shore and the woods is a Rebel 
rifle-pit. This forenoon we skirmished out a mile or so, encountering 
an old Rebel camp, and the one the Rebels have recently occupied. 
We picked up one butternut gentleman with a carpet-bag containing a 
Rebel uniform, and the picture of a Rebel officer. Butternut said he 
picked up the carpet-bag in the woods as he was going home from mill. 
He said the Rebs were robbing the population of their provisions, and 
had nearly cleaned him out." 

The " Phoenix " came up this morning with ammunition. 
Captain Richardson came out in a carriage to-day to see his 
company, previously to leaving for New Berne. He was quite 
advanced in convalescence, and expected to be again on duty 
shortly. Nothing was heard from the enemy to-day. 

Saturday, i8th; the cavalry picket on our left was fired upon 
and wounded in the wrist this afternoon ; a party of Company E 
with some of Company B, Twenty-seventh, started out from 



1 88 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Blockhouse No. I, but after an hour s search found nothing. 
About eight P. M. there was an alarm from this blockhouse and 
we turned out. A couple of shell were fired from the howitzer 
there, after which all was quiet, though we remained under arms 
until eleven o clock. This was our last alarm. 

Lieutenant Commanding W. P. McCann, of the " Hunchback," 
says : 

" Owing to buoys being removed, pilots were afraid to attempt to run 
batteries. Also we engaged Hill s Point battery three times without 
silencing it, and on consultation with the commanding officers it was 
deemed improper to attempt to run the gunboats through to Rodman s 
until a demonstration was made by the army [referring to Spinola s 
Expedition]." 

Sunday, the iQth, guns were heard six or eight miles away, 
across the river. The advance of General Foster s column 
arrived about noon, and he himself came up the river on the 
" Escort " in the afternoon. The town now seemed full of troops ; 
we had little to do for a day or two but to draw full rations, and 
write letters home, and laugh at the wild accounts which now 
reached us in the home papers of the affair we had just been 
engaged in. 

Before dinner on Tuesday, the 2ist, we received orders to be 
ready to go on board the boat for New Berne at an hour s notice. 

Next morning we were up at four o clock, and at half-past five 
were on board the steamer " Thomas Collyer ; " cast off and got 
under way at 6.17. We stopped at Hill s Point to take on board 
the detached companies, and at about 9.45 were fairly on our 
way to New Berne, which we reached about midnight of the 22d. 

So ended the heaviest piece of service in which the regiment 
was engaged ; for seventeen days we were constantly on the 
alert, and during all but two days of the time there was no day 
when those stationed toward the right of our line were not under 
fire, often for the greater part of the day. The cannonading was 
nearly continuous. 

The reports of expenditure of ammunition in the gunboats will 
give some idea of the service done by the navy. Commodore 
Renshaw reports for the " Louisiana " 105 8-inch shells for 
every " up to 20; 301 32-pound shells from i" to 20 "; 50 solid 



WASHINGTON. 1 89 

shot and 25 12-pound shells. Captain MacDearmid 213 shells of 
all kinds; Saltonstall, of the " Hull," 331 3O-pound Parrott shells 
and shrapnel; 138 24-pound howitzer ditto and canister. 

The regiment was especially favored in the matter of casualties, 
the four who were wounded in the skirmish of March 30 making 
up the entire list. 

General Foster while with us paid constant attention to the 
state of the garrison and works ; there was seldom a day when he 
did not pass along the line with General Potter, and often one or 
two other staff officers : after returning to New Berne, he issued 

the following order : 

HEADQUARTF.RS EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS 

NEW BERNE, April 24, 1863. 
General Order NJ. 63. 

The garrison of Washington, N. C., composed of the Twenty-seventh 
Massachusetts Regiment, Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, Fifth 
Rhode Island, First North Carolina Volunteers, Company I Third New 
York Cavalry, Battery G Third New York Artillery, have well merited, by 
their steadiness, courage, and endurance, the honor of inscribing, and they 
are ordered to inscribe on their banners and guidons, " WASHINGTON, April, 

1863." 

Per order 

Major-General J. G. FOSTER. 
SOUTHARD HOFFMAN, A. A. G. 

In the history of the Third New York Artillery, Hall says of 
this defence : - 

"The success of Foster s gallant little band of 2,200 \_sic\ in keeping at 
bay a whole Rebel corps for twenty days, and notwithstanding an aggres 
sive siege of twelve days, has been justly regarded as unparalleled in the war. 
The merit of the achievement is prominently and perhaps principally due 

to Battery G, of the Third New York Artillery." 



A comrade comments on this: "The gunboats deserve a large 
share, as well as General Foster s personal presence, and our 
band 

Captain Denny, in " Wearing the Blue," makes the following 
remarks : 

" When it is considered that the defence of this line was made against 
fourteen thousand Confederate troops under skilled commanders, we do 
not hesitate to say that the defence against such odds rises to the pitch of 
heroic grandeur equalled during the war only by Mulligan s glorious de 
fence of Lexington, Missouri, in the autumn of 1861." 



1 90 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

During the siege our comrades of companies F and B, on 
picket at Batchelder s Creek, listened daily with anxious hearts 
for the sound of the guns at Washington. As long as the firing 
could be heard they felt that we still held out ; when there was a 
quiet day, or the wind was unfavorable for the guns being heard, 
they said sadly to themselves, " The boys are gone up ; " but 
next day the dull rumble of the distant cannon would again reach 
their ears, and they thought, " No, the Forty-fourth is all right 
yet." Great was their anxiety on the night when the Fifth Rhode 
Island came through, supposing that the heavy firing denoted the 
night assault that all expected. They probably suffered as much 
from anxiety as ourselves, who were present and absorbed in 
what had to be done from day to day. 

The newspaper reports of the siege during its continuance, 
though they seem to us now funny enough, were of the most dis 
quieting nature for our friends at home, as will appear from a 
quotation from one of the writer s letters from home under date 
of April 14. 

" I thought to have finished mother s letter yesterday ; but I was quite 
engaged most of the day, and in truth did not feel much like writing under 
the uncertain prospects in regard to your whereabouts, or if ever it would 
reach you. The uncertainty still remains ; the conflicting accounts, even, 
make it apparent that you are in a dangerous position. But as we can do 
nothing but hope for the best, I shall continue as if this were sure of find 
ing you a. free United States troop somewhere." 

In looking over these old letters, a " pocket " of cuttings mostly 
from the "Transcript," and relating to the siege, was "struck; " 
these the writer proposes to quote verbatim et literatim. 

" New York Wi [April]. The Post learns that on the 4th inst. General 
Foster was at Little Washington with a brigade, a regiment of North Caro 
lina troops, and some other troops, and were virtually surrounded by 
rebels, who have erected batteries on Tar River, between Newberne and 
Little Washington, which the naval force of wooden gunboats are unable 
to pass. 

" It was understood that a battle had taken place between Foster and 
the rebels, but nothing definite was known. Heavy firing was heard, 
lasting from Wednesday night to Friday night, evidently from the rebel 
batteries. 



WASHINGTON. IQI 

" Gen. Foster s means of defence are deemed ample, having a fort and 
entrenchments with sufficient ammunition and provisions. 

" Large reinforcements are in transports below the batteries unable to 
reach Foster for want of some naval force competent to take them. 

" The reported surrender of Gen. Foster is discredited. It is understood 
that he is confident of his ability to successfully withdraw his forces, even 
if compelled to relinquish the town and Pamlico River." 

" New York April 9. Passengers from Beaufort, N. C., state that on 
the 5th the rebel pickets on the Trent road were extended to a point nine 
miles from New Berne. 

" Affairs at Little Washington looked threatening. Sunday evening the 
rebel Gen. Hill was opposing Gen. Foster s little band, and on Monday 
afternoon, rumor at New Berne said that Gen. Foster had surrendered. 
This is not credited, as it was believed that reinforcements from Suffolk 
Va., had reached Washington. Gen. Foster s position was strongly en. 
trenched by rifle pits and ditches. Cannonading was heard at Newbern 
all day Sunday and Monday. 

"The steam gunboat Chocura and State of Georgia were coaling at 
Morehead City to run the blockade of Pamlico River, where there was but 
one gunboat." 

" New York April \$th. The steamer Dudley Buck, from Newbern 
9th, brings the report that it was expected Gen. Foster would have to sur 
render from want of provisions." 

" New York April \$th. A letter from Col. Sissell, [query, Sisson ?"] an 
officer under Gen. Foster, under date of the 9th inst, says the latter can 
not hold out more than a day longer, being short of provisions and com 
pletely surrounded." 

" New York, April itf/i. The gunboat Valley City, which passed the 
rebel batteries below Washington, N. C., to Gen. Foster s assistance, was 
struck by sixty-three shot. Her subsequent fate is not known." 

From other collections we glean the following. From the 
" New York Express : " 

" On the aoth ult., Gen. Foster with a portion of Spinola s and Prince s 
brigades comprising the Penn. Regts. of Cols. McKibbin, Dyer, Bear, the 
1 2th N. Y., isyth N. Y. and ist N. C. started for Little Washington on 
the junction of the Tar and Pamlico rivers, where they entrenched them 
selves. In the mean time the Rebels erected a very powerful battery on 
Scoon Pt., some 5 miles below Washington, which commands the channel, 
which at that point is very narrow and runs close in shore. . . . 

" Gen. Magruder with 5000 rebels attacked Foster s position from the 
land side and thus completely surrounded him." 



1 92 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

From the " Journal," April 2 : 

" Gen. Foster ordered out Co. A, Capt. Richardson and Co. D, Capt. 
Sullivan, on a reconnoissance. They went out of the earthworks and while 
out their retreat was cut off. So Capt. R. ordered the men to cut their 
way through, which they did with considerable loss some 1 6 killed and 
wounded. Among them was Capt. R. who was wounded and Orderly 
Edmands who was killed." 

A private letter from a member of the regiment dated April 7 : " Re 
port to-day is that our Colonel Lee was killed in a charge on the rear of 
the rebels battery. 

" Ed. The report in relation to Col. Lee we do not feel at liberty to 
withhold, although it is more than probable that it is entirely unfounded." 

" One letter from New Berne gives a rumor that 8 companies of the 
Mass. 44th at Little Washington had made a sally and captured quite a 
number of rebels." 

This will show the wild character of many of the reports which 
found their way to our friends at home; others were nearer the 
facts, but scarcely more encouraging. Many incidents of the 
siege were amusing enough. A comrade of Company D con 
tributes the following: 

" During the siege of Little Washington, before the duties became so 
arduous that we were glad to obtain sleep even if in five-minute instal 
ments, a quartette from Company D was one morning engaged in a quiet 
game of euchre just outside the company quarters. John Payne was sit 
ting with his back to the shanty which had been erected as a shelter for 
the company, to avoid further trespassing on the kindness of the comrades 
of Company B, Twenty- seventh Massachusetts, who had been assigned 
quarters in the blockhouse. The boys had just gathered up their cards, 
and Payne was laughing over some joke, when a solid shot passed over 
Fort Washington, ploughed up the sand just in front of the quarters, 
almost buried the boys in the shower, and then plunged into the river. 
Payne s mouth was wide open, and he received more than his share of the 
sand. As soon as he could articulate he exclaimed, I m not hungry, 
Johnny ; I Ve had my breakfast ! " 

One day during the siege Johnson, Bedell, and Tackney of 
Company E, thinking that we were deficient in artillery, cast 
about to supply the want so far as they could. Rummaging about, 
they found an old pair of wheels and some stove pipe, and 
having mounted the funnel on the wheels, ran it up toward the 



WASHINGTON. 193 

works. Some of the Johnnies had evidently been watching the 
proceedings with a great deal of interest, for just as the boys had 
got their " piece " in position, puff went a gun at the Widow 
Blunt place, and a solid shot from the enemy struck uncomfort 
ably close. The boys concluded that an attempt was being made 
to dismount their new gun, and feeling that enough had been 
done for honor, and that should the Rebels be successful no 
great damage would be done to our armament, they retired to 
the shelter of their bomb-proof. 

One of our cavalry pickets, under cover of a flag of truce, 
entered into conversation with a Rebel officer, a lieutenant, who 
wished to know how large a force we had ; the man told him, 
"Enough to take care of all the Rebels in North Carolina." " I 

should think so," was the reply, " for you are a d d sight 

longer winded than any of us imagined." 

Our regimental band was one morning stationed in the fort, in 
a sheltered place, while the firing from Red Hill was going on, 
and played for some time, chiefly national airs; it was remarked 
that "Dixie" seemed to draw rather an extra warm acknowledg 
ment from "our friends the enemy." It has since been suggested 
that the object of this demonstration was to give the impression 
that a brigade was present. 

It seems as if the enemy must have been deceived as to our 
numbers, for Garnett said, when ordered to assault upon the 
I4th of April, that he would " lose half his men getting there, 
and the other half getting back." A story to the same effect 
reached the writer s ears not long after the siege. After the in 
vestment was raised, it is said Lieutenant "Teddy" O Brien of 
the Third New York Cavalry was reconnoitring on the south side 
of the river with a small platoon of his company ; upon turning a 
bend in the road he saw, not two hundred yards away, a squad 
ron of Rebel cavalry coming towards him. Running away seemed 
risky, so he drew his sabre, and giving the order, " Battalion, 
charge ! " rushed down upon them with his sabre in air, as if he 
really had a regiment at his back ; they were entirely taken in 
by his " cheek," and thinking it was the advance guard only of a 
heavy column, surrendered at once without resistance, and with 
their officers and colors fell captive to his bow and spear. When 

3 



194 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



the captain in command was brought into the town, upon looking 
about him he asked with great eagerness, " Where have you 
hidden all your men?" 

Some comical incidents happened to the men under fire. The 
writer was one morning detailed to wield the shovel amone a 

D 

squad who were set to heighten the traverse. Being slight, and 
not mighty in throwing sand higher than his head, he with an 
other was put on the top of the traverse to pat down and level 



/*& -;./i i^ hw 




what was thrown up to them ; it being about the ordinary hour 
of our morning salutation from Red Hill, we kept a wary eye on 
the embrasures there. After a while came the long-looked-for 
puff of white smoke, and with a call of "Heads below!" the 
writer dropped his shovel in the traverse ditch, himself sliding 
down the slope of the work in its wake ; as his feet reached the 
bottom, the shell screamed overhead, and all immediately sought 
shelter in the splinter-proof. The fire, as usual upon opening, 
was heavy and rapid ; and just as we were comfortably settled 
down to await further developments, the captain, catching sight of 
one man without his weapon, immediately called to the writer, 
"Where s your gun and equipments?" " In my tent, sir." (T 
had forgotten to bring them when I went to work.) "Go and 



WASHINGTON. 195 

get them." It might have been about thirty feet each way that 
this particular private of Company G had to go, exposed to the 
fire, and never did any one strive with more earnestness to make 
himself as small as possible. That journey took about a week, and 
if none of the shells hit, every joke from the rat-hole did, as those 
laughing boys sitting there in safety " guyed " their comrade who 
had to go out in the shower. 

Corporal Powers and Private Brown of G one day got leave to 
go to the river to wash ; they improved the opportunity to wash 
some of their clothes, waiting, while they dried, in rather primi 
tive array; somehow or other they managed to draw the fire of 
one of the batteries on the opposite bank, and became the occa 
sion of quite a little exchange of compliments, making themselves 
scarce in about as dignified a manner as the bathers at the well 
did when the Red Hill batteries opened on them. 

This siege was, as has been said, our most important piece of 
service. What we did from day to day seemed then to us ordi 
nary enough, and the idea of giving up the place without a fight 
entered into no head within the lines. Most of us, I think, were 
therefore rather surprised to find ourselves in a manner made 
heroes of on account of it. As I have heard it said by one of 
the garrison, "What would they have had us do?" 

The service done by the Fifth Rhode Island, however, served 
to bind yet closer the ties of comradeship that held the two 
remaining regiments of Stevenson s Brigade together, as will 
appear from the following correspondence : 

CAMP THOMAS G. STEVENSON, NEW BERNE, 1863. 
Colonel HENRY T. SISSON, Commanding 5th R I. 

COLONEL, At a meeting of the field, staff, and line officers, held at 
Washington, N. C., on Tuesday evening April 21, Col. F. L. Lee presiding, 
the following resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, During the late siege of Washington, N. C., when the town 
had been bombarded and all its communications cut off for fifteen days, 
after several ineffectual attempts had been made to relieve the garrison, 
and the enterprise had ^een virtually pronounced impracticable, Colonel 
Sisson volunteered the services of his regiment, and succeeded, against 
every obstable and discouragement, in running the blockade with the 
steamer " Escort," thus bringing to the besieged forces the much-needed 
reinforcements, ammunitions, and supplies. 



196 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



Resolved, That in this achievement Colonel Sisson with his brave regi 
ment has performed one of the most heroic acts of the war, and that this 
act, by so disheartening the enemy that within two days he was led to 
retire, was the immediate cause of the raising of the siege. 

Resolved, That the members of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts feel that 
thanks are peculiarly due from them to their comrades in arms who so 
generously volunteered their services and met so great risks in carrying 
succor to a brother regiment. 

Resolved, That as an expression of their gratitude and admiration, if 
it meet the wishes of the Fifth Rhode Island Regiment, a set of colors 
be presented to them, bearing a device commemorative of this act of 
gallantry. 

To which a reply was returned as follows: - 

CAMP ANTHONY, NEW BERNE, April 28, 1863. 

COLONEL, I take great pleasure in acknowledging to you and the offi 
cers of your command my sense of the high honor which you have done 
us in the very complimentary resolutions which I have just received. 

Be assured, Colonel, they are the more acceptable as coming from a 
body of men whose character and good opinion we respect so highly as 
the regiment you have the honor to command. Your generous action 
will tend not only to cement more closely our two brother regiments, 
but also the sister States from which we came, already closely united 
by a common history, and by struggles and dangers in defence of our 
country. 

May we be more closely knit together in peace and union under the 
flag which both Massachusetts and Rhode Island have done so much to 
uphold. 

Accept, sir, the thanks of the Fifth Rhode Island for your kind 
sentiments, and believe me, 

With respect, very truly yours, 

H. T. SISSON, 
Colonel Commanding Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers. 
















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CHAPTER X. 



PICKET-DUTY OF B AND F. 




ONDAY, March 2, 1863, Com 
panies B and F, under the com 
mand of Captain Storrow of 
Company F, were taken three 
miles up the railroad, upon open 
cars, and relieved two companies 
of the Fifty-first Massachu 
setts on picket On the 6th 
the battalion marched three 
miles farther out, and went 

into camp in the pine woods near Batchelder s Creek, along 
which the outer pickets of New Berne were posted. 

Former occupants of the post had nearly finished eight log 
huts in the thick woods. These were not utilized as quarters for 
the battalion, but around them, as a centre, smaller huts were 
constructed, roofed in by shelter-tents, littered with straw, warmed 
by brick fireplaces, and rendered homelike by conveniences and 
ornaments which the ingenuity and good taste of the rank and 
file improvised. These occupied three sides, while the wall tents 
of the officers filled the fourth side. The trees, stumps, and 
" pine-trash " were removed from the enclosure, leaving a firm, 
even camp-ground, fortunately insoluble in rain-water, and 
never muddy. In the centre of the camp was erected a double- 
masted flag-pole, topped with a weather-vane, and bearing on its 
cross-trees the legend, " Camp Lee, occupied March 6, 1863." 

The two companies remained in this camp for two months, 
enjoying the brightest and pleasantest part of a soldier s life. 
There was a good deal of night work, but not enough to wear 



198 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the men out. The open-air life in the pine woods was so invigo 
rating that there was very little sickness in the detachment. 
There was enough of excitement a sufficient consciousness of 
the proximity of the enemy to give a zest to the routine of 
duty. The detachment which occupied the post before and after 
the Forty-fourth, met with serious losses, but during our occupa 
tion not a man of our detachment was injured or captured. It 
was a long military picnic. The season of the year was a de 
lightful one. As the spring advanced, violets, anemones, honey 
suckle, and the fragrant jessamine blossomed thickly along the 
lanes and roads. Birds of gorgeous plumage bright orange or 
brilliant scarlet chattered among the young leaves. The woods 
were full of rabbits, possums, and coons (which the men were 
successful in trapping), with traces now and then of a prowling 
fox. The creek was full of fish, herring, horn-pout, "Welsh 
men," and robin or red-fin (bream), for which we angled with 
hooks baited with worms or soaked hard-tack. A net was found 
during one of our scouting expeditions, and was strung across 
the creek near the lower picket-post, who took from its meshes 
every morning a finny breakfast. With this plenitude of game 
came a disagreeable accompaniment in the profusion of snakes, 
black snakes four or five feet long, moccasins as large as a 
child s arm, and " copperheads even more venomous than their 
namesakes in the North." 

The chief duty to be performed was the picketing of the line 
of Batchelder s Creek. There was one picket of two " non- 
coms" and twelve men at the burned bridge on the right (Wash 
ington) road, and another of three " non-coms " and twenty men 
two miles to the south, at the left (or Neuse) road, where the 
piles and stringers of the bridge were standing and planks were 
ready to lay if an advance was desired. There were other posts 
on the flanks and rear of our camp, and at night a patrol was 
maintained around the camp and down a cart-path that led to 
the wooded banks of the creek. These details were quite as 
much as two companies could perform, and brought each man 
on duty about every other day. 

Another (and favorite) duty was the scouting by land and 
water. When the companies first occupied the picket-posts, 




PICKET-DUTY OF B AND F. 199 

there were no boats of any kind to be found. A vigorous search 
was instituted along the banks of the creek, toward the river, and 
several canoes and flat-boats were found concealed in the dense 
cane-brakes. These were brought to the Washington road and 
repaired, and every few days a scouting party was sent down the 

creek and up the river on a reconnois- 
sance. The "Rebs" were rarely 
seen; and the principal result 
of these expeditions was the 
collection of a 
number of useful 
articles of camp 
equipage from 
the deserted huts 
and houses along the 
creek. 

The scouting by land was 

constantly followed, usually in small parties. Fortunately, the 
"Rebs" kept beyond Core Creek and the Neuse River most of 
the time, and our scouting parties met no mischances. Their 
most exciting adventure is thus narrated in a letter : 

" Colonel Jones having directed Captain Storrow to ascertain whether 
the Rebels sent out boat patrols at night from Street s Ferry, an officer and 
two men were despatched at 9 p. M. to scout on the Washington road. 
Crossing Batchelder s Creek in a canoe, and leaving behind them our ad 
vanced picket-posts, they advanced cautiously along the road about three 
miles, when they came to the point where it enters the swamp along the 
Neuse River. A strong wind during the day had blown the water to our 
side of the river and filled the swamp so full that even the road was sub 
merged. The wind had subsided, leaving the water so smooth and the 
woods so quiet that the slightest sound could be heard a mile away. The 
Rebel pickets were posted just at the other side of the ferry, and their 
voices could be plainly heard as they chatted around their camp-fire. In 
order to observe their motions it was necessary to get to the river bank. 
The first step of the scouting party into the water which covered the road 
attracted their attention, but with the remark, It s only cattle in the 
swamp, they continued their conversation. Moving, therefore, with ex 
treme caution, noiselessly pushing one foot after the other without lifting 
it from the water, the scouts waded over a quarter of a mile of submerged 
road. At the bank of the river they halted, with the Rebel picket-fire in 



2OO FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

full sight a short distance down stream, opposite the ferry-landing. No 
dry spot was to be found, so the three shivering men lay down in shallow 
water among the bushes and waited for denouements. The situation was 
impressive. The smooth river gleamed dimly between the dark and 
swampy opposite shore and the dense shadows of the cypresses under 
which they lay. The stillness of midnight was only broken by the sounds 
peculiar to the region, which had grown familiar from many nights of 
picket duty on Batchelder s Creek, the tinkling chug of the young 
frogs, the trill of the tree-toads, the screech of the owl, the occasional 
scream of a wildcat, or the frightful yell of the Carolina coon. 

"Thus they lay quietly in three or four inches of water for four hours. 
Suddenly, at three in the morning, they were roused by a stir on the other 
side. A fog had gathered over the river, but a red gleam shining through 
it showed that the picket-fire had been replenished, and the sound of 
many voices told that the Rebel picket had been reinforced. The voices 
approached the farther ferry-landing, there was a sound of launching a 
boat, of embarkation, of dipping oars, and for an anxious moment it 
appeared certain that the Rebels were crossing the river to land on our 
side. To have retreated through water knee-deep would only have been 
to attract a volley, so that there was nothing to do but to lie in ambush 
and wait. Fortunately, the boat turned down the river and was soon out 
of hearing. Noiselessly and thankfully the little party waded to dry land, 
and returned to camp to report that the Rebels did send out a boat patrol. 
The object of the expedition had been accomplished." 

Except these scouting parties, there was not much to vary the 
monotony of camp life and picket-duty. The day of our arrival, 
a lieutenant and thirty men were ordered in great haste to occupy 
the camp of the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania, at the railroad bridge 
over Batchelder s Creek, two miles beyond the Neuse road, 
while that regiment marched out to surprise the Rebel pickets 
at Core Creek. The Fifty-eighth had spent their eighteen 
months of service almost entirely on picket. Their commander, 
Colonel Jones, was a little old man, whose careless and unsol- 
dierly appearance belied his character, for he was cool, brave, 
prompt, alert, and fertile in resources. His men idolized him, 
and followed him into danger with implicit confidence. Shortly 
after we were withdrawn to New Berne he was shot and instantly 
killed during an attack on the picket-post on the Neuse road. 
The only noteworthy thing at the camp of the Fifty-eighth was 
the "Railroad Monitor,"-- an iron-plated gunboat on wheels, 
mounted with two six-pound Wiard pivot-guns, and kept always 



PICKET-DUTY OF B AND F. 2OI 

in readiness to run up or down the railroad wherever it might 
be needed. 

On Saturday, March I4th (the anniversary of the capture of 
New Berne), we were startled at daybreak by heavy firing in the 
direction of the town. While we were wondering what it meant, 
an orderly dashed into camp with the news that New Berne had 




been attacked from the other side of the river, and was threat 
ened on our side, and that we were ordered to move our whole 
force to the bridge on the Neuse road. Forming hastily, we 
double-quicked across country by the plantation road which our 
picket reliefs usually followed, and on arriving at the bridge were 
ordered to tear up its planks, and to construct breastworks to 
command the approaches. The day and night were spent in 
felling trees and in digging trenches. A letter thus describes the 
scene at night : - 

" Under the serene starlight, and a faint glimmer from the old moon, 
just rising, Batchelder s Creek lay tranquil in the deep shade of its fringe 
of trees. The clay of the road-bed gleamed white along the bank. The 



202 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

skeleton framework of the dismantled bridge ; the pier, barricaded with 
logs, on which stood four motionless sentinels with guns in the hollow of 
their arms ; the rifle-pits where half the men lay uneasily on the damp 
earth, while the muffled sound of pick and spade, the occasional gleam of 
a dark-lantern, and the subdued orders of the officers, showed that the 
other half were busily at work ; the knowledge that the Rebels were in 
force only three miles away ; the expectation of an immediate attack, 
these things made the night memorable." 

But, after all, the enemy withdrew without further demonstra 
tion, and on Sunday morning the battalion returned to camp, 
only too glad of a chance to rest. 

Before leaving the bridge, a letter was received from Colonel 
Jones and read to the detachment, thanking them for the zeal 
and energy displayed. 

After this threat of attack the Rebels were more audacious, and 
frequently stole down on our lines and tried to catch the pickets 
napping. Wednesday, March 25, a sergeant of the Third New 
York Cavalry, while on outpost duty a quarter of a mile from our 
post at the bridge on the Neuse road, was surprised, captured, 
and carried oft". Captain Storrow, who happened to be at the 
bridge, started at once with twenty men in pursuit, and a party 
was ordered out from camp to a fork of the roads near the ferry, 
in the hope of intercepting the " Rebs" there; but they had too 
good a start, and got away safely with their prisoner. 

During the next two weeks we heard frequent heavy firing 
from the direction of " Little " Washington, and felt anxious for 
the safety of the other eight companies of our regiment. 

Monday, April 27, General Palmer started with two brigades 
on the " Gum Swamp expedition." Company F received orders, 
just at dusk, to march with overcoats, rubber blankets, and such 
scant rations as could be scraped together. Joining the Fifty- 
eighth Pennsylvania at the Neuse bridge, they were given the 
place of an absent company as eighth in the regimental line. 
One brigade of Palmer s force, including the Forty-fifth Massa 
chusetts, advanced by the railroad ; while the other brigade, 
consisting of the Fifth and Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, two 
companies of the Forty-sixth Massachusetts, the Fifty-eighth 
Pennsylvania, Company F of the Forty-fourth, and two pieces 



PICKET-DUTY OF B AND F. 203 

of artillery, started up the Neuse road at half-past seven. The 
weather was disagreeably close and muggy, and a hard rain set 
in, so that we were glad to halt and bivouac ten miles out, near 
Core Creek, the enemy s picket line. At noon the next day 
the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts and Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania 
marched on, with nothing but arms and equipments, taking the 
left fork, or Dover road, through the Dover (or Gum) Swamp. 
After wading many miles through water ankle-deep, we came to 
Sandy Ridge, where a small earthwork, the remains of a burnt 
camp, and the carcasses of dead horses marked the place where 
Colonel Jones had surprised the " Rebs " two months before. 
Striking the swamp again, we marched on with increasing dif 
ficulty till firing was heard at the head of the column, and we 
learned that a Rebel regiment, marching down our road to flank 

o c> 

the Forty-fifth Massachusetts, which was advancing on the rail 
road, had been surprised to meet the Twenty-seventh Massachu 
setts, and were retiring in disorder. We were double-quicked in 
the direction of the firing, which was growing hotter. Several 
companies of the Fifty-eighth were sent forward, and we were 
eagerly awaiting our turn; but a combined charge on the Dover 
road and the railroad drove the " Rebs " from their rifle-pits and 
ended the skirmish. This was about sundown, and was followed 
by a retrograde movement. It had rained hard all day, and the 
road was in a miserable condition. The logs with which it had 
been " corduroyed " through the swamp were all afloat. The 
swamp was one vast lake, and it is not exaggeration to say that 
we marched through one puddle four miles long. Reeking above 
the knees with perspiration and below them with swamp water, 
our feet clogged with sand, and stumbling among the floating 
logs, the men of our detachment, exhausted by continuous night 
duty on picket, struggled and staggered along through the dark 
ness and rain. Occasionally a man would fall out of the ranks, 
but his gun would be taken by some friend, and he would be 
supported and led on between hardier comrades. For the last 
few miles most of us felt at each step as if no power on earth 
could move us an inch farther. Our legs seemed powerless. 
We were dazed and almost unconscious, as if we had been 
drugged. Those who have stood similar trials know how des- 



2O4 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

perately a man clings to his determination to hold out ; how he 
mechanically counts his steps, or the trees as he passes them ; 
how he clenches his teeth and sings monotonously to himself; 
how he fixes his eye on the cartridge-box plate of the man in 
front, and tries to shut out every idea except that he must keep 
that in sight. Finally we reached camp thoroughly and abso 
lutely worn out. 

The official reports of this expedition all refer to the weather 
and the difficulties of marching. Colonel Jones says: "The road 
runs principally through swamps, with an occasional oasis of dry 
ground, and, being chiefly covered with water or very wet mud, 
is heavy and difficult." General Palmer reports : " At midnight 
it commenced to rain very heavily, and continued until noon of 
Tuesday, the 28th instant. At the conclusion of the storm the 
whole country seemed flooded ; the roads were in a horrible 
condition." And in a despatch to New Berne, dated the morning 
of April 28, General Palmer states that " The whole country 
is under water. One shower succeeds another very quickly, 
and we are waiting patiently for a lull in the storm." To this 
despatch he adds a postscript which will touch the hearts of 
all old soldiers who read it, and recall similar circumstances : 
" Unofficial P. S. A ration of whiskey ought to be sent for the 
men if provisions are sent." 

This was the last notable event of picket service. On Satur 
day, May 2, two companies of the Forty-sixth Massachusetts 
straggled into our camp, in shirt-sleeves and straw hats, to relieve 
us, and in the afternoon we bade adieu to " Camp Lee," and 
returned to our barracks at New Berne. The flag which had 
flown from the flag-staff was inscribed " Gum Swamp," and to 
this day graces the annual reunions of Company F. 



CHAPTER XI. 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 

N one of our popular operas the chorus 
sings with much gusto, and in a man 
ner that leads one to think it does 
not believe in the sentiment, 
" The policeman s life is not a 
happy one." Every member of 
the Massachusetts Forty-fourth in 
May and June, 1863, would have 
unhesitatingly indorsed the opinion 
expressed by the operatic author. 
In the spring of that year 
several of the Boston news 
papers gravely announced 
5^. that the Forty-fourth Regi 
ment Massachusetts Volun 
teers was doing police duty 

in New Berne. Those who have served in the army will readily 
appreciate the feeling of indignation and disgust which this 
statement created among the men of that regiment. This will 
be easily understood by others, when it is explained that 
" police duty " in the army is synonymous with " scavenger 
duty" in civil life; "policing a camp" not meaning the main 
tenance of good order and strict discipline, as civilians would 
naturally suppose, but including such disagreeable and miscella 
neous duties as sweeping the grounds, emptying swill, carrying 
water, etc. The error was, however, a very natural one, and 
was founded on the following order : 

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT NORTH CAROLINA, April 23, 1863. 
Special Order No. 117. 

In accordance with the custom of the department, the regiment now 
doing provost duty will be relieved. 




2O6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The commanding general, on changing the guard of the town, desires 
to convey to Colonel Codman, and through him to his officers and men, 
his high appreciation of the manner in which the duties of the guard have 
been performed ; and he has noticed with great pleasure the drill, disci 
pline, and general efficiency of the regiment. 

The Forty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia will relieve the Forty- 
fifth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia on Saturday, 25th inst., at 9 A. M. 
By command, 

JOHN G. FOSTER, 

Major- General Commanding Department. 
SOUTHARD HOFFMAN, A. A. G. 

On returning from Washington we had all hoped we should 
go directly to our old barracks ; but finding these in possession 
of the Ninth New Jersey, we were temporarily assigned to those 
formerly used by the Tenth Connecticut, very near the ones 
we had previously occupied, only a short distance farther from 
the Neuse River. The few days that intervened before we as 
sumed our new duties were spent by the men in recovering from 
the fatigue of the siege of Washington, in letter-writing, mend 
ing clothes, etc. 

Early on Saturday morning the regiment, in full-dress uniform, 
equipped in heavy marching order, was formed in line and pro 
ceeded to the city, where it relieved the Forty-fifth. After the 
usual exchange of salutes, the guard for the day, which had been 
detailed before we left camp, relieved the sentries of the Forty- 
fifth, and then the rest of the regiment proceeded by companies 
to the quarters in the town to which they had been respectively 
assigned. They were the same occupied by the different regi 
ments which had done provost duty previous to our turn. Each 
company had one or more houses allotted to its use, and among 
them were some of the pleasantest residences in the city. The 
Forty-fifth had left them in good condition, decorated them pret 
tily, and many little tokens of welcome greeted our arrival. It 
was a debatable question among our boys one which we believe 
was never satisfactorily settled whether it was more enjoyable 
to be quartered in a large room with from ten to fifteen compan 
ions, or in a small one with from three to five. 

The change from camp life was pleasant in the beginning, but 
it soon became very monotonous. There was a freedom in the 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 2O/ 

former, where we were allowed to appear in undress uniform, a 
uniform which at times was decidedly undress, and do about as 
we pleased when off duty, compared with the constraint we felt 
when it was found to be an unpardonable offence to appear on 
the street except in full-dress suit, with boots nicely polished, 
belts blackened, and brasses brightened. Provost duty, unlike the 
usual camp duty of "two hours on and four hours off," was " four 
hours on and eight hours off." It was an advantage to those who 
were fortunate enough to be on between 8 and 12 P. M., as they 
could enjoy uninterrupted sleep till 8 A. M. the following day; 
but four hours seemed a long time to the poor sentry pacing his 
beat, and many of the boys would gladly have changed to the 
old hours. 

The duties of a provost guard are to preserve order in the 
town ; see that no enlisted man passes unless provided with a 
written permission suitably signed, indorsed, and dated ; pre 
vent fast riding or driving through the streets ; act as guards at 
the railway station and the wharves ; and to do anything and 
everything required of them of a similar nature. Most of the 
boys thought the principal duty of a sentry was to salute com 
missioned officers ; and it is conceded by all who have ever stood 
four hours on a post that this work consumed no small part of 
the time. 

For a few days the novelty was pleasing. There was a great 
deal of excitement compared with the routine of a strictly camp 
life. Soldiers are in some respects veritable children, and they 
hailed the promise of a furlough for a day in town with as much 
pleasure as would a small schoolboy that of a day s holiday. It 
was quite a common occurrence when some member of another 
regiment visiting the town was stopped by a sentry for examina 
tion, to have the latter, after reading the name on the pass, and 
finding it to be familiar, glance up, and recognizing the bearer, 
remark, "Why, Tom, when did you come to New Berne? Bill 
and George and Charley are all in our company, and we are 
quartered in Craven Street. Go down and see the boys. I shall 
be off duty to-morro\v, and will try and get over to your camp." 
Such meetings were happening continually, and none but those 
who have shared in them can realize the pleasure they bring. 



208 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



It was not long before the novelty wore off, and then provost 
duty became drudgery. As the town covered quite an area, it 
was divided into three guard districts, and details were assigned 
to the first, second, or third, as the case might be. No record 
has been found showing the exact number of sentries required 
in each district. Corporal Fitz of Company C had a plan of 
New Berne on which the number of each post was marked, but 




unfortunately it has been lost or destroyed since his return. As 
nearly as can be remembered, there were about fifty posts in the 
first, from twenty-five to thirty in the second, and the same number 
in the third district, making about one hundred posts in all. There 
being three reliefs, a detail of 300 men, exclusive of commis 
sioned and non-commissioned officers, would be required daily, 
or a total detail of about 325 men. The nominal strength of the 
regiment was at that time about 900; but so many had been per 
manently or temporarily detailed, and there always being a per 
centage in hospital or excused by the surgeon, the effective 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 2OQ 



strength was probably less than 650, obliging the privates to go 
on duty at least every other day, and sometimes two days in suc 
cession. Commissioned and non-commissioned officers fared 
somewhat better, but they even were called upon much oftener 
than they wished. 1 The demand being so severe, drilling was to 
a great extent discontinued, and the men excused from every 
thing but policing quarters and the daily dress parade. 

May 2, Companies B and F, which had been on picket duty at 
Batchelder s Creek while the regiment was at " Little " Washing 
ton, rejoined us at New Berne. This made the work somewhat 
easier for the others. 

The instructions issued for provost duty laid a great deal of 
stress on the importance and proper manner of saluting commis 
sioned officers. 
Sentries were 
required to car 
ry their muskets 
at "shoulder" 
or " support; " 
but after dark, 
when they be 
gan to chal 
lenge, were per 
mitted to carry 
shoulder shift." 
say that these 



them at " right 

It is needless to 

instructions were implicitly followed 

whenever the sentry thought that 
he might be observed by a commissioned officer, or by a non 
commissioned officer on duty. They may have done so at other 
times; but for the credit of the regiment it might be well not to 
investigate too closely. 

So far as the commissioned officers were concerned, the change 
was undoubtedly agreeable. In camp, drills and other duties 

1 Since writing the above a diary has been found which gives the number of men 
detailed for guard on April 25 as 200, and on April 26 as 102 privates, 10 corporals, 
3 sergeants, and 3 lieutenants. If the number of privates given is correct, the effect 
ive strength must have been much less than estimated above, as the privates were 
certainly on duty almost every other day. 




2IO FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

demanded a great deal of their attention ; while now, except 
when acting as officer of the day or officer of the guard, they 
had comparatively little to occupy their time. At any large 
military post there is always a great deal of social gayety, and 
our officers undoubtedly enjoyed the opportunities offered to 
their fullest extent. 

The weather during May and June was very warm, and to 
those who had never been South before, the flies were an intolera 
ble nuisance. " Corporal," in writing to the Boston " Herald," 
devotes a full paragraph to these pests : 

" The fly-statistics of your Port Royal correspondent must not lead your 
readers to suppose that the Department of "the South enjoys a monopoly 
of this interesting insect. I allude to common house-flies. Fleas and 
mosquitoes do not greatly abound at New Berne, but house-flies swarm 
like the locusts of Egypt. The wood-ticks of Hill s Point, which adhered 
to the cuticle with a death-grasp, deserved a paragraph, but the house-flies 
of New Berne are even a greater nuisance. The printers will not fail to 
notice the peculiar manner in which they have punctuated this sheet of 
manuscript. Their tracks are visible upon every object which they can 
touch, upon our plates, dippers, knives, forks, bread. They attack us 
with desperation at meal-times, and if we have anything better than usual 
they are sure to find it out, and rally upon the sweet point, so that while 
we convey the food to our mouth with one hand, we are forced to fight 
flies with the other. Tempus fugit, commences a letter of your New 
Berne correspondent Tiger. Fly-time very appropriate, parentheti 
cally remarked the free translator Frederick, as he read, and described 
curves in the air." 

May 24, Company F, Captain Storrow, was detailed to accom 
pany a lot of Rebel prisoners to Fortress Monroe. This was an 
agreeable duty to the men of that company, and a very pleasant 
break in the monotony of their daily routine. 

During our residence in the city quite a small-pox epidemic 
broke out among the negroes, and among the pleasant duties 
assigned to our regiment was that of searching for those afflicted 
with that disease and superintending their removal to the small 
pox hospital, which was situated just outside the city limits. 
The negroes evinced great repugnance to being sent to it, and 
frequently had to be removed by force. So far as is known, none 
of the boys caught the disease. 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 211 

There were two jails in town, one used mainly as a place of 
safe-keeping for Rebel prisoners, the other for the detention of 
those, soldiers or civilians, who needed such a place of confine 
ment. We had to furnish guards for these, in addition to our 
regular street patrol. 

There was a marked difference in the discipline in various regi 
ments, being so slack in some as to be scarcely worthy of that 
name. The guard-house at Station One was a very large build 
ing, to which was attached an ell containing a single room capa 
ble of holding a great many men. It was in this room that were 
confined soldiers who had been found in town without proper 
permission, who had been indulging too freely in " commissary," 
and who were punished for the infraction of some of the minor 
rules of the department. One day an officer wearing the uni 
form of a colonel approached the non-commissioned officer on 
duty at this guard-house and asked if he could tell where any 
of his regiment were. "What regiment do you command?" in 
quired the "non-com." "The th New York," was the 

answer. " Yes, sir," the " non-com." replied. " Where are 
they?" interrogated the colonel. "A few of them are in the 
guard-house." "May I see them?" "Certainly, sir," was the 
answer; and leading the colonel towards the ell in the rear, al 
lowed him the opportunity of looking through the door. The 
room was crowded almost to the point of suffocation, and among 

its inmates were very few that did not belong to the th New 

York, commanded by the anxious colonel. As soon as he was 
recognized by those in confinement there was a general cry, 
" Hullo, colonel, let us out ! We want to go back to camp." 
The colonel considered a minute. " On the whole, boys, I think 
you will do very well where you are for to-night. I have just 
come from camp, and the major, one lieutenant, and five pri 
vates are all there are within its limits. I want to go off to-night 
myself; so I think I will go back and furlough these, and then I 
shall have no one to look after until you are released at guard 
mounting to-morrow morning. Good-by ; " and off he went. 
The boys passed the night in the guard-house, but the little 
sleep that any of them succeeded in getting was not very 
sound. 



212 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Shortly after our return to New Berne, Corporal Lawrence of 
Company C created quite a sensation by marrying a resident 
of that town. Those who were fortunate enough to receive 
" cards " were objects of envy to their less favored comrades. 
Mrs. Lawrence, since her husband s death, has resided in Boston 
with Corporal Lawrence s father. 

One advantage we had while on duty in town was the privilege 
of buying fresh eggs, vegetables, etc., from boats which used to 
come in from the country just outside of the lines. Under what 
regulations the trade was allowed we never discovered, but some 
one person in each boat was provided with a duly authorized 
permit. No sales were allowed until the officer in charge had 
made his appearance, and then to no one except commissioned 
officers or their servants. After these had carefully selected 
such portions of the cargoes as they wished, certain civilians 
were allowed to make their purchases, and when they were sat 
isfied, if anything was left, private soldiers were at liberty to buy. 
It was a singular fact, however, that it almost invariably happened 
some of the choicer articles had been accidentally mislaid or 
covered up, and the fact was not discovered until the sentries on 
the wharf began trading, when they would suddenly be found ; 
but it was just as singular that the discovery was never made 
while a commissioned officer was in sight. On the whole, the 
boys fared very well. 

During the time we were in town an attempt was made to re 
produce " II Recruitio," with an additional act descriptive of our 
adventures in Washington. The lines were all written and the 
parts assigned ; but the arduous duty of provost prevented us 
from giving much time to preparation, and the design was finally 
relinquished. 

Our band seemed to be thoroughly appreciated by our general 
and staff officers. Daily at guard mounting and dress parade it 
made its appearance with the regiment, but at other times it was 
fully occupied at so.me of the various headquarters in the town. 
The players probably enjoyed it, although they were not always 
allowed to retire at taps. William F. Ingraham, who was the first 
leader, died in January, and in May his brother, A. W. Ingraham, 
a noted bugle-player, came out to go home with us. On May 19 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 213 

an order was issued defining the duties of those sharing the man 
agement of the band. Babcock was to direct rehearsals, arrange 
programmes, conduct the band on all parades, etc., and select the 
music. Ingraham was to perform the duties of leader, and fix 
the hours and length of practice. Corporal Hovey was to act as 
business manager. In the concluding paragraph of this order the 
colonel complimented the band highly, and expressed the hope 
that it would do credit to itself and the regiment when it reached 
Boston. We are glad to say that this hope was realized. Late 
in the winter and early in the spring of 1863 Mr. P. S. Gilmore 
had given a series of concerts for the benefit of the Massachusetts 
regiments in the Department of North Carolina. Among the 
list of subscribers were some of the most influential and best- 
known merchants of Boston. The different military associations, 
such as the New England Guards Association, Tigers, Cadets, 
and Lancers, took a warm interest in the success of the enterprise. 
Hallett & Cumston contributed a grand piano, which yielded the 
handsome sum of $1,691. The total receipts were $5,772.65; 
and on May 18 an order was read at dress parade thanking Mr. 
Gilmore, and acknowledging the receipt of $500, our share of 
the net proceeds. 

As the term of our enlistment drew near its close, the boys 
began to count the remaining days as anxiously as do boys of a 
younger age the hours before vacation begins. Many were the 
rumors rife in barracks ; and no matter how improbable one might 
be, there were always some who believed it. At last the following 
welcome order was read on dress parade : 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 

NEW BERNE, N. C., June 4, 1863. 
Special Order No, 159. 

2. It is hereby ordered that the Forty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia be relieved by the Twenty-seventh Regiment Massachu 
setts Volunteers, as provost guard of this town, on Saturday morning next, 
June 6, at 6 o clock. 

By command of Major-General JOHN G. FOSTER. 

S. HOFFMAN, A. A. G. 
HEADQUARTERS SECOND BRIGADE. 

[Official.] 

E. C. JOHNSON, Adjutant. 



214 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Although we did not regret that the term of service was so 
near its close, there had been, after all, a great many pleasant cir 
cumstances connected with our enlistment, and we had actually 
enjoyed this brief service in the employment of Uncle Sam. We 
had a great many friends in the other regiments, and a large part 
of our leisure during the days that intervened between the 
reading of this order and our departure was spent in bidding 
good-by to these acquaintances. 

The night before our departure General Foster gave a recep 
tion to the officers of our regiment. As the writer of this chapter 
was not fortunate enough to hold a commission, he cannot speak 
from personal knowledge of the proceedings, but he is assured by 
all who attended that they had a most delightful time. The rank 
and file were also determined to enjoy themselves, and various 
were the schemes adopted by the boys. Although as a general 
rule but very little " commissary " was to be found in our camp, 
that night was an exception, and there were not many, except 
those who were consistent total-abstainers, who did not drink at 
least one toast to the friends they were to leave behind and to a 
safe passage home. Notwithstanding this, there was no unseemly 
conduct, so far as known, on the part of any of the men. They 
were simply enthusiastically jolly. One of the boys, feeling his 
clothing too oppressive, and having no fear of being called upon 
to receive visitors, appeared in his quarters in a state of nature, 
but fully equipped with belt, cartridge-box, and knapsack, carry 
ing a piece of old stove-pipe on his shoulder. While engaged 
in this amusement his captain suddenly came on the scene, and 
with a good deal of indignation in voice and manner, inquired 
what he meant by appearing in such a condition. " I am a 
heavy artillery-man in light marching order," was the ready 
reply. The captain quietly remarked that he was unaware that 
the man had been transferred from the infantry, and advised 
him to return to his own room and resume the regulation 
uniform. It is needless to add that the captain s advice was 
promptly followed. 

An excellent locality on Broad Street was assigned for our 
dress parades, and the last one held by us in New Berne we 
think would have done credit to any regiment in the service. 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 215 

Each man tried to do his best. At this parade the following 
order was read : 

HEADQUARTERS EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 

NEW BERNE, N. C., June 5, 1863. 
Special Order No. 160. 

1 7. The commanding general, on bidding farewell to the Forty-fourth 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, conveys to them his high appre 
ciation of and thanks for their services while in this department. 

As a part of the garrison of Washington, and in the various duties 
to which they have been assigned, they have always done their duty as 
soldiers. 

The commanding general, in parting, expresses his hopes to officers and 
men that he may have the pleasure of welcoming their return here, and 
tenders them, one and all, his best and kindest wishes for their future. 

By command of 

Major-General J. G. FOSTER. 
S. HOFFMAN, A. A. G. 

General Wessells, an old regular army officer, and a strict dis 
ciplinarian, to whose division we had been assigned, also took 
occasion to issue the following : 

HEADQUARTERS FOURTH DIVISION, EIGHTEENTH ARMY CORPS, 

PLYMOUTH, N. C., June 10, 1863. 
General Order No. 7. 

III. Having learned that the Forty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia is about to leave the department, its term of service being ful 
filled, the brigadier-general commanding the division cannot allow the 
occasion to pass without expressing his sincere regret at thus losing one 
of its brightest ornaments. 

The gentlemanly deportment and soldierly bearing of all grades have 
rendered his intercourse with the regiment, both socially and officially, 
peculiarly agreeable ; and in changing the rough duties of camp for the 
peaceful pursuits of civil life, the commanding general desires them a safe 
return to the green hills of New England, with his best wishes for their 
future happiness and prosperity. 

By command of 

Brigadier-General H. W. WESSELLS. 

ANDREW STEWART, A. A. G. 

HEADQUARTERS FORTY-FOURTH REGIMENT, June 18, 1863. 
[Official.] 

E. C. JOHNSON, Lieutenant and Adjutant Forty-fourth M. V. M. 

We landed at New Berne in a rain-storm and we left there in 
a rain-storm, although the last was not as heavy as the first. 



2l6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Early on the morning of June 5 our regimental line was formed 
for the last time in North Carolina; and, escorted by the Third 
Massachusetts, Colonel Richmond, one of the regiments which 
accompanied us to that State, we took our line of march for the 
depot. There we embarked on platform cars and started for 
Morehead City. Colonel Holbrook of the Forty-third had in 
tended to have his regiment form part of our escort, but the 
shower interfered with the programme. Soon after starting, the 
rain ceased and we had a very pleasant trip to Morehead City. 
By noon the regiment was on board of the steamers and ready to 
proceed on its homeward way. The right wing, Companies A, 
G, H, K, and E, were on the " Guide," accompanied by the 
colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, the regimental band, the sur 
geon, and the sick. Colonel Sisson and other officers of the 
Fifth Rhode Island took passage on this steamer. The left wing 
was on the " George Peabody," and included Companies F, B, D, 
C, and I, under command of Captain Storrow. Quite a number 
of men from other regiments, who had been granted veteran fur 
loughs on account of re-enlistment, were on this steamer. The 
passage was very pleasant, although on the first night out we 
had a heavy wind and sea. There was the usual amount of sea 
sickness ; but the sufferers invariably called it by some other name, 
and were very indignant if accused of succumbing to "Father 
Neptune s curse." As Mark Twain afterwards graphically de 
scribed it, they had the " Oh, my ! " badly. During the Qth 
of June we ran along the eastern shore of Cape Cod, and just 
before sunset dropped anchor in Boston Harbor. In passing 
Fort Warren the entire garrison turned out, the band at the Fort 
played " Home, Sweet Home," and we continued to exchange 
cheers while within hearing of each other. It was a beautiful 
evening, and how glad we were to reach dear old Boston, all our 
boys can bear witness. The dome of the State House loomed 
up in the evening light, and the sound of the nine-o clock bells 
which reached us, mellowed by the distance, gave a home 
feeling that none of our men had known for nine long months. 
The " Guide " had not arrived, so we remained at anchor off Fort 
Independence till morning. 

Just before dark a tug came down from the city and hauled 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 

alongside the " George Peabody." Perhaps our officers can say 
what news its passengers brought; but the " being in command," 
who wore the shoulder-straps of a brigadier-general, evidently 
considered privates beneath his notice. As might have been 
expected, the ubiquitous representative of the press was on 
board and made " Corporal " the recipient of a bottle of choice 
whiskey. Another corporal, as chief of his squad, had the cus 
tody of several lemons ; and so the two corporals combined forces 
and the result was a toothsome compound, in which several of 
us drank the health of " dear old Boston," and then retired to 
the softest spots we could find, " Corporal " stretching himself 
on a huge chest, about amidships on the main deck, and the 
others bunking within supporting distance. 

As soon as it was known that we were homeward bound, it was 
proposed by the Reserve of the New England Guard and others 
of our friends to give the regiment a reception. A meeting was 
called to make the necessary arrangements, and after some dis 
cussion, the date of our arrival being uncertain, it adjourned sub 
ject to the call of the committee. 1 When the " George Peabody " 
was reported in the harbor, all who were to participate were noti 
fied as rapidly as possible. The " Guide " arrived during the 
night and steamed directly up to Central Wharf, where the men 
immediately disembarked. The " George Peabody " followed as 
soon as possible. Before we had made fast, Captain Jake Lom 
bard of Company C, who had resigned from ill health, and 
Charley Ewer of Company D, who had been discharged in con 
sequence of severe wounds received at Whitehall, came on board 
of the vessel, and we were as glad to meet them as they were 
to meet us. On the wharf were many of the friends we had left 
behind nine months before, and pleasant the greetings and many 
the questions asked and answered. Messrs. Whall and Dyer, who 
had sons in Company E, and who probably had been informed 
from some source that almost any change of diet from that of 
" salt horse and hard-tack " would be agreeable, furnished a nice 
collation, which it is needless to say the boys appreciated. Some 

1 The committee of arrangements consisted of Messrs. J. M. Cumston, J. C. Bur- 
rage, J. G. Lombard, W. H. Odiorne, and W. H. Baldwin. Colonel Francis Boyd 
was chief marshal. Another authority gives General Tyler as chairman. 



21 8 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

received brief furloughs ; and one squad, on invitation of the father 
of Corporal Gardner of Company D, who felt as keen and warm 
an interest in the regiment as if all the members had been his 
children, partook of a sumptuous breakfast at Parker s. 

Our escort reached the wharf shortly after 10 A. M. Major J. 
Putnam Bradlee was in command. The New England Guard 
Reserve turned out with 93 guns ; the Massachusetts Rifle Club, 
Captain Moore, 114 guns; the Battalion of National Guards, 
Major C. VV. Stevens, 102 guns ; and the Roxbury Reserve Guard, 
Captain Wyman, 80 guns. Gilmore s and the Brigade bands fur 
nished music. Our regiment fell in and formed promptly, the usual 
salutes were exchanged, and in charge of our escort we started for 
Boston Common. The number of spectators on State Street was 
immense ; we had intended to march up that street company front, 
but the crowd was so dense that we had to form by column of 
platoons, and even then, in spite of the efforts of the guides, it 
was impossible to keep a perfect alignment. The right guide of 
the second platoon of Company D we know had actually to 
fight his way through, and probably most of the other guides 
had a similar experience. Old Dan Simpson and Si Smith, the 
veteran drummer and fifer of the Guards, marched at the head 
of column, and our band received many encomiums from the 
spectators. 

On reaching the Common, the regiment wheeled by company 
into line, the right resting on the Beacon Street MaLj,nvhen Mayor 
Lincoln, accompanied by Colonel Kurtz, Chief of Police, 1 chair 
man of the committee of arrangements, took position in front, 
and in behalf of the city of Boston welcomed the regiment home. 
In concluding his remarks he returned thanks to Colonel Sisson 
and the Fifth Rhode Island for their gallant action in running the 
blockade at Washington. Colonel Lee responded, the regiment 
wheeled into column of companies, stacked arms, and broke ranks. 
During the speaking the boys had been wistfully eying their " sis 
ters and their cousins and their aunts," as well as many others of 
the gentler sex who were not related by such ties of consanguin 
ity ; although some of them frankly acknowledged afterward that 
their thoughts had been directed to a row of ten tables one 
1 Another authority says " accompanied by General Tyler." 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 2IQ 

opposite each company in the rear of the ladies. As soon as 
the order to break ranks was given the greetings indulged in 
on the wharf were repeated on a larger and more demonstrative 
scale. We were the " heroes of the day," and probably there 
was not a member of the regiment who did not enjoy the distinc 
tion. It is said that the collation was choice and bountiful, it 
must have been, as it was provided by J. B. Smith, but the 
writer has thus far been unable to find even one man who could 
speak from experience. Each acknowledges that he got a mouth 
ful or so, but claims that he was so busy in shaking hands with 
this one, answering earnest questions from that, replying to sin 
cere congratulations of the other, that he found no time to inspect 
the tables or sample carefully what they bore. 

After an hour or so the regiment was called to attention and 
then furloughed to the following Monday, June 15, at sunset; at 
which time the members were ordered to report at the old camp 
at Readville. 

The day following our arrival home, Colonel Lee received a 
letter from Lieutenant-Colonel A. G. Browne, Jr., the military 
secretary of Governor Andrew, written in obedience to a request 
from the Governor (who at that time was in New York City), 
that the Forty-fourth be given an official welcome. He quotes 
from Governor Andrew s letter of instructions : " I beg that you 
will cause a proper expression to be officially made to Colonel 
Frank Lee and the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, announced by 
telegraph this morning to be now in Boston Harbor, of my in 
terest in this fine and most exemplary corps and its commander. 
It will meet a splendid popular reception." In Colonel Browne s 
letter he refers to the fact that General Foster requests our arms 
and equipments to be returned at the earliest possible moment, 
so they could be used in arming General Wilde s brigade of 
colored troops which he was then recruiting in North Carolina. 

Company B was the only distinctively local company in the 
regiment, all its members, with but two or three exceptions, 
having enlisted from Newton. Shortly after the muster out of 
the regiment the citizens of that town gave Company B a recep 
tion at Newton Corner. The stores were closed and the schools 
dismissed. William O. Edmands was chief marshal and Hon. J. 



22O FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Wiley Edmands presided. Several appropriate speeches were 
made, and the exercises concluded with a banquet in Elliot 
Hall. 

On June 15, pursuant to orders, the regiment assembled at 
Readville. Much to our disappointment we were not permitted 
to occupy our old barracks, as they were in possession of the 
Fifty-fifth, but were quartered on the other side of the road, far 
ther east, where the Forty-third and Forty-fifth had been located 
during our first residence in that town. On the i6th we went 
into Boston and performed escort duty for the Third Regiment, 
which had performed like duty for us on our departure from New 
Berne. 

The morning after we reached camp, Special Order No. 71 was 
received, as follows : 

HEADQUARTERS, CAMP MEIGS, 

READVILLE, June 15, 1863. 
Special Order No. 71. 

Copy of Genera] Order No. 17 from these headquarters is herewith 
transmitted to Colonel F. L. Lee, commanding Forty-fourth Massachu 
setts, who will govern himself accordingly. 

R. A. PEIRCE, Brigadier- General. 

The order to which this referred was the following : 

HEADQUARTERS, CAMP MEIGS, 

READVILLE, June 10, 1863. 
General Order No. 17. 

On and after June 10 the following will be the daily duty throughout the 
entire camp : 

1. Reveille. Roll-call : . 5 a. m. 

2. First sergeant s call. Report to adjutant . . 5.30 a. m. 

3. Breakfast 6.30 a. m. 

4. Surgeon s call 7.30 a. m. 

5. Guard-mounting 8 a. m. 

6. Drills 9 to 12 a. m. 

7. Dinner 12 m. 

8. First sergeant s call. Report to adjutant . . i p. m. 

9. Drills 1.30 to 4 p. m. 

10. Dress parade 5 p. m. 

u. Supper 6 p. m. 

12. Retreat and roll-call Sunset. 

13. Tattoo 8.30 p. m. 

14. Taps 9 p. m. 



PROVOST DUTY, VOYAGE HOME, AND MUSTER OUT. 221 

Regimental adjutants will make their returns to these headquarters at 
7.30 A. M. each day. There will be three stated roll-calls daily, attended 
by at least one commissioned officer to each company ; namely, at reveille, 
retreat, and tattoo. Lights will be extinguished at taps in the quarters of 
enlisted men. Length of drills at the discretion of the different com 
manders. 1 One copy of this order will be placed in each barrack. 

By command of 

R. A. PEIRCE, Brigadier-General. 
Lieutenant H. HOLT, Post Adjutant. 

The men, who had naturally been talking over the matter of 
their muster out, generally understood that their term of service 
having expired, the only duties that could be demanded of them, 
as they were not in the presence of an enemy, when, of course, 
none would have thought for an instant of taking advantage of 
any technicality, were that of policing and guarding the camp. 
We were proud of our proficiency in drill, we were most anxious 
to be given an opportunity to show the results of our nine months 
experience and instruction, and we had all indulged in pleasant 
dreams of the astonishment we would create by our steadiness in 
the Manual and battalion movements when given an opportunity 
for an hour or two each afternoon to exhibit on the plains of 
Readville. But when we found that the above order was to be 
enforced literally, that we were expected to attend " squad drill," 
and were to be treated in all respects like " raw recruits," we 
were very indignant; but the discipline to which we had been 
subjected for the previous nine months was not without its effect 
and the opposition was passive rather than active. Our officers 
were no more in sympathy with this order than the men, but 
their position made them more circumspect in expressing it. 
We may have done the commandant of the camp injustice, but 
he was not popular with the regiment when we were here the 
previous fall, a fact which he himself fully recognized at the 
time; and now that we were enduring the restlessness engen 
dered by the nearness of our muster out, the anxiety to be again 

1 No copy of the order as actually posted in the barracks has been found ; but 
according to the recollection of all who have been consulted, this sentence, owing 
probably to an omission in copying, was not contained in the order as it reached us, 
and the first drills were specified as " squad." The order having caused some dis 
cussion at the time and since, is here given in full. 



222 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



free from the restraints of army rule, and the natural reaction 
from the strict discipline under which we had been kept, we 
were probably incapable of judging calmly or dispassionately. 
Colonel Lee was absent from camp at the time the order was 
posted. On his return he had the obnoxious features modified. 

Thursday, June 18, we were mustered out of the service of the 
United States. 




CHAPTER XII. 



NORTH CAROLINA REVISITED. 




N January, 1884, Colonel C. 
G. Attvvood, formerly of 
the Twenty-fifth Massachu 
setts, issued a circular in 
viting all who had served 
in North Carolina to join 
a party on a trip to the old 
North State. Like many 
others, I had always in 
tended to revisit the places 
connected with the history 
of the Forty-fourth, and at 

this time the first opportunity was presented. Comrade Charles 
J. Mclntire, of Company G, and I decided -to join ; but when we 
called on Colonel Attvvood we were informed that owing to vari 
ous causes the proposed expedition had been abandoned. We 
had talked about the trip so much that it was a great disappoint 
ment, and as it would be very inconvenient for us to be away in 
March, the time named in Colonel Attvvood s circular, we 
decided to wait until the fall and go, with or without others. In 
August, after consulting with Colonel Attwood, eight hundred 
circulars were issued in his name, reviving the project suggested 
the January previous. A few favorable answers were received, 
but an equal number of resignations followed, and the party was 
finally composed of Mclntire and myself. 

I left home Tuesday evening, Sept. 30, 1884, with feelings hard 
to describe. It seemed almost as though I was again " going to 
war." The old barracks, the river, camps, troops, drilling, and 



224 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

various scenes of a wholly warlike nature were in my mind. I 
could not picture New Berne without plenty of soldiers moving 
about, the old forts bristling with cannon, war vessels in the 
river. I could hardly realize that I was to travel about. without 
a " pass," unmolested, in covered railway cars, or ride over the 
country roads instead of marching. However, I was on my 
way to the never-to-be-forgotten places, and must expect great 
changes. 

For many years I had had a strong desire to visit Gettysburg. 
I started a little in advance of Comrade Mclntire, whom I was to 
join at Baltimore. Having had quite an experience in photog 
raphy (as an amateur), I decided to take my camera and a 
supply of dry plates, so as to secure views of the most interest 
ing points ; and in this sketch of the trip the number enclosed in 
parentheses following the mention of any place indicates that I 
succeeded in getting a picture of that locality, and is the number 
of the negative. 

Space will not permit giving an account of the Gettysburg 
visit. It will be sufficient to say that I made some most pleasant 
acquaintances, who were engaged in and thoroughly familiar 
with the action of the battle, and I felt well repaid for the time 
spent. 

On Friday morning, October 3, I boarded the south-bound 
train at Baltimore, where I joined Mclntire. Passing through 
Washington, Fredericksburg, Petersburg, and Weldon, we reached 
Goldsboro at 7.30 P. M. Selecting the nearest hotel, we told the 
landlord the object of our visit, expressing a desire to meet some 
of our late opponents. He soon found some, with whom we 
passed a very pleasant evening. 

Having arranged to send our baggage to New Berne by train, 
on Saturday morning we took a carriage and drove to the Golds 
boro battlefield. To our surprise it was nearly five miles from 
the village. As we approached the field (568) by a different 
road from the one we had followed twenty-two years before, it 
was difficult to locate the various points. The railroad bridge 
was unmistakable; but we at last concluded that the trees had 
grown so that now we could not see the bridge from the memo 
rable turnip-field in which we had rested Dec. 17, 1862. Time 



NORTH CAROLINA REVISITED. 225 

was precious ; as one view of the field was sufficient, we were 
soon in motion for Whitehall. 

Our driver professed to know the route, but by noon he ac 
knowledged he had not been over it for many years and had 
lost his way. We were disappointed, as we had hoped to ride 
over the same road that we marched over in 1862. Stopping at 
a farm-house for directions, the woman replied in the familiar 
North Carolina phraseology, " It s a right smart distance fur 
ther this way, but I Ve heared my husband say this road is a heap 
better than the other; " and so we kept on. About 2 P. M. we 
turned into the main street (574) of Whitehall, 1 at the point 
where Newcomb and Slocum, of Company A, were killed, Dec. 
16, 1862. 

Driving immediately to the Seawell House and ordering lun 
cheon, we proceeded to view the position occupied by the Forty- 
fourth at the time of the action. Fortunately we found a Mr. 
Whitfield, who owned most of the land about there and was a 
resident of the place during the war. \Ve found the little burial- 
lot (570) on the river-bank near Company G s position. We 
were shown the places where many of the killed had been buried, 
and were told that since the war all the bodies had been re 
moved, he supposed to the Federal Cemetery at New Berne, 
with the exception of one whose name or regiment was unknown, 
and a house having been built over the soldier s last resting- 
place, the body could not be disinterred. Walking out on the 
bridge (569) we took a view of the bank opposite our position 
(572), and then of the spot where the Confederate gunboat was 
built (571). The place had changed greatly. The south bank 
is now thickly studded with young trees, so that it is difficult to 
find a place from which the river can be seen. The half-dozen 
buildings which formed the town of Whitehall, and in 1862 were 
burned when we left, have been replaced by some twenty or 
thirty, among them a church, hotel, and saw-mill. About half 
a mile west of the main street is a hotel for summer guests near 
some springs which have been found to possess medicinal prop 
erties. There are seven of them, and the name "Whitehall" has 

1 The map shows Whitehall Bridge. The village of Seven Springs, formerly 
Whitehall, or, as maps say, "Jericho," is on the south bank of the river. 

15 



226 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

been discarded, the place now being known as " Seven Springs." 
The main street of the town extends to about where Newcomb 
and Slocum were killed (573), which at the time of our first visit 
was an open field. A gentleman pointed out a tree in his garden 
under which they had been buried. 

After luncheon we drove over the bridge on our way to La 
Grange, where we were to take the train for New Berne. Four 
miles an hour appears to be the maximum rate of driving in 
North Carolina, and it was 5.30 P. M. when we stepped on the 
platform of the railway station at that place. 

At half-past six the train from Goldsboro arrived, and glad 
enough we were to get on board. We frankly stated to those we 
met the object of our trip, and the greatest cordiality was shown 
us. On this train we had the pleasure of meeting Captain Car^ 
roway. He had been in the Confederate cavalry, and while the 
Forty-fourth was in the department, commanded the pickets on 
the north side of the Neuse, with headquarters at or near Street s 
Ferry. Mclntire remembered, when detailed on a flag-of-truce 
boat to carry some refugees up the river, having seen him near 
that place. Captain Carroway stated that for a long time he 
belonged to the " unreconciled," but at last realized that it was no 
use "kicking against the pricks." Now, he says, he can sec that 
the war had its good results ; that the people of both sections are 
becoming better acquainted, are discovering good points in each 
other that they knew not of before, and that their minds are being 
gradually cleared of prejudices. For his part he "was right glad 
to see us." He got off at Kinston, expressing a wish that he 
might be able to be of service. 

At 9 P. M. the train stopped and the brakeman shouted " New 
Berne." We were as glad to reach our journey s end as we had 
been twenty-two years before, and we alighted at the same spot, 
opposite the railway round-house and machine-shop (606). We 
were not at all anxious to try that caravansary again. Dim memo 
ries of the reputation of the Gaston House rose in our minds, 
those old fairy tales of realms of bliss to which enlisted men were 
not admitted; of beds with sheets; of tables with white cloths 
and napkins. We decided to go there, regardless of the expos 
tulations and praises by another stage-driver of a rival hotel. 



NORTH CAROLINA REVISITED. 22/ 

Unlike, too, our original method of proceeding, we rode from the 
station through Craven Street to our destination (579). It was 
like, yet unlike. No sentries parading up and down, no officers 
lounging on the piazza, none of that bustle we had known in 
1862 and 1863. It was a beautiful moonlight night, and we could 
not resist the inclination to stroll about the town. Up Craven 
Street, by the house occupied by the colonel when the regiment 
was on provost duty (601 ) ; down Pollock Street, by the quar 
ters of Company D (602, 603), and the old guard-house of Dis 
trict No. i (608). All were closed, no signs of life visible. 
Passing up Broad Street, we stopped in front of Company E s 
old quarters (604, 605). The front door was open and a young 
lady seated in the hall reading. Our escort was evidently well 
acquainted ; he called her out and introduced us. She was very 
agreeable, and said that her recollections of the war were very 
dim, as she was but a baby when it broke out. On being told 
that we proposed photographing the places with which we were 
familiar as soldiers, she kindly offered to stand on the piazza. ; 
but as we could not appoint an hour, she unfortunately was 
absent when we returned for that purpose. 

Sunday morning we started for a longer stroll, but the intense 
heat soon drove us back to cover. In the afternoon Mr. Street, 
to whom we had letters of introduction, took us to drive out in 
view of the old camp-grounds of Stevenson s brigade; to the 
National Cemetery (577, 588), where we looked up the recorded 
burials of the Forty-fourth men (578, 587) and visited their 
graves. 

The National Cemetery is located on the westerly side of the 
field on which we used to have our brigade and battalion drills, 
on the left of the wagon-road which, passing Fort Rowan (or 
Star Fort), runs in a northwesterly direction till it crosses the 
swamp near where Fort Stevenson was located. The grounds are 
about eight acres in extent, surrounded by a substantial brick 
wall. On entering, the first object to attract attention is the 
keeper s lodge, a one-story and French-roof cottage, built of 
North Carolina marl. Opposite the house maple-trees have been 
set out in such a way that when fully grown there will be an en 
closure in the shape of a cross, roofed by the arching of the 



228 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

limbs. It is known as Sylvan Hall. Trees in every variety that 
will flourish in the locality are scattered through the enclosure 
in profusion, together with flowering shrubs. Every grave is 
marked with a marble headstone engraved with the name of the 
soldier, if known ; in many cases relatives have erected handsome 
monuments. By enriching the ground with soil from the swamp, 
a beautiful turf has been secured, which is green when all grass out 
side is dry and parched by the summer heat; and the whole effect 
is such that a visitor, on entering, can easily imagine that he is in 
a Northern cemetery. The friends of those buried there can feel 
assured that the last resting-place of their loved ones is as well 
cared for and as beautiful as any but the most expensive of our 
own " cities of the dead." The National Government has pro 
vided that in these respects its dead heroes shall be perpetually 
honored. 

One woman only is buried here. In 1864, learning that her 
betrothed, Charles E. Colledge, private in the Twenty-fifth Mas 
sachusetts, had been stricken with yellow fever, Carrie E. Cutter 
went to New Berne to nurse him. He died, and she, heart-broken, 
fell an easy prey to the same disease. Her last wish has been 
gratified in allowing her remains to forever rest beside those of 
him she loved so well. 

Returning, we saw the mounds of earth representing Forts 
Rowan (581) and Totten (582, 583). On Monday we went again 
to these places and photographed them. 

By advice of many who learned we were to visit " Little " 
Washington, we engaged a carryall, driver, and pair of horses, 
and left New Berne at 4.30 P. M. At the end of an hour we had 
gone three miles, and it was after seven when we reached Street s 
Ferry, only ten miles from New Berne. At 2.30 A. M., Tuesday, 
October 7, we drove into Washington. After disturbing the 
peaceful sleep of several citizens, we found a boarding-house 
kept by Mr. Adams, where we secured accommodations. 

In the morning we engaged the services of one Joe Chauncey 
to drive us to Rawle s Mills. Some seven or eight miles out we 
came to the first swamp (595), though not the last, of which we 
ascertained the depth while accompanying General Foster in his 
North Carolina expeditions. A two-months drought had had its 



NORTH CAROLINA REVISITED. 229 

effect, and we might have walked through without having the 
water come over our shoes. Wishing to reach Rawle s Mills 
before it was too late to photograph, we hurried on. We came 
to a sharp bend on the left, a small house on the right, open 
fields on both sides, and in front a ford between steep banks. 
We thought we had reached the location of our first action. 
After photographing it (596) we sought for the graves of our 
men, but could find no trace of any. Returning to the house 
and consulting an old lady who well remembered " Foster s raid," 
we learned that we were mistaken regarding this place being 
Rawle s Mills. We drove on some two miles, when we reached 
a saw-mill owned by a Mr. Lilly, with whom our driver was ac 
quainted. Mr. Lilly said the place we were seeking was about 
a quarter of a mile beyond the bend. He was not on the ground 
at the time of the fight, but knew all about it, and told us where 
some of our men had been buried, including one named Rollins. 
Their graves were originally under some trees which have been 
felled since the war, and the ground is now a cornfield. We 
drove to Rawle s Mills (585). The deepest part of the stream 
is now spanned by a substantial wagon-bridge. The course of 
the road has been somewhat changed, that part in which we 
were standing when ambushed being overgrown with bushes. 
The old breastworks have been levelled, but the field in which 
we bivouacked (584) is still cultivated. We then returned to 
Washington. 

On Wednesday morning we began our inspection of Washing 
ton. We met a Colonel Carrow who offered to guide us, and 
found the accounts of his war experience very entertaining. We 
first went to Fort Washington (584), and then to the Grice place 
(590). The colonel s son had married one of the Misses Grice, 
and on invitation we entered the house, where we passed a most 
delightful half-hour with the family. Leaving the place, we 
paused to take a parting shot (591) and then went to the bridge. 
A Mr. Winfield, whom we fortunately encountered, gave us much 
valuable information. It appears that what our boys took to be 
a bend in the road near where Companies A and G were ambus 
caded March 30, 1863, was a breastwork formed by felling a 
cypress-tree six feet in diameter across the road. Part of the 



230 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

trunk still lays there slowly rotting (594). Mr. Winfield claims to 
have assisted in removing three men, one of whom was wounded 
in the breast (Sergeant Hobart), one in the eye (John Leonard), 
and another in the neck (T. J. Lawrence), to his mother-in-law s 
house, where they were nursed until able to stand removal to a 
hospital in the interior. 

About 4 P. M. we started on our return to New Berne. When 
nearly across the bridge we stopped, and adjusting the camera 
took views of the bridge (600), the town above (5/9), and the 
town below (598) ; also the river, including Castle Island and 
Rodman s Point (593). Another ten-hours ride, broken only by 
a short halt at Vanceboro , and we were again at the Gaston 
House, tired and sleepy. 

Thursday was comfortably cool, and we spent the day in roam 
ing about the town, taking views and recalling old memories. 

On Friday morning we took the train for Kinston, reaching 
there about II A.M. We inspected the station (614, 621) and 
the fields beyond ; then drove to the scene of the battle. We 
first went to the field in which the right wing formed on that 
memorable Sunday morning. As one experience of passing 
through the swamp was enough for a lifetime, we returned by 
the road which our left wing had taken (616). The little church 
on the farther side of the swamp was burned several years ago, 
and the field is now so overgrown with trees that not a glimpse 
of the bridge or the town beyond could be had. The old house 
(619), used as a hospital, was there, its front still showing where 
it had been struck with bullets. The owner was just beginning 
to repair. On visiting the bridge (617) we looked over the side 
to see where the man in gray uniform had lain the Sunday we 
crossed it in December, 1862. The channel of the river is now 
deep and the current strong. A view down the river (618) shows 
the jetties recently built by the United States Government to im 
prove navigation. After our battle the Confederates built strong 
and elaborate works to protect the bridge against another attack. 
We found them in the same dilapidated state as were similar field- 
works erected during the war. The only places that looked at 
all natural were the hospital and the bridge, the latter being a 
duplicate of the one burned by our forces when we recrossed the 



NORTH CAROLINA REVISITED. 231 

river. Its days are numbered, as the material of an iron bridge 
which is to take its place was being unloaded from the cars while 
we were in Kinston. We left that evening,- reaching Goldsboro 
about midnight. We can say with much more certainty than we 
could have said on former occasions, " The object of the expedi 
tion has been accomplished." 

On our way home we visited Richmond, sailed down the James 
River, passing Fort Darling, Malvern Hill, Harrison s Landing, 
Bermuda Hundred, City Point, and other places of historical 
interest, to Norfolk, whence we took steamer for Boston, reaching 
home Friday night, after an absence of eighteen days. The 
North Carolina part of the trip might be accomplished in ten 
days by using the railroad only. 

The visit was exceedingly interesting. Those who had been 
in the Southern army were particularly cordial, and anxious to 
do all they could to make our trip agreeable. All were hospita 
ble, and hoped that more of the boys who wore the blue in North 
Carolina would pay them a visit. 

On our return from North Carolina I obtained all the informa 
tion possible from those who were present at the burial of com 
rades Morse and Rollins, near Rawle s Mills, Nov. 2, 1862. This 
I sent to the superintendent of the National Cemetery at New 
Berne, with a request that the remains of these men might be 
removed to that place. Sometime afterwards I received the 
letter of which a copy is given below, showing that the removal 
had been accomplished : 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL CEMETERY, OFFICE OF SUPERINTENDENT, 
NEW BERNE, N. C., May 22, 1885. 

Mr. WM. G. REED, Sec. 44^ Mass. Vols. Assoc., 24 Kx. PL, Boston, Mass. 
SIR, In compliance with your request, you are informed that the 
bodies of the three United States soldiers at Rawle s Mills, North Carolina, 
have been disinterred, brought to this cemetery, and reinterred. They 
were in fair preservation, and each readily recognized from your descrip 
tion. Their numbers are as follows : Charles Morse, Company E, Forty- 
fourth Massachusetts, grave No. 3256 ; Charles E. Rollins, Company C, 

Forty-fourth Massachusetts, grave No. 3257 ; King, Marine Artillery, 

grave No. 3258. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

ED. TAUBENSPECK, Superintendent. 



232 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Aside from the pleasure derived from again seeing those 
places so prominent in our memories of army life, there is a 
peculiar gratification in having been the means of securing the 
removal of the remains of those fallen comrades from neglected 
graves to the beautiful resting-place provided by the United 
States Government. 



CHAPTER XIII. 




MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 

HE medical and surgical care of a thou 
sand men under the exceptional cir 
cumstances of army life is no trifling 
matter. If the history of a regiment 
is not written in blood, the unusual 
conditions of camp and field entail no 
small amount of risk, suffering, and 
death upon its members, and of labor 
and responsibility on its medical staff. 
These results are largely increased by 
the youth and inexperience of the 
men who compose a regiment. The 
Forty-fourth was made up in large 

part of boys accustomed to all the luxuries of city and suburban 
life. The average age was about twenty-two years; the average 
height, five feet eight inches ; and the average weight, one hun 
dred and thirty-seven pounds. 

The preliminary encampment at Readville was, for a time, a 
sort of picnic, at which daily drill was relieved by moonlight 
promenades to the strains of the Boston Brass Band. The daily 
routine was enlivened by the stirring notes of Dan Simpson s 
drum and Si Smith s fife. The severity of commissary diet was 
tempered by an abundant overflow from home tables. Nothing 
was too good for the " flower of the youth of Boston," and these 
" pets of many a household " for a time, like Dives, fared sump 
tuously every day. Contractors shoddy was rejected for custom- 
made uniforms, fancy boots took the place of army shoes, and 
Short s knapsacks were provided by the generosity of the busi 
ness men of Boston. 



234 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Meanwhile the surgeons were occupied with preparations for 
the sterner duties of the campaign in prospect. The cheery 
notes of the surgeon s call for the first time resounded through 
the camp. As it soon became a favorite air for all sorts of im 
provised words, descriptive of the disease most prevalent at the 
time, it is reproduced here. 




The personnel of the surgical staff and hospital officers was as 
follows ; namely : 

Surgeon Dr. Robert Ware. 

Assistant-Surgeon . . Dr. Theodore W. Fisher. 

Hospital Steward . . William C. Brigham. 

. Wardmaster .... James B. Brewster, Co. D. 

Hospital Cook . . . Seth J. Hobbs, Co. G. 

Nurse Noah W. Brooks, Co. C. 

" Thomas J. Barnaby, Co. -G. 

This list was subsequently increased, according to the hospital 
muster-roll of Feb. 28, 1863, as follows: 

Clerk Henry W. Littlefield, Co. D. 

Assistant-Cook . . . H. Clay Cross, Co. E. 

Nurse Joseph F. Dean, Co. F. 

Andrew H. Curry, Co. H. 

" Harrison Parker, 2d, Co. H. 

" Benjamin F. Bates, Co. I. 

...... Charles H. Roberts, Co. E. 

" George H. Ray, Co. C. 

" Cummings D. Whitcomb, Co. C. 

" William A. Smallidge, Co. C. 

" John H. Pearce, Co. E. 

Dr. Ware was a graduate of Harvard, of the class of 1852, 
and of the Medical College, class of 1856, and was a son of one 
of its most distinguished professors, Dr. John Ware. He had 
had some experience as a surgeon of the Sanitary Commission 
on board a hospital steamship in the Peninsular Campaign, 
and was in every way well qualified for his place. Dr. Fisher, 
after a business and academic education, graduated at Harvard 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 235 

Medical College in the class of 1861, and had had two years 
experience in hospital service at the Boston Lunatic Hospital 
and as Resident Physician to the city institutions in Boston 
Harbor. He applied for a surgeoncy in a three years regiment, 
but had not practised the requisite number of years. 

It was soon found by the surgeons that, in consequence of the 
great pressure for admission to this regiment, some physically 
unfit men had been passed by the examining physicians of the 
cities and towns. Deception as to age had been practised to 
some extent, and boys under eighteen, puny and undeveloped, 
had been passed, through their own urgency to enlist. This 
necessitated a re-examination of every man by the regimental 
surgeons. This duty was thoroughly performed at Readville, 
every member of the regiment being stripped, inspected, and 
tested in various ways. Confession of weakness or disability 
could only be extorted after actual discovery. As an example 
of this pressure, a squad of young men from Walpole refused to 
enlist unless one of their number, named Hartshorne, whose foot 
had been partially disabled, was passed. Richard V. De Peyster, 
of Framingham, of good family and in good circumstances, being 
rejected for near-sightedness, insisted on going in some capacity, 
if only as company cook. He was passed and assigned for duty 
in the stretcher corps, and at Rawle s Mill was wounded in the 
thigh and lost an arm while carrying his stretcher. Necessarily 
many slender youths were admitted ; but they were believed to 
be sound, and proved better able to hold out on long marches 
than some older and heavier men, even of the veteran regiments. 

The regiment was also re-vaccinated in all cases requiring it. 
Hospital stores and extra medical supplies were secured from 
governmental and private sources. Welcome addition to the 
hospital fund was made by friends of the regiment. Our stock 
of Government whiskey and sp. vin. Gall, was supplemented by 
Hungarian wine, cherry cordial, arrack, tinto Madeira of 1816, 
and old port which had mellowed in the cellars of the Emperor 
of Brazil ! Let this be no reflection on the regiment or its offi 
cers, for it was professedly and actually a temperate regiment. 
When it became necessary to issue whiskey and quinine rations 
as a prophylactic against malaria, alcohol, water, and cayenne 



236 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

pepper were substituted for whiskey by the surgeons, and no 
soldier is known to have acquired a dangerous hankering for 
this mixture. 

The hospital was indebted for luxuries and delicacies for the 
sick to the Warren Street Society and Fifth Universalist Society, 
of Boston, the Channing Circle at Newton, and the Soldiers Aid 
Society of Waltham. Also to William H. Ireland, Esq., Dr. C. H. 
Allen, and numerous young ladies of Boston, of whose names I 
find the following on record : Misses Lizzie G. Cumston, Sadie K. 
Galloupe, Mary L. Dexter, Nellie E. Lovett, Carrie B. Streeter, 
Julia Streeter, and Louisa Prescott. May they find perennial 
youth in these pages ! The barrack assigned for hospital pur 
poses had a room for use at surgeon s call in front, and a ward 
with ten beds in the rear. But little sickness prevailed at Read- 
ville, however, except a mysterious complaint during the first 
week, attributed by the boys to senna put in the coffee by 
medical order ! 

The nurses were daily instructed in the art of bandaging and 
dressing wounds. A stretcher corps was organized, composed 
of specially detailed men selected from each company, to which 
was added the drum-and-fife corps, and to which afterwards the 
band belonged, ex officio, according to army regulations. This 
corps was furnished with stretchers devised by Assistant-Surgeon 
Fisher, and put in charge of Chaplain Hall, who afterwards gal 
lantly led it in every engagement. It was drilled in carrying 
stretchers over rough ground, fences, and walls, breaking step to 
prevent swinging. The men were also taught how to make and 
apply tourniquets and compresses. After the regiment was mus 
tered in, the soldiers were more nearly restricted to Government 
rations. The Sunday inspections grew more rigorous, and the 
extra dainties, such as cake, pickles, preserves, canned goods, 
etc., were excluded from the bunks and barracks by order of 
Surgeon Ware, who thereby got the not uncomplimentary 
sobriquet of " Old Sanitary." 

The regiment having been well prepared for service by con 
stant drilling and occasional marches, sailed for New Berne, N. C., 
October 22, on the " Merrimac," in company with the right wing 
of the Third Massachusetts Regiment. The hold and bunks had 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 237 

been previously cleaned and whitewashed by order of Surgeon 
Ware ; but the men suffered much from overcrowding, bad 
ventilation, sea-sickness, and inadequate provisions for cooking 
for so many men. Had the weather been rough, serious conse 
quences might have resulted to health. Some colds were con 
tracted by the wet ride in open cars from Beaufort to New 
Berne, and rheumatism made its first call on us. 

The day after arrival was spent by the surgeons in securing 
quarters for a hospital. A house on Craven Street was selected 
and furnished with twenty-five or thirty beds. Here the sick and 
wounded were afterwards made very comfortable, thanks to our 
ample fund and stores. That nothing might be wanting, two 
stray cows by some fortunate chance found their way into the 
back yard, and, fed on Government hay, gave milk for the sick 
until restored to their reputed owners by an order from Provost- 
Marshal Messenger. 

The Tarboro expedition occurred immediately on the ar 
rival of the regiment; and the men, not being fairly acclimated, 
were put to a severe test in many ways. It lasted a fortnight, 
and included a skirmish and a march of one hundred and 
twenty-five miles in seven days. The blankets were all left 
at " Little " Washington by general order, and the weather 
proved unusually cold for the season. Our ideal sunny South 
suffered rapid deterioration in the presence of ice and snow. 
The latter fell to the depth of several inches, and the stiff cold 
mud and constant fording of icy creeks shrunk the boys 
custom-made boots and produced ugly ulcers and blisters on 
hundreds of feet. Strips of old linen and junks of mutton 
tallow, foraged on the way, were served out night and morning, 
and wide army shoes commanded a premium. Many were 
forced to cut their boots off and walk in their stockings. Ice 
formed in the woods an inch and a half thick, and the water 
froze in our canteens on one or two nights as they lay on the 
ground beside us ; and yet the heat at noon was sufficient, with 
the unaccustomed pressure of the accoutrements on the chest, 
to produce many heat-strokes. 

The surgeons were constantly busy attending the sick and ex 
hausted men, and giving passes to lame ones for the ambulances. 



238 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

These could not accommodate a tenth part of the stragglers, who 
were obliged to fall behind and make their slow and painful way 
into camp in the night. And yet ours was the liveliest regiment 
in the line, and held out, except for the sore feet, as well as the 
veteran regiments. The boys enlivened the march with singing, 
which not only cheered their comrades but the whole line. There 
was also a deficiency of rations, and many an extra mile was 
covered in the search for provisions along the route. The first 
day a mule-team was confiscated (" convey, the wise it call") 
for the use of the hospital department, and loaded with supplies. 
This was driven immediately in the rear of the regiment, so 
that we did not depend on the distant ambulances. At Rawle s 
Mill, on Sunday evening, Nov. 2, 1862, the regiment was under 
fire for the first time. This engagement will be described else 
where, and by referring to the list of killed and wounded its 
results will be seen. The first wounded were attended in a grove 
of pines just before coming to the creek (Chopper s) on the left 
of the road. De Peyster and others were taken into a Secesh 
cabin on the right. Here his arm was amputated by Surgeon 
Otis, senior at that time and place. One soldier was led out of 
the fight by two comrades in a frenzied condition, having been 
made temporarily delirious by the suddenness of the attack. The 
dead having been buried by Chaplain Hall, who had bravely led 
the stretcher corps into the creek, the wounded were placed in 
ambulances and sent forward in charge of the assistant-surgeon, 
who attended a mortally wounded Rebel in a little house on the 
way. 

At the end of the third day s march thirty disabled men were 
put on board a gunboat at Hamilton, which had accompanied us 
on the Tar River. On the fifth day forty more were so disposed 
of. On our return, these, with the wounded from the skirmish 
at Rawle s Mill, were sent back to New Berne on board the " North 
erner" in charge of Assistant-Surgeon Fisher, getting aground 
five times on the way. The delay, with the heat, insufficient 
supplies, and a fearful stench from the horses on the forward 
deck and the suppurating wounds, caused great discomfort to 
the sick and wounded. 

On our return to New Berne the regimental hospital service 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 239 

was thoroughly organized by Surgeon Ware, strict orders for the 
daily routine being issued November 20. Assistant-Surgeon 
Fisher had charge of the sick in quarters, of whom there were 
many suffering from diarrhoea, bronchitis, and rheumatism, con 
tracted on the Tarboro march. By reference to the Sick Re 
port Summary it will be seen that the aggregate number for 
November was 337, against 206 for October. The barracks, 
which were of such contracted dimensions as to give but one 
hundred and fifty cubic feet of air space to each man, were ven 
tilated by openings at the ridge and sides, at the expense of the 
hospital fund. November 21 a detail of twenty-four men was 
made, selected by the surgeons from a list of twice that number, 
of an invalid guard, which was sent to garrison a block-house up 
the Trent River. These were mostly cases of rheumatism, her 
nia, and varicose veins, brought on by lying on the wet ground 
and by continued marching. 

The Goldsboro expedition set out December 11, and returned 
December 20. In nine days the regiment marched one hundred 
and fifty miles, bivouacking at night and participating in three 
engagements with the enemy. The weather was clear, with hot 
days and frosty nights. A less number fell out of the ranks 
and there were fewer sunstrokes than on the previous expedition. 
The men had their blankets this time, and were provided with 
the low, wide army shoes, thus escaping to a great extent the 
suffering from sore feet. There were similar creeks to cross, 
however, and the constant halting and unexpected starting of 
the column made marching difficult and wearisome. 

At Kinston, December 14, as the regiment formed in line of 
battle, the surgeons were directed by Medical-Director Snelling 
to station themselves in the edge of some woods and attend to 
the wounded indiscriminately as they were brought to the rear. 
This order was complied with for half an hour, when the work of 
dressing wounds and extracting balls was continued in a little 
house in the edge of the swamp where the regiment had gone in. 
In a short time another move was made to a large house full of 
wounded near the Kinston bridge, where work was in progress 
till after dark. Fortunately the regiment escaped without wounds, 
although under fire for some time in the swamp. 



240 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

At Whitehall the regiment went into line of battle on a hill 
behind Belger s battery. Two men had just been killed by a 
shell, when Edwin S. Fisher of Boston, a drummer-boy of Com 
pany G, was wounded in the knee, a large flap of integument 
being torn off and left hanging by the explosion of a shell. He 
was attended at once by Assistant-Surgeon Fisher, and during 
the painful and tedious process of stitching the flap into place 
showed great coolness by calling for a pencil with which to enter 
the occurrence in his diary. Meanwhile the regiment had moved 
forward to the extreme front, and Surgeon Ware had collected a 
number of wounded behind a little cabin on the right flank. 
When rejoined by the assistant-surgeon the regiment was under 
a hot fire from rebel sharp-shooters concealed in the tree-tops, 
and the rear of the line was anything but a pleasant place. 
Belger s battery, a few yards from hospital headquarters, was 
losing rapidly in horses and men. Stout Captain Belger, with 
arms akimbo, ordered the guns loaded with grape and canister, 
and then shouted, " Fire into the trees ! Now, boys, stand by 
my battery ! " A hospital attendant, Joseph F. Dean, of Cam 
bridge, Company F, was hit about this time. It was feared the 
fire of the battery would draw an artillery fire on their frail 
shelter, so the dead and wounded were put on stretchers and 
carried to a grove in the rear, where the angry spit of bullets 
was less frequent. An attempt here to tie the subclavian artery 
was a failure, the patient dying of hemorrhage from a deep 
wound in the axilla. George E. Noyes, of West Roxbury, 
Company K, declined surgical aid, saying he was past help and 
others needed it more. He died the next day from a wound 
in the abdomen. 

As the firing slackened the dead were buried under direction 
of Chaplain Hall, and the wounded removed to a general ren 
dezvous on the hill. Here more surgical work was done, and 
Medical-Director Snelling ordered the assistant-surgeon to put 
the wounded in ambulances without distinction of regiment, al 
though a detail of ambulances had been assigned to each regi 
ment. This order was disregarded, and all the wounded of the 
Forty-fourth able to be moved were sent on their way to Golds- 
boro . As they passed along the road parallel to the river the 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 241 

ambulances were fired on by lingering Rebels across the river. 
Assistant-Surgeon Fisher, who was searching for wounded in the 
field near the bridge, was also fired at two hours or more after 
the fight was over. " He means you, Doc. ! " said a soldier 
guarding a pile of knapsacks behind a chimney. Such incidents, 
as well as the flag-of-truce trick at Goldsboro , were somewhat 
characteristic of Rebel ideas of honor. 

Insensibility to pain was noticed in many cases as a conse 
quence of the excitement of battle, as in the cases of Fisher and 
Noyes already mentioned. At Kinston also a bullet was being 
extracted with some difficulty from among the bones of the foot, 
when the soldier, being asked if it hurt, cried out: "Dig away, 
Doctor, and damn the pain ! We Ve licked em ! " The con 
trasting condition was seen at Whitehall, when a soldier who had 
accidentally or purposely shot off his right forefinger was bellow 
ing like a calf under the process of dressing it, while from a room 
full of seriously wounded men around him not a groan was heard. 

At Goldsboro the regiment went into line of battle in reserve 
just out of sight of the field of battle, which was in a fine, open 
country between the railroad and river. The surgeons rode for 
ward, and learning that the objective point of the expedition was 
in our hands, assisted for several hours at the hospital head 
quarters in a large house overlooking the field. In the afternoon 
they rode down to the front, where Belger s and Morrison s bat 
teries, with a regiment in support, were slowly shelling the woods 
near the railroad bridge. A squad of cavalry occupied the right 
flank. Just at this moment a white flag was seen waving in the 
edge of the woods, and the cavalry galloped up to it to bring in 
the prisoners supposed to be in waiting, when they received a 
volley which sent them back in haste. The shelling was renewed 
for half an hour with more vigor, when from beyond the railroad 
embankment was heard a Rebel yell, shrill, like the screams of a 
multitude of women and children, and in a moment three regi 
ments mounted the bank and charged directly on the batteries. 
The left one was seen to falter under the artillery fire and seek 
safety behind the railroad, while the other two regiments came 
bravely on, the grape and canister cutting great gaps in the 
ranks till they were compelled to withdraw with great loss. The 

16 



242 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

supports coming up also showed the Rebels the hopelessness 
of their attempt After this charge Surgeon Ware remained 
awhile to assist at the general hospital, and Assistant-Surgeon 
Fisher rejoined the regiment, which went into line of battle 
across a road in the woods. Here perfect silence was enjoined, 
and one poor fellow with a spasmodic cough was dosed with 
opium and hurried to the rear between two comrades, with his 
handkerchief stuffed into his mouth. Nothing came of all our 
precautions, and the army took up its line of march through a 
burning forest towards New Berne. 

On our return the same crop of lung and intestinal diseases ap 
peared as had followed our Tarboro expedition, but they were 
less amenable to treatment. Bronchitis and diarrhoea were re 
placed by pneumonia and dysentery. The total number under 
treatment for December was 331, and the daily average of sick 
and wounded in hospital and quarters was 85. Our losses on 
the Goldsboro expedition may be learned from the tables ap 
pended. December 25, the first case of a new and alarming dis 
ease occurred in our regiment, proving fatal in a few days. The 
epidemic, which followed and extended to other regiments, was 
entirely outside the experience of any of the surgeons in the 
department. The fever was at first regarded as a virulent type 
of malarial disease. The autopsy in the case of Henry G. Kim- 
ball, of Andover, Company G, who died Jan. I, 1863, made by 
the assistant-surgeon, showed the presence of inflammation in 
the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. The disease was 
afterwards recognized as cerebro-spinal meningitis, which is iden 
tical with the disease once known as spotted fever, occurring as 
an epidemic in Massachusetts between the years 1807 and 1816. 
The next death was that of John C. Pollitz, Boston, Company F, 
on January 7. Having been previously well, he came in from 
guard in the morning, was sent to the hospital, and died the same 
afternoon. This sudden fatality naturally produced much con 
sternation in the regiment. Quinine rations were issued as a 
prophylactic measure, and Surgeon Ware was untiring in his 
efforts to determine the cause of the epidemic. 

In a letter to Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Muzzey, Medical 
Inspector United States Army, he describes the barracks as 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 243 

" placed so near the edge of a swamp that the space allotted for 
the sinks and pools of refuse is much too small for a permanent 
camp, and too near the barracks. The barracks are built of green 
pine, and the sills are laid directly on the ground. The buildings 
are placed end to end, those of each wing forming one side of a 
square, the retreating angle of which is directed towards the 
swamp." The dimensions of the barracks which he gives allow 
but one hundred and fifty cubic feet per man, or one seventh of 
the air space which the British Army regulations require for per 
manent barracks. Surgeon Ware further states that up to Feb 
ruary 20, nineteen cases of the fever had occurred, with twelve 
deaths. No new cases appeared after January 19, when the first 
heavy rains fell. The epidemic was preceded by a long dry 
and warm spell of weather. The first symptoms in most cases 
were of intense cerebral congestion, followed by convulsions, 
rigidity of the muscles, and coma. There were usually head 
ache, stupor, small, quick pulse, duskiness of the face, and 
sometimes collapse in the first stage, followed by a noisy de 
lirium, deafness, squinting, rigidity, and lastly a petechial or pur- 
puric eruption, typhoid symptoms, coma, and death. Dr. Ware 
thought the disease was probably both of typhous and malarial 
origin. 

February I, in consequence of the epidemic, and the possible 
connection of the swamp and barracks with it, the regiment was 
sent to Plymouth. Assistant-Surgeon Fisher was detailed for 
service in the Foster General Hospital the last of January, much 
against his desire and the remonstrances of Colonel Lee and Sur 
geon Ware. A promise was exacted that if the regiment took the 
field or moved he should go with it; and the Plymouth expe 
dition having been ordered about this time, he was reluctantly 
allowed to go. The regiment remained in Plymouth ten days, 
quartered on board the " Northerner" at first, and afterwards in 
some empty warehouses without fire. The weather was very cold 
and the ground covered with snow. One mysterious night march 
of twenty-five miles was made with the usual mud, and ice-cold 
creeks to ford. Measles first appeared here, and the assistant 
surgeon was one of the first victims. Lying on the floor of a 
Southern house, with a Northern snow-storm raging at every 



244 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

crevice, very sick with a disease one is ashamed not to have had 
in early life, is no joke, however it may appear to one s brother 
officers ! After our return, February 10, to New Berne the regi 
ment suffered from measles and diphtheria. The cases were severe 
and in a few instances fatal. The assistant-surgeon was sent as a 
patient to the Stanley General Hospital, putting the whole burden 
of the regimental work upon Surgeon Ware. On February 20 
there were 44 sick in quarters and 66 in hospital, general and 
regimental, of which 30 were cases of measles. The daily aver^ 
age in January was 72, in February, 67. On his recovery the 
assistant-surgeon went on duty at the Foster General Hospital. 
He had under his charge one half of the patients, medical and sur 
gical, officers and men, in the large building formerly used as a 
theatre and masonic hall, amounting to about 75 on an average. 
In the first story the stage and auditorium of the theatre made 
one large ward, the drop-scene being nailed up over the stage to 
form its ceiling. In the masonic hall overhead the sick and dying 
were cheered by the masonic emblems painted in the panels of 
the ceiling, a coffin being conspicuous in one corner ! The regi 
mental hospital was removed for convenience from Craven Street 
to a hospital barrack at the camp the last of February. 

March 14, during the attack on our outposts across the Neuse 
River, shot and shell fell near the hospital and officers quarters 
about breakfast-time. Shells for breakfast were a novelty. 
The sick and the horses having been removed, the cannon 
ading was watched with less anxiety. March 15, the regiment or 
rather eight companies of it were sent by transport to " Little " 
Washington under medical charge of Surgeon Ware, leaving two 
companies, F and B, which were on picket duty at Batchelder s 
Creek, and the invalid guard at Brice s Creek in charge of the 
assistant-surgeon, who also continued his duties at the Foster Gen 
eral Hospital. No amount of influence or persuasion which was 
brought to bear on the chief medical authorities sufficed to re 
voke his detail or annul the above arrangement. As it afterwards 
proved, a disproportionate amount of work devolved on Surgeon 
Ware, which may have been influential in causing his sickness 
and untimely death. But this result was not and could not have 
been foreseen. As Surgeon Fisher took an affectionate leave of 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 245 

his senior on board the " Escort," neither for a moment imagined 
it was a final farewell. 

The details of the long siege and the consequent sufferings of 
the men are narrated elsewhere. The casualties were few, but the 
constant night alarms, heavy work by day on short rations, and 
the exposures and anxieties of the siege entailed much unusual 
labor on Surgeon Ware, who was the senior medical officer of 
the garrison. The surgeon s-call book having been lost, the 
proportion of sickness in this part of the regiment cannot be 
determined. No fatal disease prevailed, but cases of diarrhoea, 
dysentery, bronchitis, and tonsilitis were frequent. Surgeon 
Ware s duties also extended to the other regiments and to the 
large number of negroes engaged on the defences. The following 
newspaper item relates to one of Surgeon Ware s patients : 

" I must tell you of one hero who saved a company of soldiers from 
certain death. A flat full of soldiers, with a few negroes, attempted to 
land at Rodman s Point, but were repulsed by a terrible fire of Rebel bul 
lets, all tumbling into the boat and lying flat to escape being shot. Mean 
while the boat stuck fast on the shore, when this noble African said : 
Somebody s got to die to git us out of dis, and it may as well be me ! 
He then deliberately got out and pushed the boat off, and fell into it, 
pierced by five bullets. Dr. Ware afterwards amputated a leg and resected 
a part of one bone in the arm ; but the man of course died." 

Surgeon Ware was attacked with double pneumonia of a 
typhoidal type about April 5, and died April 10, four days before 
the raising of the siege. He had been seized with a dangerous 
attack of syncope during our former visit to "Little" Washington 
in November, of which he made light, but which probably in 
dicated cardiac debility not favorable to a long life. He was 
afterwards apparently as vigorous as ever, and his death was a 
surprise and shock to all. His unsparing activity and zeal in 
the performance of his official duties made his death seem more 
untimely. He had become endeared to the men of the regi 
ment, who had learned his real worth and his kindness of heart, 
and his death was the saddest event of the sad and gloomy 
weeks of the siege. His brother officers of the field and start 
had early learned to love him as a brother. He was, in fact, 
the connection, friend, or familiar acquaintance of several of 



246 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

them before the war, and his death came like a family loss to 
them. This is not the place for an adequate memorial sketch 
of so diligent a student, so talented a surgeon and sanitarian, so 
noble a character, or even of so good a soldier. His alma mater 
will preserve his memory in marble as pure as his fame; his 
classmates will recount his virtues ; his friends and comrades will 
long mourn his loss; and his name will stand in his country s 
roll of honor, high among those whose self-sacrifice, though 
" sweet and fitting," was sad and disheartening to the last 
degree. 

During the siege the distant boom of guns daily aroused new 
apprehensions for the safety of their comrades in the men left at 
New Berne. The lack of reliable intelligence became positively 
painful, until about April 11, when rumors reached them of the 
death of Surgeon Ware. Assistant-Surgeon Fisher at once de 
manded permission to join the regiment, but was detained a day 
or two, until the rumor was confirmed. He then left on the 
" Escort," expecting to run the blockade, but fortunately found 
Hill s Point in possession of our men. The last gun of the siege 
was fired the night of his arrival. The boys plainly showed the 
effects of the siege in their worn and anxious looks, but soon 
recuperated under the cheering influences of sleep, good rations, 
and the prospect of an early return to New Berne. 

From April 22 to the close of its term of service the regiment 
was acting as provost-guard of New Berne. A large mansion- 
house on Broad Street was taken for a regimental hospital. Sur 
geon Fisher, whose commission dated from the day of Surgeon 
Ware s death, took charge of it. Daniel McPhee had been com 
missioned Assistant-Surgeon late in March, and joined the regi 
ment on its return. Typhoid fever became prevalent, and was 
increasing in frequency and severity when the regiment sailed 
for Boston. Seven cases were too sick to be moved, and were 
sent to the Foster General Hospital, where four of them died. 
Many others, though very weak, were put on board the " Guide," 
in care of Surgeon Fisher. Assistant-Surgeon McPhee accom 
panied the left wing on board the " George Peabody." 

To summarize the results from a medical point of view of our 
nine months service, the following table will suffice: 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 247 

Killed and died of wounds n 

Wounded 32 

Died of disease 26 

Discharged for disability 65 

Invalid guard 25 

Total sick for eight months 2,128 

Pensions granted 46 

Claims pending 35 

The regiment was an average one physically, but above the 
average in activity, intelligence, and esprit de corps. Its short 
term was made up of active service well calculated to test its 
mettle and endurance, and in no case did it fail to exhibit all 
those manly qualities characteristic of Massachusetts soldiers. 

Killed and died of Wounds. 

Charles E. Rollins, Brookline . Company C, Rawle s Mill, Nov. 2, 62. 

Charles Morse, Boston ... E, " 

Matthew R. Meagher, Boston . " A, Whitehall, Dec. 16, 62. 

I). Tyler Newcomb, Medford . A, 

J. Watson Slocum, Holliston . A, 

Sergeant A. Stacy Courtis, Cambridge " C, " " " 

Corporal Edwin H. Curtis, Boston " C, 

Antonio F. Polio, Boston . . C, 

George E. Noyes, West Roxbury " K, 

Albert L. Butler, Cambridge . " A, " Dec. 19, 62. 

Sergeant David K. Hobart, Boston, " G, Wash n, N. C., Apr. 24, 63. 

Taken Prisoner. 
Sergeant David K. Hobart, Boston, Company G, Washington, N. C., Mar. 

3. 63- 
Corporal Theodore J. Lawrence, Boston, Company G, Washington, N. C., 

Mar. 30, 63. 
Private John Leonard, Roxbury, Company G, Washington, N. C., Mar. 

30, 63- 

Deserted. 

William Gibson, Chelsea . . Company A, Readville, Oct. 8, 62. 
Patrick Dalton, Newton . . " B, " 21, " 

Morris P. Lenihan, Boston . " H, Boston, " 22, " 

Wounded. 

James W.Briggs, 2d Lieut., Boston, Company C, Rawle s Mill, Nov. 2, 62. 
Sergeant Albert C. Pond, Boston " C, " " " 



248 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

William A. Smallidge, Cambridge, Company C, Rawle s Mill, Nov. 2, 62. 
Sergeant Frederick W. Smith, Jr. " C, " 

John C. Peakes C, " 

Asa H. Stebbins, 2d Lieut., Boston " D, " 

Charles H. Roberts, Melrose . E, " 

Richard V. De Peyster, Framingham " H, " " 

Harrison Parker, 2d, Winchester " H, " " " 

E. Augustus Jacobs, South Scituate " H, " 

Alexander H. Everett, Cambridge " A, Whitehall, Dec. 16, 62. 

Albert S. May, Needham . . A, 

John F. Berry, Boston ... A, 

Sgt. James F. Clark, W. Cambridge " A, 

Amos K. Tappan, Boston . . A, " " 

John W. Greenwood, Needham A, 

William Bamford, North Andover " A, 

Warren P. Everett, Newton . " B, 

Charles C. Ewer, Boston . . D, 

Frederick Jackson, Boston . D, 

Joseph F. Dean, Cambridge . " F, " " 

Francis E. Lincoln, Boston . " G, 

Edwin S. Fisher, Boston . . G, " 

Sgt. William W. Howe, Framingham " H, 

Edward C. Crosby, Framingham " H, " 

George H. Colby, Boston, Company D, Signal Corps service on gunboat 

on Neuse River, near Kinston, Dec. 14, 62. 
Captain James M. Richardson, Hubbardston, Company A, Washington, 

N. C., Mar. 30, 63. 
Corporal Theodore J. Lawrence, Boston, Company G, Washington, N. C., 

Mar. 30, 63. 

Corp. John King, Boston, Company G, Washington, N. C., Mar. 30, 63. 
John Leonard, Roxbury, G, 

Corp. John D. Priest, Boston, " G, " " " 

Frederic Odiorne, 2d Lieut., Company G, clothing riddled with balls at 

same place. 

Died. 
Henry G. Kimball, Andover, Company G, Jan. i, 63, cerebro-spinal 

meningitis. 

John C. Pollitz, Boston, Company F, Jan. 7, 63, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 
Alfred B. Moulton, Framingham, Company C, Jan. 9, 63, cerebro-spinal 

meningitis. 
Josiah Moody, South Hadley, Company F, Jan. 14, 63, cerebro-spinal 

meningitis. 

Corporal Adfur J. Upham, Boston, Company G, Jan. 18, 63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 249 

George F. Boynton, Dorchester, Company G, Jan. 19, 63, cerebro-spinal 
meningitis. 

Walter S. Bradbury, Cambridge, Company C, Jan. 22, 63, cerebro-spinal 
meningitis. 

William F. Ingraham, South Hadley, Company F, Jan. 24, 63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

Sergeant Albert F. Potter, Newton, Company B, Jan. 29, 63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

George B. Young, Andover, Company G, Feb. 3, 63, cerebro-spinal men 
ingitis. 

Francis C. Hopkinson, Cambridge, Company F, Feb. 13, 63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

Charles A. Bradt, Lowell, Company C, Feb. 19, 63, cerebro-spinal men 
ingitis. 

Ezra N. Fuller, Needham, Company A, Feb. 21, 63, measles. 

Sergt. Charles E. Harwood, Boston, Company I, Feb. 26, 63, diphtheria. 

James S. Gilmore, Walpole, Company K, Feb. 26, 63, diphtheria. 

Otis S. Merrill, North Andover, Company C, Mar. 2, 63, cerebro-spinal 
meningitis. 

Reuben J. Gilman, Billerica, Company I, Mar. 7, 63, cerebro-spinal men 
ingitis. 

Surgeon Robert Ware, Boston, Apr. 10, 63, pneumonia. 

Edmund L. Cutter, Weston, Company I, Apr. 25, 63, pneumonia. 

Henry F. Melville, Brighton, Company A, May 15, 63, inflammation of 
bowels. 

James A. Mickel, Charlestown, Company K, May 28, 63, pneumonia. 

Timothy S. Boynton, Framingham, Company C, June 8, 63, typhoid 
fever. 

Frank B. Hanson, Boston, Company A, June u, 63, typhoid fever. 

Matthew Howard, North Andover, Company A, June 17, 63, typhoid 
fever. 

Eben R. Buck, Newton, Company B, June 1 7, 63, typhoid pneumonia. 

William A. Barnes, Boston, Company H, June 18, 63, typhoid fever. 

Discharged for Disability. 

Capt. Jacob H. Lombard, Boston, Company C, Resigned, Jan. 14, 63. 

Capt. Frank W. Reynolds, Boston, " K, Dec. 28, 62. 

Corp. John T. Sargent, Jr., Boston, " A, Discharged, Mar. 9, 63. 

John F. Berry, Boston .... " A, Feb. 14, 63. 

John W. Greenwood, Needham . " A, " Apr. i, 63. 

Hiram Hubbard, Jr., Boston . . "A, Apr. 16, 63. 

Albert S. May, Needham ... "A, Feb. 28, 63. 

Henry E. Warner, Boston ... "A, Oct. 7, 62. 

Henry C. Whittier, Boston ... "A, " Jan. 14, 63. 



250 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



Corp. George W. Lamson, Newton, Company 
John Brennan, Needham . . . 
Stephen M. Dresser, Newton . . " 

Edward P. Kingsbury, Newton . 
Rodney M. Lucas, Newton . . 
William T. Mullen, Newton . . 
Bowman G. Salsbury, Newton . . 
John A. Washburn, Newton . . 
Frank O. Bradt, Lowell .... 
Charles H. Hiscock, Cambridge . " 

Thomas Holmes, Lynn .... 
Edward F. Mahoney, Boston . . 
Charles L. Plummer, Boston . . 
George M. Rollins, Brookline . . 
David J. Thomas, Boston ... " 

William Ware, Milton .... 
J. Albert Blanchard, West Cambridge " 
Charles C. Ewer, Boston . . . 
William B. Leatherbee, Boston . " 

Theodore L. Barnes, Waltham 
George E. Buttrick, West Roxbury " 
William Dean, Waltham ... " 

Peter F. Jones, Roxbury ... " 

Edward Richardson, Cambridge . " 

Charles H. Roberts, Melrose . . " 

William F. Sawyer, Maiden . . " 

Joshua B. Warren, Boston . . 
George W. Wheelwright, Jr., Roxbury " 
Henry A. Clark, South Hadley . 
Horace E. Learned, Boston . . " 

John W. Pitman, Jr., Maiden . . " 

George S. Sanford, Sherborn . . " 

Edwin S. Fisher, Cambridge . . " 

J. Augustus Hall, Dorchester . . " 

Francis E. Lincoln, Boston . . " 

Thomas F. Phipps, Dorchester . " 

Joseph M. Bannister, Framingham " 

Allen F. Boone, Winchester . . " 

Austin M. Copp, Maiden ... " 

Charles H. Fuller, Framingham . 
E. Augustus Jacobs, South Scituate 
Alonzo E. LeMoyne, Boston . . " 

Charles C. Rice, Winchester . . " 

Benjamin F. Bates, Brewster . . " 



B, Discharged, 


Jan. 14, 63. 


B, 


Jan. 30, 63. 


B, 


Jan. 30, 63. 


B, 


Sept. 25, 62. 


B, 


Jan. 30, 63. 


B, 


Mar. 9, 63. 


B, 


Oct. 3, 62. 


B, 


May 28, 63. 


C, 


Mar. 14, 63. 


C, 


Oct. 4, 62. 


C " 
*-> 


Sept. 30, 62. 


C " 

^J 


Jan. 31/63. 


C " 

^> 


Oct. 7, 62. 


C " 

^> 


Apr. 15, 63. 


c, 


Apr. 15, 63. 


C, 


Mar. 14, 63. 


D, 


Mar. 9, 63. 


D, 


May 6, 63. 


D, 


Oct. 3, 62. 


E, 


Apr. 3, 63. 


E, 


Mar. 9, 63. 


E, 


Nov. 3, 62. 


E, 


Mar. 9, 63. 


E, 


Mar. 24, 63. 


E, 


Jan. 14, 63. 


E, 


Oct. 3, 62. 


E, 


Oct. i, 62. 


E, 


Oct. 3, 62. 


F, - 


Oct. 4, 62. 


F, 


Oct. 4, 62. 


F, 


Oct. 4, 62. 


F, 


Jan. 23, 63. 


G, 


May 1 8, 63. 


G, 


Oct. 6, 62. 


G, 


Mar. 31, 63. 


G, 


Oct. 6, 62. 


H, 


Mar. 9, 63. 


H, 


June 5, 63. 


H, 


Oct. 2, 62. 


H, 


Mar. 9, 63. 


H, 


Mar. 13, 63. 


H, 


Jan. 17, 63. 


H, 


Apr. 14, 63. 


I, 


Apr. i, 63. 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 251 

Edward H. Judkins, Boston . . Company I, Discharged, Sept. 30, 62. 

Herbert B. Richardson, Weston . " I, May 18, 63. 

Forrest L. Whittredge, Boston . . "I, " May i, 63. 

Charles E. Wyett, Boston ... "I, May 18, 63. 

William Bowers, Boston ... " K, Feb. 7, 63. 

Guy Boyce, Sherborn .... " K, Jan. 14, 63. 

Ithamar W. Copeland, Dedham . " K, Jan. 14, 63. 

Charles M. Garland, Boston . . K, " Jan. 31, 63. 

George W. Nickerson, Walpole . " K, Jan. 14, 63. 

Thomas Seavey, West Roxbury . " K, Jan. 31, 63. 

James W. Spinney, Sherborn . . " K, " Jan. 14, 63. 

Joseph T. Stedman, Roxbury . . " K, " Feb. 17, 63. 

Invalid Guard. 

Corporal Charles A. Yendell, Jr., Boston Company A. 

Matthew Howard, North Andover " A. 

Henry C. Whittier, Boston A. 

Antonio J. Fayes, Newton " B. 

Richard T. Robinson, Cambridge " C. 

Isaac R. Stearns, Chelsea " C. 

Horace P. Tuttle, Cambridge " D. 

James A. Blanchard, West Cambridge " D. 

Levi Kenerson, Hingham D. 

George L. Dyer, Boston E. 

William E. Copeland, Roxbury . . . F. 

Peter R. Guthrie, Boston " G. 

Charles L. LeCain, Dorchester G. 

T. Robinson Harris, Cambridge " G. 

Lyman J. Sawyer. Boston " . G. 

Heman H. Belcher, Framingham H. 

Rufus C. Bruce, Framingham H. 

Matthias J. Moore, Boston " H. 

Alonzo E. LeMoyne, Boston H. 

Henry W. Webster, Cambridge " H. 

Theodore Pinkham, Chelsea I. 

Lawrence Rhoades, Boston I. 

Guy Boyce, Sherborn K. 

James W. Spinney, Sherborn K. 

George W. Nickerson, Walpole " K. 



252 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



GENERAL SUMMARY OF SICK REPORTS, FORTY-FOURTH 
REGIMENT, M. V. M. 



Month. 


WHOLE NUMBER UNDER 
TREATMENT. 


DAILY AVERAGE NUMBER. 


Sick. 


Wounded 
or injured. 


Total. 


In hos 
pital. 


In quar 
ters. 


Total. 


1862. 

October 


172 
272 
283 

309 
215 
240 

161 
265 


34 
65 
48 

28 

21 

8 

7 
o 


205 

337 
331 

337 
236 
248 
1 68 
265 


5 
"3 

21 

2O 
21 
19 
15 

16 


7 
27 

64 

S 2 . 
46 

43 
27 
28 


12 

40 
85 

72 
6 7 
62 
42 

44 


November 


1863. 


February ...... 




April 


May 


Total 


i,9 T 7 
240 


211 
26 


2,128 
266 


130 
16 


294 
37 


424 
53 


Monthly average . . 



Pension Claims of all Classes admitted. 

Matthew R. Meagher, 1 Boston Company A. 

John F. Berry, Boston " 

Albert S. May, Needham " 

John W. Greenwood, Needham " 

Henry C. Whittier, Boston " 

James M. Richardson, 1 Hubbardston " 

A in os K. Tappan, Boston " 

Francis B. Hanson, 1 Boston " 

John Brennan, Needham " 

John A. Washburn, Newton " 

George N. Hill, 1 Newton " 

Eben R. Buck, 1 Newton " 

John R. Holmes, 1 Newton . .- " 

James S. Withington, 1 Newton " 

Samuel B. Hadley, 1 Boston . . . . " 

George H. Ray, 1 Boston " 

Walter S. Bradbury, 1 Cambridge " 

Antonio F. Polio, 1 Boston .... . . " 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
C. 
C. 
C. 
C. 



1 Deceased. 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL NARRATIVE. 253 

Otis S. Merrill, 1 North Andover Company C. 

George H. Hobart, Newton " D. 

Theodore L. Barnes, 1 Waltham " E. 

James W. Lovejoy, Cambridge " E. 

Charles H. Roberts, Melrose " E. 

Albert K. Page, 1 Boston E. 

John H. Hanson, Boston " F. 

Edwin S. Fisher, Boston " G. 

John Leonard, Roxbury " G. 

Theodore J. Lawrence, Boston " G. 

Henry G. Kimball, 1 Andover " G. 

George B. Young, 1 Andover " G. 

Elisha A. Jacobs, South Scituate H. 

Richard V. De Peyster, 1 Framingham " H. 

Edward C. Crosby, Framingham " H. 

Edward S. Hemmenway, Framingham " H. 

Alonzo E. LeMoyne, 1 Boston H. 

Frank W. Clapp, 1 Holliston H. 

Benjamin F. Bates, Brewster " I. 

Edwin P. Upham, Weston u I. 

Michael Shaughnessy, Cambridge " I. 

George W. Nickerson, Walpole " K. 

James W. Spinney, 1 Walpole " K. 

Ithamar W. Copeland, Dedham " K. 

Thomas Seavey, West Roxbury " K. 

William L. Mitchel, 1 Sherborn K. 

George E. Noyes, 1 West Roxbury " K. 

Joseph F. Stedman, Roxbury " K. 

Pension Claims of all Classes pending. 

George W. Lovejoy, Andover Company A. 

Henry Ingraham, Framingham " A. 

John G. Whitmarsh, Needham " A. 

Frederick T. Brown, Boston " A. 

D. Tyler Newcomb, 1 Medford " A. 

\Villiam T. Mullen, 1 Newton " B. 

Samuel H. White, Quincy " B. 

Rodney M. Lucas, Newton " B. 

John G. Erhart, Newton " B. 

Seth T. Snipe, Newton " B. 

William M. Rogers, Newton " B. 

William W. Robinson, Newton " B. 

Charles A. Belcher, 1 Newton . " B. 

1 Deceased. 



254 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

William H. Belcher, 1 Newton Company B. 

Jacob H. Lombard, 1 Boston " C. 

Zenas T. Haines, Strong, Maine " D. 

Edward W. Crane, Boston " D. 

Charles C. Ewer, 1 Boston " D. 

Franklin D. Magoun, Cambridge E. 

Francis C. Hopkinson, 1 Cambridge " F. 

Samuel Moore, 1 Wayland " G. 

Thomas McCarty, West Roxbury " G. 

Hezekiah N. Brown, 1 Wayland " G. 

Rufus C. Bruce, Framingham " H- 

Christopher Riley, Framingham H. 

Nathaniel J. Foster, Kingston I. 

Lawrence Rhoades, Boston I. 

Samuel H. Corlis, Weston I. 

William A. Jessop, Wayland " K. 

William W. Wild, Leominster " K. 

Walter Bailey, Needham " K. 

Albert Fisher, Walpole " K. 

William P. Sanderson, West Roxbury " K. 

James S. Gil more, Walpole K. 

James A. Mickel, 1 Charlestown K. 

1 Deceased. 






o,, 





- \ 






FIELDS STAFF 
OFFICERS 



VLACE ^ 



1S62. 





CHAPTER XIV. 

PERSONNEL. 

Forty-fourth Regiment pre 
sented the usual entertaining 
variety in its ranks as to age, 
position, and occupation. The 
average age, on recruiting, 
was twenty-two years seven 
months ; Company E being 
the youngest, with an aver 
age of twenty-one years five 
months; Company B, the 
most venerable, with an aver 
age of twenty-four years seven 
months. Looking at occupa 
tions, in Company C, seventy-nine out of one hundred were 
mercantile clerks; in Companies D, G, and E, the clerks were 
in a great majority ; in Company B, there was an equal number 
of clerks and of laborers (twenty each) ; in Company F, there 
were twenty-two Harvard College students. In the entire regi 
ment there were four hundred and fifty clerks, one hundred and 
eight farmers, seventy-five college students. Forty-five occupa 
tions in all were represented in the regiment, including carpen 
ters, merchants, hotel-keepers, blacksmiths, musicians, barbers, 
lawyers, astronomers, and cooks. There was the same number 
of civil engineers and of butchers (seven) ; the same number of 
editors and of bakers (two) ; the same number of musicians and 
of upholsterers (three) ; nearly the same number of artists (eigh 
teen) and of shoemakers (sixteen) ; precisely the same number 
of clergymen and of coachmen (three). 

The individuality of character was even more marked than the 
variety of callings, and could be fully appreciated only by those 



256 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

whose good fortune it was to spend month after month in such 
bright, amusing, and stimulating companionship. The quality 
of these common soldiers and their officers (for there was little 
difference, in this respect, between officers and men) can best 
be judged from the character of those whom we lost; and it is to 
these, in our reminiscences of the past, that our thoughts first 
turn. In the statistical tables which follow will be found the 
exact record of our losses ; let me give here such brief allusions 
to the individuals themselves as I have been able to gather. If 
of the living we cannot say all that we could wish, of the dead 
we are privileged to speak unreservedly. 

Of those who died during the campaign no loss was more 
keenly felt by both officers and men than that of Surgeon Robert 
Ware. Of all the memories that come back to us from those 
troubled months, none is more beautiful than that of this pure- 
souled, refined, high-minded officer, going his rounds of labor 
with tireless devotion and winning the respect and admira 
tion of all for his noble conception of a soldier s duty. Dr. 
Ware had graduated at Harvard College in 1853, and from 
the Harvard Medical School in 1856, and was in rapidly rising 
practice in Boston at the outbreak of the war. His first ser 
vice was in connection with the Sanitary Commission, which he 
joined as inspector in 1861, acting in that capacity during the 
disastrous and soul-trying scenes of the Peninsular Campaign. 
No officer in the army was more keenly alive than he to 
official shortcomings and abuses, or more outspoken, at proper 
times and places, in denouncing them ; yet none showed readier 
resources or quicker wit in improvising means for meeting the 
terrible exigencies of that campaign, or in making the hospital 
provision for half a dozen patients serve the needs of a hundred. 
His unsleeping attention to the \vounded, as they came pouring 
in from the field to the transports, and his cheerful, indefatigable 
toil in the hospital, by the ambulance, and at the boat, profoundly 
impressed his co-laborers in the Sanitary Commission, and called 
out the most touching testimonials of gratitude and appreciation. 1 

1 See the sketch entitled "The United States Sanitary Commission," prepared for 
the Boston Fair, December, 1863, page 89; also the little book called "Hospital 
Transports." 



PERSONNEL. 257 

As a regimental surgeon, Dr. Ware possessed qualities rarely 
united in one man ; having tender sympathies and the finest 
delicacy of feeling, yet exacting of the men the strictest observ 
ance of sanitary regulations, and pitilessly exposing all their 
shams. Though resenting his severity at first, the soldiers found 
at once that it was only the impostors who had anything to 
dread, and soon learned to trust his skill, to appreciate his fidel 
ity, and to recognize the dignity and unselfish purity of his char 
acter. His last illness was brought on, during the siege of " Little " 
Washington, by the unusual labors required of him among the 
negroes, as well as in his own regiment, to which, as usual, he 
gave himself unsparingly. He died, April 10, 1863, in his thir 
tieth year. 

Major Charles W. Dabney, who came of the family so long 
and so honorably known in connection with the American con 
sulship at Fayal, graduated at Harvard College in 1844, and was 
engaged in active business in Boston when the call for nine months 
troops was made. No one was more active or eager than he in 
organizing the regiment, and no officer served more efficiently 
than he through all our campaigns. He retired to civil life at 
the close of our service, carrying with him the deep affection of 
his army comrades, to add to the esteem and confidence he had 
already won and was still to win from his business associates and 
friends. Indeed, he was a man from whom entire trust and affec 
tion could not be withheld. The rare combination of the finer 
and manlier qualities in his nature was irresistibly engaging. Im 
pressing every one at first by the exquisite and almost feminine 
gentleness of his bearing, he soon disclosed himself as one to 
look to in emergencies where only courage and endurance tell. 
He seemed as noteworthy for toughness of moral fibre as for 
delicacy. The stories told of his coolness and pluck in critical 
hours were innumerable. His was the great privilege through 
life of surrounding himself with appreciative friends. The sad 
news of his death in England, seven years after he left the army, 
called out charming tributes, full of genuine feeling, from every 
hand. From a very striking notice in the " Boston Advertiser" 
of Jan. 17, 1871, written by one who knew him well, I take these 
brief extracts : 

17 



258 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

" While all the parts of his character fitted well together, his scale was 
large, and he was full of strength and hearty vigor, ... the most trustworthy 
of men, in whose hands you would place all that you possess, from fortune 
to reputation. The most sympathetic in joy or sorrow, the most faithful 
in the performance of duties ; a very rare man, and yet so natural as to be 
a compliment to his race. . . . His life was, for the most part, a fortunate 
and happy one. He amassed a large fortune of respect and affection, 
which he invested securely in the memories of many friends." 

Major Dabney s physical constitution was very vigorous, and 
he resisted the influences of climate and exposure to which so 
many of his comrades succumbed ; but he was never quite well 
after the war, and the great excitement and exhaustion caused 
by the burning of his house and his efforts to save it, in 1867, 
made him soon afterwards an easy victim to the disease which 
attacked him. He died of pneumonia, in Malvern, England, 
Dec. 22, 1870, in his forty-eighth year. Funeral services were 
held in the Church of the Disciples, Boston, Jan. 17, 1871. 

Adjutant Wallace Hinckley, the youngest and gayest of our 
military household at headquarters, whom we remember for the 
buoyancy and evident enjoyment with which he threw himself 
into the soldier s work, received his education and training in 
the Highland Military Academy of Worcester, Mass. After serv 
ing the Forty-fourth Regiment with admirable efficiency dur 
ing its earlier experiences, and endearing himself to his com 
panions by his amiable and happy traits, he left us to become 
adjutant of the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, in which 
capacity he made for himself an honorable record through 
out the war. He died of malarial fever, in Beaufort, N. C., 
Sept. 4, 1 865. 1 

Quartermaster Francis Bush, Jr., was a most faithful and dili 
gent officer in a very harassing branch of military service, and 
secured the hearty good-will of his comrades by his frank and 
obliging ways. He returned to civil life after the disbanding of 
our regiment, and became eventually the sole member of the old 
and well-known firm of Bent & Bush, in Boston. A few years 
after resuming his business cares his health began to fail him, 
and in the summer of 1874 his friends were startled by his sudden 
1 For fuller notice of Adjutant Hinckley, see chap. xv. 



PERSONNEL. 259 

death. The notices of his death bore testimony to the regard 
in which he was held by the community both as a merchant and 
as a friend. " Both in social and in business circles," says one of 
these tributes, " he was respected and loved as only the noblest 
men and most honorable merchants can hope to be; and the 
memory which he leaves behind is of that precious kind \vhich 
requires no effort to keep green." He died of heart-disease, at 
the Isles of Shoals, Aug. 16, 1874. 

Of those who were killed in battle or died of their wounds, 
during our service, I have been able to gather only the follow 
ing facts : 

Charles Morse of Company E, who was killed in our first 
skirmish at Rawle s Mill, enlisted from Framingham at the age 
of nineteen, and had been a driver in the employ of the Adams 
Express Company. He was killed instantly, Sunday evening, 
Nov. 2, 1872, and was buried, with Charles E. Rollins of 
Company C, in a grave close by the little building used that 
evening as a hospital. 1 

Sergeant Ambrose Stacy Courtis of Company C, a graduate of 
the Cambridge High School, was in a counting-room in Boston at 
the time of his enlistment. His period of service, short though 
it was, seems to have been long enough to inspire his com 
rades with admiration of his cheerfulness under hardships, his 
consideration for others, and his gentlemanly traits of charac 
ter. His appointment as sergeant gave the greatest satisfaction 
to the company, and his death was a sad event among compan 
ions who had learned in a few weeks campaign to love and trust 
him. He was killed instantly in the battle of Whitehall, Dec. 16, 
1862, in his twenty-first year. 

Albert L. Butler of Company A was clerk of the Cambridge 
Police Court at the time of enlistment, and went into the war, 
like so many others, to insure the freedom of the slave. His 
motives seem to have been of the highest and purest, and his 
conduct as a soldier won the hearty approval of his officers. 

1 A letter from the superintendent of the soldiers cemetery at New Berne, dated 
May 25, 1885, reports that the bodies of Rollins and Morse were disinterred last 
year, and found in such state of preservation that it was easy to identify them. 
They are now buried in the cemetery and their graves numbered. 



260 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

" Your son was brave," wrote Captain Richardson to the be 
reaved mother, " and did his duty nobly fighting for his coun 
try." His comrades, too, bore witness to his calmness under fire 
and the fortitude with which he endured his sufferings. He was 
wounded at Whitehall, and died in the ambulance which was 
carrying him from the field. He died in his thirty-first year. 1 

David Kimball Hobart of Company G was born in Boston in 
1835, and graduated from the Boston High School at sixteen, to 
enter on a business career. At the age of twenty-two he estab 
lished himself as a merchant in McGregor, Iowa, where he be 
came mayor of the city, but had returned to Boston just before 
the war. Preferring the position of private with his companions 
in the Forty-fourth to a commission elsewhere, he had become 
orderly sergeant of his company at the time of his last engage 
ment. He was wounded in a skirmish at " Little " Washington, 
March 30, 1863, and with two other wounded men fell into the 
hands of the enemy, and was taken first to the Confederate hos 
pital at Greenville, then to that at Wilson, N. C. Whatever may 
have been the experiences of the Union prisoners elsewhere, 
nothing could have exceeded the kindness or skilful medical 
attention received by Hobart at both these hospitals. He had 
the gentlest of nursing, the best of care from the surgeons, fre 
quent visits from ministers, and daily gifts of flowers from the 
women of the neighborhood. He had been shot through the 
lungs; but the native vigor of his constitution, aided by such 
devoted ministrations, prolonged his life for many days. He 
died April 14, 1863, in his twenty-eighth year, and was honorably 
buried in the hospital cemetery at Wilson. 2 

The Surgeon s Report, in another chapter, gives the sad list of 
the brave, uncomplaining men who were not permitted to fall in 
battle, but died in the regimental or general hospital at New 
Berne. No words that we can write to-day can do justice to the 
patient and heroic suffering witnessed by those who visited our 
soldiers in those trying hours. A soldier s death in the hospital 

1 An interesting incident connected with the death of George E. Noyes of Com 
pany K, who was also wounded at Whitehall, will be found in the chapter contributed 
by the surgeon. 

2 See " Conditions of Peace : " a discourse delivered in the West Church (Boston), 
in memory of David K. Hobart, June 14, 1863, by C. A. Bartol. 



PERSONNEL. 26 1 

is always sadder than death upon the field ; and although in our 
case the trials of sickness were reduced to a minimum by the 
excellence of the medical arrangements and the skill and devo 
tion of the surgeons, many touching memories come back to us 
as we recall this portion of our experiences. I can only allude 
to the two or three cases about which I have been able to get 
special information. 

Ezra N. Fuller, of Needham, Company A, left Tufts College to 
enter the Forty-fourth Regiment, served faithfully through all 
our marches and engagements, and died at the age of nineteen, 
in Stanley Hospital, Feb. 21, 1863, the year in which he would 
otherwise have graduated from college. His remains were sent 
home to Needham, where the burial took place March 12, 1863. 
His classmates, together with the president and faculty of the 
college, were present at the funeral. Of this same company, 
Matthew Howard will be remembered as a tall Irishman of six 
feet four inches, and of great strength. He was left behind in 
Stanley Hospital, with seven or eight others, and died at about 
twenty-two years of age, within a week after his comrades were 
mustered out of service. 

Few deaths in the regiment caused more sorrow than that of 
Francis C. Hopkinson of Company F. Hopkinson graduated 
from Harvard College in 1859, after a brilliant course of study 
both in college and at the Boston Latin School, took prominent 
part as a young orator in the political campaign which resulted 
in Lincoln s election, and had just finished his course in the Har 
vard Law School when the call for nine months troops was 
made. Entering the Forty-fourth Regiment with many of his 
college companions, he brought the same qualities which had 
signalized him among his fellows in school and college into the 
new experiences of camp life. Among many tributes to his 
memory from his army comrades, these words show the marked 
esteem in which he was held, under circumstances where only 
manly qualities can win esteem : " We shall remember him as a 
leader among us, always recognized as such for his acknowledged 
talents, even though he was only a private. We shall delight to 
remember him as a true, fearless, resolute, patient soldier, setting 
an example of fidelity, bravery, and unyielding pluck. None will 



262 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

forget his generosity, and the many ways he devised to keep up 
the morale as well as amuse the company." He died of typhoid 
fever, in Stanley Hospital, Feb. 13, 1863, in his twenty-fifth year. 1 

Turning to those who died in the service after having re- 
enlisted in other regiments, we think first of all, naturally, of 
the brave officers of the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth, as the first 
raising of negro regiments concerned our regiment so closely. 
While in camp at New Berne an official communication from 
Governor Andrew, dated Feb. 18, 1863, was received by Colonel 
Lee, saying, " We are raising a black regiment, the Fifty-fourth, 
under Colonel Robert G. Shaw, and want the very best officers. 
If you can recommend the following officers, I shall be obliged 
by your finding some means to send them up promptly, on 
leave or otherwise." A lieutenant and two sergeants of the 
Forty-fourth are mentioned for this service, and the letter adds: 
" We consider it a great compliment to offer a commission in 
this regiment, and do not wish you to make the offer unless it 
is likely to be accepted. We mean to make it a model regi 
ment." Colonel Lee responded promptly to this appeal, sending 
the officers asked for, and recommending several others for the 
same service. In a postscript to his letter to Governor Andrew, 
under date of Feb. 27, 1863, he says: "I believe the regiment 
is a mine of military wealth to the State; and if my belief is 
correct, the object which its officers have always had in view 
and labored to accomplish is attained, and they may well thank 
you for the privilege they have enjoyed in being instrumental 
in such a result." 

The first instalment of officers was soon followed by others, at 
the special request of Colonel Shaw. In one of several letters 
written on this subject, Colonel Shaw says (April 8, 1863): "If 
you send me such officers in future as those who have already 
come from your regiment, there is no doubt of my having a well- 
drilled and well-disciplined regiment. They are all excellent offi 
cers, and - - is one of the most efficient of men." 

The result of this then novel and doubtful experiment more 
than realized, as is well known, Governor Andrew s enthusiastic 
expectation ; and it is a great pleasure to remember the important 

1 See Harvard Memorial Biographies, vol. ii. p. 21. 



PERSONNEL. 263 

contributions made by the Forty-fourth to the equipment of these 
first colored regiments recruited under State authority. In the 
Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, as the tabular state 
ments will show, were eventually one colonel, one lieutenant- 
colonel, twelve captains, and seven lieutenants from the Forty- 
fourth. 1 One of these was brevetted brigadier-general for gallant 
service at the battle of Honey Hill, S. C., where he was severely 
wounded and supposed at the time to have been killed. A cor 
respondent of a Southern paper (" Savannah Republican," Dec. 3, 
1864), in an account of this disastrous engagement, says: "We 
made a visit to the field the day following, and found the swamp 
and road literally strewn with the dead. Some eight or ten 
bodies were floating in the water where the road crosses, and in 
a ditch on the roadside just beyond we saw six negroes piled one 
on top of the other. A colonel 2 of one of the negro regiments, 
with his horse, was killed while fearlessly leading his men across 
the creek in a charge." 

In the assault upon Fort Wagner of July 18, 1863, the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts led the column, and lost, -besides its heroic 
colonel, two of the young men, Russel and Simpkins, who had 
so recently been sent them from the ranks of the Forty-fourth. 
Cabot J. Russel entered Harvard College with the class which 
graduated in 1865, and was accompanying a scientific party in a 
trip over the Western prairies, when the seven days battle before 
Richmond inspired him with a desire to enter the army, where 
some of his friends had already fallen. He enlisted as a private 
in the Forty-fourth Regiment, and had become sergeant of Com 
pany F, when the request for officers came from Governor 
Andrew. Sergeant Russel was one of the first three recom 
mended by Colonel Lee for this service, and received his com 
mission as first lieutenant of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, 
March 23, 1863. May 11 he became captain. In both regiments 
he showed himself an admirable soldier, and drew his comrades 
and officers to him by his frank and engaging personal qualities. 
In the Fifty-fourth he rendered excellent service in drilling the 

1 The ranks here given are those finally reached. 

2 This colonel was Captain William D. Crane, aid to Colonel Hartwell, and 
formerly a private in Company D of the Forty-fourth. 



264 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

new recruits, and his company became noted for its thorough 
discipline. He gave himself with the utmost fidelity to his work, 
being anxious only that his black soldiers should do themselves 
credit and justify by their behavior the experiment which the 
Government was making. He was with them just long enough 
to see them tried in one severe engagement where, out of seventy 
men, forty-five were lost, and where he was fully satisfied by their 
soldierly conduct. He wrote to his father in the last letter re 
ceived from him, " My men did nobly." Their young com 
mander also did nobly, according to the testimony of his brother 
officers, one of whom wrote afterwards that " Captain Russel 
took part in the sharp skirmish on James Island, July 16, where 
his company bore the brunt of the battle, and he showed dis 
tinguished ability and courage." Two days after this, in the fatal 
assault on Fort Wagner, when again his company held the most 
dangerous post, he displayed the same coolness and gallantry, 
and fell at the head of the assaulting column and was left upon 
the field. It was learned afterwards that the officers and sol 
diers of the negro regiments were buried together by the Con 
federates in a common trench. 1 " No stone need mark the place 
where his bones moulder," says his biographer, "for future 
generations will reverently point to the holy ground where the 
colonel and two captains of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts were 
buried with their soldiers." 2 

The other captain \vas W. H. Simpkins, an intimate friend of 
Russel s in both regiments, who was killed while in the act of 
ministering to his comrade in his dying moments. Simpkins, 
Russel, and Sergeant G. W. James formed a little group of kin 
dred spirits in Company F of the Forty-fourth Regiment, who had 
talked over together the question of employing colored troops 
long before the experiment was first tried, and all of whom were 
ready to engage in the work as soon as officers were called for. 
They all won for themselves an enviable record during their 
brief service ; two of them were killed together at Fort Wagner, 
while James, the adjutant of the regiment, was severely wounded 
in the same battle, and has since died. 

1 See Harvard Memorial Biographies, vol. ii. p. 211. 

2 See Ibid., p. 491. 



PERSONNEL. 265 

In regard to those killed in other regiments than the Fifty- 
fourth, the following facts have been obtained :- 

A. VV. Bussell, Company K, re-enlisted in the Massachusetts 
Fifty-eighth, and was killed at Petersburg, Va. W. D. Crane, 
Company D, a member of the class of 1863, Harvard College, 
re-enlisted June 7, 1863, in the newly recruited colored regiment 
(Massachusetts Fifty-fifth), was commissioned first lieutenant and 
immediately afterwards captain, served with conspicuous gal 
lantry in the South Carolina campaign, and was killed at Honey 
Hill, S. C., while acting as aid and chief of staff to Colonel A. S. 
Hartwell. He died Nov. 30, 1864, when just entering his twenty- 
fifth year. 1 Edward L. Stevens, Company E, member also of the 
class of 1863, Harvard College, was commissioned second lieu 
tenant of the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth, Jan. 31, 1864, and first 
lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1864, and was killed in the front of battle at 
Boykin s Mills, S. C., April 18, 1865, in his twenty-third year. 
He is supposed to have been the last Union officer killed in the 
war. 2 Corporal Samuel Storrow, Company H, member of the 
class of 1864, Harvard College, was commissioned first lieutenant 
in the Massachusetts Second, Sept. 22, 1864, and died March 16, 
1865, in his twenty-second year, of wounds received near Fayette- 
ville, N. C., while acting as aid to Brigadier-General Cogswell. In 
a letter to Lieutenant Storrow s father, General Cogswell says : 

" My brigade had been engaged with the enemy nearly all day, and at 
about four o clock p. M. Mr. Storrow was wounded while carrying an order 
to the left of the brigade, and died in about fifteen or twenty minutes 
afterwards. He was not insensible when first wounded, and he had the 
coolness and self-possession to send word to me that he was wounded, 
that he had carried out my instructions, and also sent me the information 
that I had wished for. . . . Allow me to claim in part this loss as my 
own, for neither in my old regiment nor in my present command can 
I replace him." 3 

Stephen H. Parker, Company I, became sergeant of the Massa 
chusetts Fifty-ninth, and died of wounds received in battle in 
1864. Benjamin P. Chandler, Company I, died of disease in 
Florida. James M. Foss, Company I, also became sergeant of 

1 See Harvard Memorial Biographies, vol. ii. p. 393. 

2 See Ibid., p. 410. 3 See Ibid., p. 473- 



266 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the Massachusetts Fifty-ninth, and died of disease. Charles 
Wood, Company G, became sergeant-major of the Massachusetts 
Fifty-sixth, and died of disease. Clifton H. Vose, Company D, 
became sergeant of the Massachusetts Fifty-eighth, and died in 
prison in South Carolina, Oct. 28, 1864. Lowell E. Hartshorn, 
Company K, re-enlisted in the Massachusetts Fifty-eighth, and 
died in Andersonville Prison Dec. 17, 1864. Walter L. Ray 
mond, Company G, re-enlisted in the First Massachusetts Cav 
alry, and died in prison in Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 25, 1864. 
Albert W. Townsend, Company G, re-enlisted in a New York 
regiment, and died in prison in Florence, S. C. 

The full list of officers and men, so far as known, who re- 
enlisted in other regiments, will be found in the " Roster." 

It is hard to part from these pleasant companions. To go 
over this list of the departed, and recall the still fuller list of their 
comrades who have survived them, is to live over again the 
delightful nine months intercourse which for so many of us con 
stitutes one of the happiest memories of our lives. No pastor 
could ask for a more interesting, intelligent, or wide-awake parish 
than the ranks of the Forty-fourth Regiment afforded for quite 
too brief a pastorate. The vicissitudes of campaigning were apt 
to make short work, it is true, of the usual ministerial functions ; 
but only to substitute other and more personal relations of quite 
as engrossing a kind. I am not alone in counting that close com 
panionship with such a buoyant, eager, high-minded, and high 
hearted body of youths one of the kindest strokes of good 
fortune that could have befallen me. Even nine months of army 
life, in barracks, on provost-guard, and in the field, test the real 
quality of officers and soldiers; and it was gratifying to all 
connected with the Forty-fourth to see how well they bore the 
trial both of action and of idleness. I cannot aver that there 
was no complaining in camp or on the march, or no criticism 
of military plans or military management. With such acute ob 
servers in the ranks, no official blundering or incompetence was 
likely to pass unnoticed; and the tedium of inaction or weari 
ness of the tramp was not unlikely to be relieved by frank 
and pungent comments which showed an alarming amount of 
thinking. This is not the ideal composition of an army, perhaps ; 



PERSONNEL. 267 

and the question often arose among us as to the relative efficiency 
of regiments endowed with brains throughout and those which 
carried only muscle and sinew in their ranks. Yet in our case the 
grumbling was of a very innocent kind, and even colonels and 
major-generals were known to smile at the good-natured satire and 
badinage which anticipated Gilbert and Sullivan, and found an 
excellent safety-valve in comic opera. The spirit of insubordina 
tion never found entrance into the Forty-fourth. Their sol 
dierly recognition of authority and submission to the strictest 
discipline were as marked as the light-heartedness which would 
have served them in far sterner tasks than any to which they 
were called. General Foster is quoted as saying of this regi 
ment, while on its first expedition, that " they were the gayest 
of all the troops, and greeted him with cheers whenever he came 
in sight." 1 Brigadier-General Wessells, one of the toughest of 
regular army officers, whose order on taking leave of the Forty- 
fourth will be found in another chapter, offered unequivocal tes 
timony to the discipline and good conduct of this portion of his 
command. A later communication from this same officer, dated 
May 29, 1876, in answer to an invitation to a company reunion, 
says : " I well remember that glorious regiment when I had the 
honor to call it a part of my command, and its fine appearance 
in line ; and it is pleasant to trace the footsteps of those who did 
such good service to the regiment and to their native State." 

In the quiet hours in barracks at New Berne, on picket, or on 
provost duty in the city, the companies maintained a good be 
havior, and heartily seconded, for the most part, the strict pre 
cepts and example of the regimental headquarters in the matter 
of temperance. The chaplain can testify that in these peaceful 
interludes the ample regimental library was generously patron 
ized, and that at all times the mail-bags, going and coming, 
were portentously full. The list of details from the regiment for 
detached service at department or brigade headquarters, cover 
ing the most varied occupations, from the taking of a census 
of the black population of New Berne, or the drafting of topo 
graphical plans, to nursing at the general hospital, shows some 
thing of the varied talent of which the regiment was composed. 

1 Headley s " Massachusetts in the Rebellion," p. 416. 



268 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The great number of officers, as already shown, which it supplied 
to other regiments, with their honorable record of service, testi 
fies to its soldierly quality and admirable discipline. 

The wisdom of calling out troops for nine months service, 
subjecting them to army discipline, and bringing them to a fine 
state of efficiency only to scatter them to their homes again, or 
of placing side by side with veteran troops, enlisted for the war, 
these creations of a summer day, may well be questioned, and 
was nowhere more seriously debated, I am sure, than among the 
nine months troops themselves. But whatever our opinion on 
this point, it must be remembered that to enlist for nine months, 
at that juncture, seemed to be enlisting for the war; and that the 
call was issued on the distinct understanding that such large and 
immediate additions to the army would certainly hasten the 
desired end. When the Forty-fourth was organized, no bounties 
had been offered or were thought of; and its recruits went into 
the ranks with just as serious a purpose, and with quite as full 
expectation of active and constant service, as any before or after 
them. They had no knowledge where they should be sent, and 
no thought or choice about it, but assumed, as a matter of 
course, that they would be placed where the need was greatest 
and the peril most imminent. Any disappointment or chagrin 
that they felt was rather in consequence of the unimportance of 
the service required of them than because of its hardships or dan 
gers. The folly of the measure itself, if folly it was, is not to be 
visited upon those who responded in perfect good faith, and with 
absolute loyalty, to the nation s eager appeal for aid. Certainly 
during that year of the war no difference was known, in the duties 
imposed, the discipline exacted, or the work required, between 
the regiments of the longest and those of the shortest terms. 

It is pleasant, after so many years have passed, to bear this tes 
timony to one at least of these nine months regiments. Without 
instituting any comparison with other organizations, or claiming 
the slightest superiority for my own, I wish only to offer this 
tribute to the fidelity, the loyalty, the high spirit, and pure aims, 
of the soldiers of the Massachusetts Forty-fourth. 



CHAPTER XV. 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 




WILDE RMS3, 

SPOTSYLVANlAi 

PETERSBURG, 

BOYKENS MfU.8. 

/.N&ERS OWVILLE. 



T is generally considered that the en 
listment of troops for short terms 
was a mistaken policy. They were 
hardly perfected in drill and disci 
pline, and inured to the hardships of 
army life, before they were dis 
charged, and their places in the 
field were filled by raw troops, who 
had to go through the same ex 
perience to fit them for efficient 
service. 

But although the short- 
term regiments did not re 
main in the field as organiza 
tions, very many of their men 
returned to the army in other 
regiments, and through these veterans the nine months troops 
contributed most permanently to the efficiency and strength of 
our armies. 

The following roll shows how many Forty-fourth men re- 
enlisted, and presents the honorable record of their subsequent 
service. In this record their first regiment can take a pardonable 
pride, as the number of commissioned officers in the list, and the 
evidence of fidelity and bravery shown in the casualties in action, 
speak well for the school in which these veterans received their 
soldierly education. 

Although instances of re-enlistment may have escaped the 
notice of the compiler, it is believed that this list comprises 




2/0 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

nearly all who went back into the service in any capacity. To 
summarize: 

Total number re-enlisted [with rank as fallows ] . . 173 

Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General ..... i 

Lieutenant-Colonel ............ i 

Majors ................ 2 

Captains ............... 24 

First Lieutenants ............ 25 

Second Lieutenants ............ 15 

Assistant Surgeons ............ 3 

Non-commissioned Officers ......... 48 

Privates ............... 46 

Ensign U. S. Navy ............ i 

Assistant Paymasters U. S. Navy ....... 2 

Assistant Engineer U. S. Navy ........ 2 

Master-at-Arms U. S. Navy ......... i 

Mate U. S. Navy ............ i 

Captain s Clerk U. S. Navy ......... i 

Casualties. 

Killed in action or died of wounds ....... 9 

Wounded ............... 16 

Died prisoners of war ........... 3 

Died from disease , ........... i 

Discharged for disability .......... 2 



STAFF. 

HINCKLEY, WALLACE. First Lieutenant and Adjutant. Was discharged 
May 29, 1863, and commissioned First Lieutenant and Adjutant 
2d Mass. Heavy Artillery, and served with his regiment until June 8, 
1865, at Fort Macon, N. C. After he was mustered out he remained 
on the island for some time settling his accounts, and in the early 
part of August was seized with typhoid fever, and died Sept. 4, 1865. 
His death was very sudden, as he had been pronounced convalescent 
by the physicians and was supposed to be on the road to recovery. 
His body is buried in the old cemetery at Hingham, Mass. 

The following, written by one of his school friends, is so appre 
ciative that it is inserted here. 

" Six months at a military school made him a proficient in the manual 
of drill ; and when the loyal drums beat to arms in 1861, he offered his 
services in instructing the raw levies which the city of Lowell had then 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 2? I 

got together. The renown subsequently won by the company which 
he drilled will always cast a reflex lustre on the memory of its gallant 
young tutor. Returning to his studies, it was not long before he was 
called upon to draw his sword in good earnest. The great heart of 
Massachusetts was thrilled by a prayer from the Government for help ; 
and foremost among the choicest youth of the Commonwealth who, 

Stepping like Homer at the trumpet s call, 

crowded under the banners of the famous Forty-fourth, was young 
Hinckley. Scarcely eighteen, he was at once appointed Adjutant. Ar 
dently loving the profession of arms, he was now in his element. His 
exact and thorough knowledge of his duties, his intense devotion to his 
work, and moreover his handsome person contributed to make him the 
most brilliant officer of that brilliant regiment. . . . 

" His life was short, but in twenty years he accomplished as much as 
most men in fifty. We may regret that the brilliant promise of his youth 
was prevented by death from the fulfilment of a glorious manhood ; but 
the lofty words of one of the prophets of the Elizabethan age, rolling to 
our ears from the past like the thunder-peal of an organ, proclaims that 
t is immortality to die aspiring. " 

NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

GIFFORD, FREDERIC S. Quartermaster Sergeant. Previous service, Q. M. 
Sergt. 3d Mass. Vol. Militia, from April 23 to July 22, 1861. Second 
Lieutenant 6th Unattached Company Mass. Heavy Artillery. First 
Lieutenant 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery, July n, 1864. Resigned April 
20, 1865. 

COMPANY A. 

BARKER, EBEN FRANCIS. Corporal First Lieutenant 75th U. S. C. T., 
December, 1863; Captain, January, 1865 ; discharged November, 
1865, on expiration of service. 

BELLOWS, HENRY HUDSON. Private. Private Co. D, Frontier Cavalry, 
Jan. 2, 1865 ; discharged June 30, 1865, on expiration of service. 

CONANT, JOHN H. Private. First Sergeant 2Qth Unattached Company 
Heavy Artillery, Sept. 19, 1864. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., 
May i, 1865 > First Lieutenant, July n, 1865 ; mustered out as Act 
ing Adjutant, Aug. 20, 1865, on expiration of service. Died at Cam 
bridge, June 1 6, 1868. 

CRAGIN, GEORGE NATHAN. Private. Corporal Co. A, 5th Mass. Infantry, 
July 25, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

FULLER, ALBERT. Private. Sergeant Company D, 2d Mass. Heavy Artil 
lery, Aug. 22, 1863. Discharged no date given. The record of 
Volunteers shows he was promoted Quartermaster Sergeant ; but his 
name does not appear among the non-commissioned staff. 



2/2 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

RICHARDSON, JAMES MIRICK. Captain, First entered the service as Cap 
tain 21 st Mass. Infantry, Aug. 21, 1861 ; resigned July 25, 1862; 
was wounded during siege of " Little " Washington while on a scouting 
party, March 30, by two bullets through left arm. Second Lieutenant 
1 2th Unattached Company Mass. Heavy Artillery (afterwards 3d 
Mass. Heavy Artillery), July 16, 1863; Captain, Nov. 16, 1863; 
Major, Nov. 16, 1864; mustered out Sept. 18, 1865. Brevetted 
Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. Vols. from March 13, 1865. Died at 
Boston, Oct. 7, 1878. 

WHIPPLE, ALONZO LYMAN. Private. Private Co. H, 3d Heavy Artillery, 
Dec. 4, 1863 ; discharged September, 1865, on expiration of service. 

COMPANY B. 

BROOKS, GEORGE WILLIAM. Private. Private Co. K, 42d Mass. In 
fantry, July 18, 1864; discharged Nov. n, 1864, on expiration of 
service. 

CLAPP, DAVID C. Private. Sergeant ist Unattached Company Infantry, 
April 29, 1864; discharged Aug. i, 1864, on expiration of service. 
Second Lieutenant 8th U. S. C. T., March 10, 1865 ; discharged 
Dec. 9, 1865, on expiration of service. 

DEMOND, ALPHEUS. Private. Corporal Co. F, 6oth Infantry M. V. M., 
July 20, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 

GILLESPIE, WILLIAM. Sergeant. Was commissioned Second Lieutenant 
2d Maine Cavalry while in the 44th, but served out his original 
enlistment. Remained in the Maine Cavalry " until Confederacy 
busted." 

HARDING, NATHAN FRANCIS. Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, Jan. 2, 
1864; discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

MANSFIELD, THEODORE FRANCIS. Private. Private Co. F, 5th Infantry 
M. V. M., July 1 6, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration 
of service. 

READ, HENRY FRANKLIN. Private. Private Co. I, 2d Mass. Cavalry, 
Aug. 20, 1864; discharged May 8, 1865, on expiration of service. 

SOULE, CHARLES CARROLL. Second Lieutenant. First mustered into 
U. S. service as First Lieutenant and Adjutant of 4th Battalion of 
Infantry M. V. M., May 25, 1862, but the battalion not being needed, 
was mustered out June i, 1862. Captain 55th Mass. Infantry, June 
19, 1863 ; slightly wounded in the arrn, at the battle of Honey Hill, 
S. C., Nov. 30, 1864. Brevetted Major, to date from March 13, 
1865, but declined the brevet; mustered out with regiment. Aug. 
29, 1865. 

TEAGUE, FRANK W. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 7 8th U. S. C. T., 
Dec. 19, 1863. Discharged Jan. 6, 1866, on expiration of service. 
Died at St. Louis, Aug. 17, 1866. 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 273 

COMPANY C. 

BRYANT, ALBERT. Private. Corporal ist Unattached Company In 
fantry, April 29, 1864; discharged Aug. i, 1864, on expiration of 
service. 

COOTEY, PHILIP I. Corporal. Captain Co. F, 5th Mass. Infantry, July 
16, 1864 ; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

CUNNINGHAM, CHARLES A. First Sergeant. Second Lieutenant 26. Heavy 
Artillery, June 4, 1863; First Lieutenant, April 18, 1864; mustered 
out Sept. 19, 1865, on expiration of service. Died at South Boston, 
April 5, 1874. 

DREW, ARTHUR. Private. Private Co. A, 42d Infantry M. V. M., July 
14, 1864; discharged Nov. u, 1864, on expiration of service. 

HEDGE, WILLIAM. First Lieutenant. Declined commission in 2oth 
Mass. Regiment. 

HORTON, ANDREW T. Private. Corporal Co. C, 6ist Mass. Vols., Sept. 
5, 1864 ; discharged June 4, 1865, on expiration of service. 

JONES, IRVING. Private. Private in Signal Corps, U. S. A., March 29, 
1864; discharged Aug. 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

JONES, SYLVESTER ALLEN. Private. Corporal Co. K, 59th Mass. 
Vols., Aug. 21, 1864; discharged June 13, 1865, on expiration of 
service. 

MONROE, THEODORE JAMES. Private. First Sergeant Co. E, 56th 
Mass. Infantry, Jan. 12, 1864; discharged June 25, 1865, on expira 
tion of service. Subsequently enlisted as Hospital Steward, gth 
Corps, U. S. A. ; afterwards appointed Hospital Steward, U. S. A. ; 
resigned February, 1866. 

MORSE, GEORGE JULIUS. Private. Corporal Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols., 
July 16, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

PROCTOR, GEORGE. Private. Corporal ist Unattached Company In 
fantry, April 29, 1864; discharged Aug. i, 1864, on expiration of 
service. 

RICHMOND, WILLIAM THOMAS. Private. Enlisted in Signal Corps, 
U. S. A., and served until close of war. 

TRESCOTT, EDWARD WHITING. Private. Sergeant Co. F, 5th Infantry 
M. V. M., July 12, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration 
of service. 

WALKER, EUGENE CLIFFORD. Private. Private in ad Battery, Feb. 12, 
1864; discharged Aug. u, 1865, on expiration of service. 

WHITTEMORE, CURTIS H. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 5th Mass. Cav 
alry, July 7, 1864 ; First Lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1864 ; discharged 
Oct. 31, 1865, on expiration of service. 

WiLLARD. EDWARD AUGUSTUS. Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, 
Dec. 2, 1864 ; discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

18 



2/4 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

COMPANY D. 

BATES, DANIEL DWIGHT. Private. Landsman, U. S. Navy; discharged 
as Assistant Master-at-Arms, U. S. Navy, June, 1865, on expira 
tion of service. 

BEAL, CHARLES W. Private. First Sergeant, Co. A, 42d Mass. In 
fantry, July 14, 1864; discharged Nov. u, 1864, on expiration of 
service. 

BEAL, GEORGE W. Private. Sergeant Co. B, 6oth Mass. Infantry, July 
n, 1864 ; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 

BREVVSTER, JAMES BARTLETT. Private. Early in 1864 wa s attached to 
the Relief-rooms of the Sanitary Commission in Boston, as Surgical 
dresser. Assistant Surgeon 2d Division, g\h Army Corps, Army of 
the Potomac, June i, 1864; stationed at White House and on the 
James during the summer campaign. 

CARTER, GEORGE HENRY. Sergeant. Second Lieutenant 55th Mass. 
Vols, Nov. 15, 1864; First Lieutenant, June 25, 1865. Brevetted 
Captain U. S. Vols., to date from March 13, 1865; discharged 
Aug. 29, 1865, on expiration of service. 

CRANE, EDWARD W. Private. Declined commission in 55th Mass. 
Vols., dated June 9, 1864. Died at Marshfield, Mass., May 21, 1886. 

CRANE, WILLIAM DWIGHT. Private. First Lieutenant 55th Mass. Vols., 
June 7, 1863; Captain Co. I, June 19. Killed at the battle of 
Honey Hill, S. C., Nov. 30, 1864. 

The following was written by a brother officer, one of Crane s 
former playfellows, and like himself a graduate of Harvard Col 
lege : 

" He was first commissioned as a Lieutenant, but gained his cap 
taincy before muster-in, by hard work and soldierly aptitude. We 
were barracked together in July, 1863, and from that time until his 
death were rarely separated. 

" It was a pleasure to be with and watch him square, sturdy, fresh, 
and handsome soldier that he was through the desert heats of Folly 
Island, the toilsome fatigue of the trenches before Wagner, the malarious 
picket details on marsh and sand-hill, the fervid drills upon the sea- 
beach, the sickness and weariness of the autumn of 1863, the mingled 
rest and activity of the succeeding winter, and the toilsome Florida 
marches of February, 1864." 

At the battle of Honey Hill, Nov. 30, 1864, Crane was acting aide 
and chief-of-staff to Col. Hartwell, commanding the brigade of which 
the 55th formed a part. 

" At the charge on the enemy s batteries along a narrow road, ex 
posed to canister at close range from seven guns, and in the focus of an 
infantry fire from over a thousand rifles, he was slain. I have heard 
that he was instantly killed by a shot through the head, and attracted 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 275 

the attention of the Rebels, who held the field after the battle, by his 
fine, handsome face and touching attitude. He was honorably buried, 
so we learn from participants in the battle, both out of respect for 
his bravery, and because of his being a newly made Freemason. In 
probity, singular purity of life and conversation, in upright manliness 
and military talent, I know of no young man who could surpass the 
brave soldier who thus met death and an unmarked grave, not in 
victory, but in defeat. It was a sad loss to us who remained. The 
men of his company almost idolized him." Harvard Memorial. 

GOFF, WILLIAM CULLEN. First Lieutenant Co. F, 5th Infantry M. V. M., 
July 16, 1864 ; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

HEMENWAY, AUGUSTUS A. Private. Band-master 4th Mass. Cavalry, 
March i, 1864; discharged Nov. 14, 1865, on expiration of service. 
Drowned Aug. 30, 1872, at wreck of steamer "Metis" off Watch 
Hill, Conn. 

HOBART, GEORGE HENRY. Private. Sergeant Co. A, 42d Mass. Vols., 
July 4, 1864 ; discharged Nov. ir, 1864, on expiration of service. 

HOWARD, WILLARD. Private. Discharged for promotion at New Berne, 
April 26, 1863. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., May 13, 
1863 ; First Lieutenant, May 31, 1863. Slightly wounded at assault 
on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863. Acting Adjutant, November, 1863 ; 
Adjutant, March i, 1864; Captain, Dec. 3, 1864 ; discharged Aug. 2, 
1865, on expiration of service. 

JACOBS, AUGUSTUS. Private. First Sergeant Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols., 
July 12, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

LITTLEFIELD, HENRY WARREN. Private. Second Lieutcuant 54th Mass. 
Vols., May n, 1863; First Lieutenant, Oct. 7, 1863; resigned 
Feb. 9, 1865, on account of wounds received at battle of Olustee, 
Fla., Feb. 20, 1864. 

NOURSE, HARRISON. Private. Corporal Co. D, 6th Mass. Infantry, 
July 16, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 

SIMONDS, JOSEPH WARREN. Private. Private in Co. E, 8th Mass. In 
fantry, July 19, 1864; discharged Nov. 10, 1864, on expiration of 
service. 

STURTEVANT, CHARLES WHITMORE. Private. Commissary-Sergeant Co. L, 
ist Mass. Cavalry, Jan. 6, 1864 ; discharged June 26, 1865, on expira 
tion of service. 

TRIPP, GEORGE LEIGHTON. First Sergeant. First Lieutenant Co. H, 6th 
Mass. Vols., July 16, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration 
of service. Died at Alfred, Me., March 13, 1867, of disease con 
tracted during service. 

TUTTLE, HORACE P. Private. Discharged April 26, 1863, for disability. 
Assistant Paymaster in United States Navy, July 2, 1864, and served 
several years. 



2/6 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

VOSE, CLIFTON HENRY. Private. First Sergeant Co. F, 58th Mass. 
Infantry, April 20, 1864. Died at Rickersville Hospital, S. C., Oct. 
28, 1864, while prisoner of war; was buried at Charleston, S. C. 

COMPANY E. 

ADAMS, WILLIAM ROBERT. Corporal. Sergeant Co. H, 6th Mass. Vols., 
July 16, 1864 ; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 

BRADISH, ALBERT HENRY. Private. Second Lieutenant 55th Mass. Vols., 
Feb. n, 1864 ; Acting Post Ordnance officer at Palatka, Fla., during 
the stay of the regiment at that point; resigned June 27, 1864, for 
disability. 

BREWSTER, WARREN JOSHUA. Private. Discharged Sept. 30, 1862, for 
disability. Afterwards re-entered the service (particulars of which 
cannot now be learned) and served for a time on staff of General 
Cooke, in the West. 

CARTWRIGHT, JAMES WELD. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. 
Vols., July 30, 1863; First Lieutenant, Nov. 21, 1863; Captain, 
May 17, 1864; mustered out July 12, 1865, on expiration of ser 
vice. Wounded May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania, and again, April. 
1865, at Petersburg, Va., slightly in left hand and right shoulder. 

CROSS, HENRY CLAY, Private. Private in ist Tennessee Home Guards, 
1864, and served until end of war. 

DERBY, OLIVER CARPENTER. Private. Sergeant Co. H, 3d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Nov. 20, 1863; discharged Sept. 18, 1865, on expira 
tion of service. 

HIGHT, HENRY ORMAND. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 82d U. S. C. T., 
Nov. 12, 1863 ; discharged Captain, Sept. 16, 1866, on expiration of 
service. Brevetted Major for gallantry at siege of Fort Blakely, 
April, 1865. 

HOMER, HENRY AUGUSTUS. Sergeant. Declined commission in 5151 
Mass. Vols. Captain igth Mass. Vols., April 22, 1865 ; discharged 
June 30, 1865, on expiration of service. Died at Cambridge, Mass., 
Dec. n, 1875. 

JOY, CHARLES FREDERICK. Private. Sergeant Co. F, 2d Heavy Artil 
lery, Oct. 8, 1863. Transferred as Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. 
Vols., Sept. 30, 1864; First Lieutenant, March 30, 1865; Captain, 
July 17, 1865 ; discharged Aug. 20, 1865, on expiration of service. 

KENT, FRED. AUGUSTUS. Private. Captain s clerk in U. S. Navy, and 
served four years. 

KING, BENJAMIN FLINT. Private. First Lieutenant Co. B, i8th 
U. S. C. T., Dec. 7, 1863. Appointed Judge Advocate, on staff 
of Gen. George L. Andrews. Resigned Aug. 10, 1864, on account 
of ill health. Died at Boston, Jan. 24, 1868, of heart disease. 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 277 

LIVERMORE, WILLIAM BELDEN. Private, Corporal Co. H, 6th Mass. 
Vols., July 16, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration 
of service. Died at Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 23, 1870. 

MYERS, JOHN HENRY, JR. Private. Sergeant in Co. H, 4th Mass. 
Cavalry, Feb. 8, 1864; discharged Nov. 14, 1865, on expiration of 
service. The squadron to which he was attached carried the first 
national colors into Richmond. Died Jan. 21, 1873. 

NEWELL, JAMES SHUTTLEWORTH. First Lieutenant. First Lieutenant 5th 
Mass. Cavalry, Dec. 29, 1863; Captain, Feb. 15, 1865; discharged 
Oct. 31, 1865, on expiration of service. 

PARK, CHARLES STUART. Private. Declined Second Lieutenant s Com 
mission 56th Mass. Vols. Acting Assistant Paymaster, U. S. Navy, 
from November, 1864, to August, 1865. 

PATTEN, THOMAS HENRY. Private. First Sergeant Co. I, 2d Mass. 
Heavy Artillery, Dec. n, 1863 ; Second Lieutenant, Jan. 17, 1865 ; 
discharged Sept. 3, 1865, on expiration of service. Feb. 22, 1865, 
was appointed Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., but declined 
commission. 

PLIMPTON, MERRILL FRANCIS. Private. First Sergeant Co. C, 56th 
Mass. Vols., March i, 1864; commissioned Second Lieutenant, 
July i, 1865, but not mustered; discharged July 12, 1865, by Spe 
cial Order No. 162, War Department, Washington, D. C. Wounded 
by a buck-shot at Petersburg, June 17, 1864, and again by a frag 
ment of a shell in the thigh, and in the hand by a bullet, at the 
mine explosion, July 12, 1864. 

ROBBINS, JAMES ARTHUR. Private. Private Co. E, 57th Mass. Vols., 
Feb. 1 8, 1864; promoted Quartermaster Sergeant; discharged July 
30, 1865, on expiration of service. 

STEVENS, EDWARD LEWIS. Private. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., 
Jan. 31, 1864; First Lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1864. Killed April 18, 
1865, at Boykin s Mills, S. C. He is believed to have been the last 
Union officer killed during the war. The remains of Lieutenant 
Stevens, and of Corporal Johnson of his regiment, were disinterred July 
29, 1885, and re-interred in the National Cemetery at Florence, S. C. 

TUCKER, CHARLES EDWARD. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. 
Vols., May 13, 1863; First Lieutenant, May 28, 1863; Captain, 
Feb. 3, 1864. Wounded by a bullet in temple and ear at the assault 
on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865, on 
expiration of service. 

WALCOTT, GEORGE PHINNEY. Private. Sergeant Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols., 
July 1 6, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

WALLACE, EDWIN ASHLEY. Private. Sergeant Co. C, 561)1 Mass. Vols., 
Dec. 28, 1863; First Lieutenant, Oct. 22, 1864; taken prisoner at 
North Anna River, and was in prison at Andersonville six months ; 



278 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

exchanged at Millen, Ga., and rejoined his regiment at Petersburg j 
discharged July 22, 1865, on expiration of service. 

WHEELWRIGHT, GEORGE WILLIAM, JR. Sergeant. Discharged Sept. 30, 
1862; was appointed by, the city of Roxbury as Assistant Sanitary 
Agent, in which capacity was with the Roxbury men in the Army of 
the Potomac several months, until obliged to give up on account of 
sickness. In January, 1863, sailed for New Berne in the " Frye ; " 
rejoined the Forty-fourth as volunteer and acted as Colonel s orderly 
on the Plymouth expedition. On the day of the Grand Review, Feb 
ruary 26, was taken to the Stanley Hospital sick, and left New Berne 
for the North, March 16, 1863. 

WHITE, EDWARD PETERS. First Sergeant. Second Lieutenant zd Mass. 
Heavy Artillery, June 4, 1863 ; First Lieutenant, Aug. 14, 1863. Served 
for some time on staff of General Palmer; resigned Jan. 7, 1865. 

WHITNEY, WILLIAM LAMBERT, JR. Private. Second Lieutenant 54th 
Mass. Vols., Dec. 4, 1864; First Lieutenant, June, 1865; Acting 
Adjutant, April, May, and June, 1865 ; discharged Aug. 20, 1865, on 
expiration of service. 

WORTHLEY, JAMES GUSHING. Private. Sergeant Co. H, 3d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Nov. 20, 1863; Second Lieutenant, July 25, 1865; dis 
charged Sept. 18, 1865, on expiration of service. 

COMPANY F. 

ATKINS, FRANCIS HIGGINSON. Private. Medical Cadet U. S. A. 1863-64 ; 
Acting Assistant Surgeon U. S. Navy, Admiral Farragut s Squadron, 
1864; practising physician until 1873; Acting Assistant Surgeon, 
U. S. Army, from June, 1873, to 1884. 

BARTLETT, EDWARD JARVIS. Private. Second Lieutenant 5th Mass. Cav 
alry, July i, 1864; mustered out Oct. 31, 1865, on expiration of 
service. 

COGSWELL, EDWARD RUSSELL. Sergeant. Declined commission in i8th 
Mass. Vols. 

COOK, CHARLES EDWARD. Private. Sergeant Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols. 
July 1 6, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

DODGE, FREDERIC L. Private. Second Lieutenant i8th N. H. Vols., 
March 22, 1865 ; mustered out July 29, 1865, on expiration of 
service. Second Lieutenant 23d Regt. U. S. Infantry, March 7, 
1867 ; First Lieutenant, Jan. 22, 1873. Still in service. 

GOODWIN, FRANK. Private. First Lieutenant 55th Mass. Vols., June 7, 
1863 ; Captain, July 20, 1863. Wounded at battle of James Island, 
S. C. Brevetted Major, for " gallant and meritorious conduct ; " 
mustered out with regiment, Aug. 29, 1865. 

HARTWELL, ALFRED STEDMAN. First Lieutenant. First entered the ser- 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 2/9 

vice Corporal 3d Mo. Vols., May, 1861 ; Captain 54th Mass. Vols., 
March 16, 1863. Transferred, Lieut.-Col. 55th Mass., May 30, 1863 ; 
Colonel, Nov. 3, 1863. At battle of Honey Hill, S. C., Nov. 30, 
1864, while leading a charge, his horse was killed and fell on him. 
While thus helpless and wounded in the hand, he would have been 
left to fall into the hands of the enemy but for the bravery of Lieu 
tenant Ellsworth, who turned back under a terrific fire, and while one 
of the men, who was killed the next minute, partly lifted the horse 
and thus released him, the lieutenant dragged the colonel across 
the ditch into the woods, and then to the rear. In thus going from 
the field Hartwell was .hit three times by spent balls, but Ellsworth 
escaped unharmed. Brevetted Brig.-Gen. U. S. Vols. for "gallant 
services at the battle of Honey Hill, S. C. ; " discharged April 30, 
1866, on expiration of service. 

HOYT, HENRY MORRIS. Private. Sergeant Co. E, 6th Mass. Vols., July 
1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 

JAMES, GARTH WILKINSON. Sergeant. Sergeant James was discharged 
for promotion, March 31, 1863. He was commissioned First Lieu 
tenant and Adjutant of the 54th Mass. Vols., March 23, and mus 
tered in April 24. The following sketch of his career is from the 
pen of a brother officer in the 54th : 

" Adjutant James was with the regiment at Readville and Beaufort, S. C ; 
St. Simons and Darien, Ga.; St. Helena Island and James Islatid, S. C. ; 
always on duty, cheerful, active, and a universal favorite for his endear 
ing qualities of heart and mind. Of the part he took in the assault on 
Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863, I have his own account; and in it he says 
that when we received the first discharge of the enemy s cannon his 
action was as follows : Gathering together a knot of men after the sus 
pense of a few seconds, I waved my sword for a further charge towards 
the living line of fire above us. We had gone then some thirty yards, 
but determinedly onwards, the ranks obliquely following the swords of 
those they trusted, etc. James states that at the chevaux-de-frise in 
front of the ditch . . . I received another wound, a canister-ball in my 
foot ; having just after receiving the enemy s first fire been wounded in 
the side by a shell. Having dragged himself away some distance, some 
ambulance men of the 54th found him and took him to the rear. He 
was sent North, to his home in Cambridge. Finding himself after a 
number of months still unfit for duty, he finally resigned Jan. 30, 
1864. . . . His longing for active service caused him to apply for a 
commission. Stronger, but still a sufferer, and limping as he did 
throughout the rest of his life from the wound in his foot, on Dec. 3, 
1864, he was re-commissioned as First Lieutenant in the 54th, then 
near Devaux s Neck. S. C. But he was unable to do duty as a line 
officer, and was appointed Acting A. D. C. on the staff of Colonel E. N. 
Hallowell of the 54th, then commanding the Second Brigade of General 



280 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

J. P. Hatch s Coast Division. Lieutenant James was commissioned 
Captain of Company C, March 30, 1865, and mustered as such, May 12, 
1865. He was with General Gilmore s staff at Georgetown, S. C., about 
April 2. He was mustered out with the 54th, Aug. 20, 1865. He was a 
sufferer all his life from his wounds, and died at Milwaukee, Wis., March, 
1883, aged thirty-eight. Thus passed away one of the sweetest, most lova 
ble of men ; a brave soldier, and the truest, most constant of friends. To 
those who knew him in the old days it is needless to say how free he was 
from the caprices and humors of most men. His smile was always bright, 
his words cheery and genial, his manner polished and winsome." 

JONES, EDWARD LLOYD. Corporal. First Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., 
May 13, 1863; Captain, May 14, 1863; took an active part in the 
assault on Fort Wagner, S. C., July 18, 1863, where he was severely 
wounded, from the effects of which he never recovered ; mustered 
out Dec. 1 6, 1864. Died at Templeton, Mass., Jan. 3, 1886. 

KENT, BARKER B., JR. Private. First Sergeant ist Unattached Com 
pany, M. V. M., April 29, 1864; discharged, Aug. i, 1864, on 
expiration of service. Captain Co. G, 6oth Regt. M. V. M., July 
28, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 
Died at Boston, Feb. 2, 1873. 

LATHROP, WILLIAM HENRY. Private. Medical Cadet at Satterlee Hos 
pital, Philadelphia, August, 1863, where he remained until October, 

1864, when he was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, 
and was assigned to duty at the Depot Field Hospital of the 2d 
Corps at City Point and Alexandria, Va ; served there until May 20, 

1865. Assistant Surgeon in the 55th Mass. Vols., June 14, 1865. 
When the regiment returned home, Aug. 29, 1865, he was mustered 
out at Charleston, S. C., to take a commission as Acting Assistant 
Surgeon, U. S. Army, which he retained until Nov. i, 1866. 

MITCHELL, FRANK A. Private. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. Vols., 
Sept. 5, 1863; First Lieutenant, May 17, 1864; wounded at the 
battle of the Wilderness; discharged for disability, March 13, 1865. 
Was subsequently commissioned Captain and Brigade Quartermaster. 

MORSE, CHARLES FAIRBANKS. Musician. Musician 3d Heavy Artillery. 
Died Nov. 21, 1878. 

PERKINS, WILLIAM EDWARD. Sergeant. Second Lieutenant 2d Mass. 
Vols., Jan. 26, 1863 ; First Lieutenant, July 7, 1863 ; Captain, 
March 7, 1865 ; mustered out July 14. 1865. Died at Boston, 
Jan. 1 8, 1879. The following extract is from an appreciative obitu 
ary notice in the Boston " Advertiser : " 

" Most suddenly and unexpectedly has he been taken from our midst. 
Few men of his age have been better known. He was graduated at 
Harvard in the class of 1860. William at first entered the service as a 
Sergeant in Co. F, Forty-fourth Regiment, but when his term of service 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 28 1 

was half over, he obtained a commission as Second Lieutenant in the 
famous 2d Mass. Infantry. On the 3d of May, 1863, he was wounded at 
the battle of Chancellorsville. He rejoined his regiment on the evening 
of the last day of fighting at Gettysburg. With the 2d Mass. Infantry 
he went to the West in the fall of 1863 ; and in 1864 he shared in the 
Atlanta campaign, and in the famous march to the sea. He was with 
the regiment in the march through the Carolinas, was at the battles of 
Averysborough and Bentonville, at the former of which his captain, the 
gallant Ingersoll Grafton, was killed, and he was present at the surrender 
of Gen. Johnston. After the war he took up again his legal studies, 
which the war had interrupted, and he shortly after commenced practice 
in Boston. He was always ready, however, to give up his time, and his 
practice even, at the call of political duty. He served for some years 
in the common council and the legislature, and in both capacities he 
made himself known and felt as a hard-working, clear-headed, sensible 
man. . . . He was a thoroughly manly man. His character was one of 
great simplicity and sweetness. He was unselfish, perfectly ingenuous, 
giving his friendship unreservedly, and always the same. There was 
nothing suspicious or exacting about his friendship. He was a fast 
friend, and he attached his friends very closely to him, and his name will 
long be affectionately remembered." 

POPE, GEORGE. Sergeant. Captain 54th Mass. Vols., Mayu, 1863; 

severely wounded at the assault on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863. 

Major, Dec. 3, 1864; Lieut.-CoL, July n, 1865; mustered out 

with regiment, Aug. 2, 1865. 
RUSSEL, CABOT JACKSON. Sergeant. Captain 54th Mass. Vols., May n, 

1863. Killed at the assault on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863. The 

New York " Evening Post " says : 

"One of the notable features of our war is the development of char 
acter, energy, and heroism in our young men. Beardless lads have 
exhibited proofs of mature capacity, and endurance worthy of veterans. 
One of the leaders of the Charge of the Dark Brigade at Fort 
Wagner was Captain Cabot Jackson Russel, of the Fifty-fourth Massa 
chusetts Regiment (Colonel Shaw s colored regiment). This youth, 
scarcely nineteen, after serving with the Massachusetts Forty-fourth in 
North Carolina, was offered a captaincy in Colonel Shaw s regiment, 
and at that notable charge he led his men gallantly to the parapet of 
the Rebel intrenchments, and fell wounded in the hottest of the fight. 
. . . Captain Russel s manly bearing and excellent qualities endeared 
him strongly to his friends. He gave evidence of precocious abilities 
as an officer, and his early career was full of promises of honorable 
distinction." 

SIMPKINS, WILLIAM HARRIS. Corporal. Captain 54th Mass. Vols., May n, 
1863. Killed at the assault on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863. The 
following is from the Shaw " Memorial " : 



282 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

" These two young men [Simpkins and RusselJ, one not yet twenty- 
four and the other only nineteen, served together in Company F, 
Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, for the nine months term, re 
turning a short time before the regiment in order to take commissions 
in the Fifty-fourth. 

" Let us give due honor to the men who sought commissions in the first 
negro regiment from such motives as theirs. Captain Simpkins wrote 
from New Berne when his name was selected for a commission : I have 
now to tell you of a pretty important step that I have just taken. I 
have given my name to be forwarded to Massachusetts for a commission 
in the Fifty-fourth (negro) Regiment, Colonel Shaw. . . . This is no 
hasty conclusion, no blind leap of an enthusiast, but the result of much 
hard thinking. It will not be at first, and probably not for a long time, an 
agreeable position, for many reasons too evident to state ; and the man 
who goes into it resigns all chances in the new white regiments that must 
be raised. ... If I am one of the men selected, why should I refuse? 
I came out here, not from any fancied fondness for a military life, but 
to help along the good cause. This was the letter of a youth to whom 
a military life was distasteful, but who, following his idea of duty, had 
fitted himself for it by careful study so well that, as captain in the Fifty- 
fourth, he commanded the respect as well as affection of his brother 
officers, who say he would have adorned the high position which only 
death prevented his attaining. . . . The writer of this knew Captain 
Simpkins. His sweet and manly nature, his clear and strong intellect, 
made his friendship dearly prized by all who knew him well ; but only 
those nearest to him recognized under his natural modesty of character 
the possible hero whose life became complete and glorious on the 
bastion of Fort Wagner." 

The story of the return of Captain Simpkins s pistol to his family 
several years after the war is too interesting to be omitted. 

In September, 1875, tne following letter appeared in the Boston 
" Globe." 

OFFICE OF R. A. W. JAMES, ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW, 

DYERSBURG, TENN., Sept. 25, 1875. 
To the Editors of the GLOBE. 

GENTLEMEN, I have in my possession a six-inch Smith & Wesson 
repeating pistol, upon the handle of which is engraved " Captain W. H. 
Simpkins, Fifty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, from J. L." 

I took it from the body of a dead Federal officer on the 27th of June, 
1864, at the salient on the Kenesaw Mountain line, Georgia. 

As this is the era of reconciliation between the Gray and the Blue, 
and as the gallant officer may have relatives or friends who would ap 
preciate a memento of him, I am anxious to restore it to them if they 
will place themselves in communication with me. 

Believing that a mention of this, if published in your paper and 
copied throughout your State, might lead to, inquiries by the friends of 
the deceased officer, I anxiously ask its insertion. My address is 

R. A. W. JAMES, Dyersburg, Tenn. 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 283 

This letter soon came to the notice of Captain Simpkins s father, 
the late John Simpkins, Esq., of Jamaica Plain, who opened a cor 
respondence with Major James, which resulted in the return of the 
pistol, accompanied by the following generous letter : 

OFFICE OF R. A. W. JAMES, ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW, 
DYERSBURG, TENN., Oct. 27, 1875. 

JOHN SIMPKINS, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

DEAR SIR, Your favor of 3d inst. came to hand in due course of 
mail, and I would have replied to it sooner, but for an extraordinary press 
of business. I forwarded the pistol by mail, according to your instruc 
tions, about a week ago, and hope that you have received it. I wish I 
could place you in possession of such information as would enable you to 
trace it back to your son, but I am afraid I shall never be able to do 
so. On the 2yth June, 1864, the Confederate line occupying the salient 
to the left of Kenesaw Mountain was attacked by a Federal division 
whose number and commander I have forgotten, but you can ascer 
tain by reference to almost any history of the late war. Am sorry 
I have none at hand to which I could refer and inform you. The attack 
was a terrible one, and the fighting, at one time, almost hand to hand. 
The attacking division, after a desperate charge, which was unsuccess 
ful, retired. Expecting a countercharge, a number of our troops ad 
vanced a short distance in front of the Confederate works, where I took 
the pistol from the body of an officer whose rank I either did not 
notice or have forgotten. He must have been a gallant fellow, prob 
ably a friend and comrade of your son, for his body was not more 
than twelve or fifteen feet from the Confederate works and surrounded 
by heaps of dead comrades. 

Receiving no orders to charge, and the firing in a few moments becom 
ing again heavy, those of us who had advanced beyond the works retired 
into them again, and the firing continued almost unremittingly until on 
the 2Qth I believe it was a truce was had and the dead between 
the lines were buried. The body of the officer I mention was lying 
partially on a beautiful stand of colors, which bore the name of some 
regiment, I presume, I know there was some inscription on it. The 
colors were picked up and subsequently presented to General Hardee, 
to whose corps I belonged. General Hardee gave the colors back to the 
captor and told him to give them to his sweetheart. I knew the man ; 
his name was Woltz, and he resided in Midway, East Tennessee, but 
I have not heard of him since the close of the war, except that he has 
left Midway. General Hardee is dead, as you perhaps know, and I know 
of no means of ascertaining to what regiment the colors belonged, 
unless indeed some of my comrades in arms, who are now widely scat 
tered, should remember, which I think improbable. 

The vicissitudes of the campaign of North Georgia were such that 
minor circumstances in engagements were soon forgotten except by 
those particularly affected by them. If I could ascertain to what regi 
ment the colors belonged, and Woltz could tell that, it might pos- 



284 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

sibly furnish a clew which would lead to the name of the officer, for 
I think he and the colors belonged to the same regiment. 

Any information i may hereafter be able to obtain touching the 
matters of which you inquire I will communicate to you. I shall 
preserve your kind letter as a memento but little less dear to me than 
the pistol to you. I only care to remember the late war in so far as it 
teaches its participants to respect each other s feelings, honor each 
other s bravery and magnanimity, and love each other s common mother 
country. Hoping to hear from you again, and that you have received 
the pistol, 1 have the honor to be 

Yours fraternally, 

R. A. W. JAMES, 
Formerly Major \\th Regl. Tenn. Infantry, C. S. A. 

NOTE. It will be seen that the pistol has had an eventful history : First 
belonging to a Federal officer at his death, it fell into the hands of the Con 
federates. It then passed into the possession of a Federal soldier, when and 
where we can probably never know, and then it once more passed into the 
possession of a Confederate officer in the manner related. The weapon is in 
fine condition, and has evidently been carefully preserved. 

SOULE, CHARLES CARROLL. Private. Served as private in Co. F from 
October 6 to October 22, when he was transferred to Company B 
as Second Lieutenant. (For subsequent service, see Company B.) 

TEWKSBURY, GEORGE H. Private. Corporal Co. H, 6th Mass. Vols., 
July 1 6, 1864 ; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 

TWEED, WILLIAM HENRY. Private. Corporal Co. A, 42d Mass. Vols., 
July 14, 1864; discharged Nov. u, 1864, on expiration of service. 

WELD, GEORGE MINOT. Sergeant. Declined commission in i8th Mass. 
Vols. 

WESTON, GEORGE. Private. Second Lieutenant i8th Mass. Infantry 
March 4, 1863. Died at Boston, Jan. 5, 1864, of wounds received 
at Rappahannock Station, Va., Nov. 7, 1863. 

Weston left the company before its term of service expired, leaving 
behind him the memory of a man always prompt and brave in every 
duty, and of a singularly bright and cheery disposition. One of his 
comrades and former classmates writes lovingly of him : 

" Weston had been a good private soldier, and he made an admirable 
officer, cheerful and bright when in health, uncomplaining and patient 
in sickness, and in the march and on the battlefield the soul of fortitude 
and courage. . . . But the strength of his character was, after all, in the 
exquisite kindliness and geniality of his nature. This it was which 
made him so universally a favorite. His sunny humor was a sort of 
intellectual outgrowth of those traits of his moral nature, and seemed to 
answer perfectly to that definition of a great writer which makes humor 
to consist of love and wit. Among his friends Weston s name was 
almost a synonym for sunshine." Harvard Memorial. 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 285 

WOODWARD, GEORGE MOORE. Private. First Lieutenant 55th Mass. 
Vols., June 7, 1863; Captain, July 27, 1864; severely wounded in 
the leg at the battle of Honey Hill, S. C., Nov. 30, 1864; mus 
tered out with regiment, Aug. 29, 1865 

COMPANY G. 

ADAMS, JOHN. Private. Private Co. K, 57th Mass. Infantry, April 6, 
1864 ; discharged July 30, 1865, on expiration of service. 

ADAMS, WARREN WHITNEY. Private. First Lieutenant Co. B, 6oth Mass. 
Vols., July 1 6, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of 
service. 

ALLEN, WALTER BALFOUR. Private. Private Co. B, nth Mass. Vols., 
Aug. 31, 1864; discharged June 4, 1865, on expiration of service. 

BUNKER, NATHANIEL WYETH. Private. Private Co. I, 56th Mass. Vols. 
March 10, 1864; Second Lieutenant July i, 1865, but not mus 
tered; discharged July 12, 1865, on expiration of service. 

CHASE, LORING AUGUSTUS. Corporal. Sergeant Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols., 
July 16, 1864 ; discharged Nov. 16, 1864; on expiration of ser 
vice. 

DELANO, WILLIAM C. .Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, June 2, 
1864; Discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

GARDNER, JAMES FRANCIS. Sergeant. First Lieutenant in Washington, 
D. C., Rifles, from June i, 1864, to July, 1865. 

HERSEY, ANDREW J. Private. Sergeant Co. H, 3d R. I. Cavalry, April 
15, 1864; discharged Nov. 29, 1865, on expiration of service. 

HERSEY, JACOB H. Private. Sergeant Co. H, 3d R. I. Cavalry, April 
15, 1864; discharged Nov. 29, 1865. on expiration of service. 

HOBBS, SETH J. Private. Third Assistant Engineer, U. S. Navy. He 
was last seen in the Mediterranean, on board of a United States 
man-of-war. 

HODGES, ALMON DANFORTH, JR. Private. Second Lieutenant Co. B, 
42d Mass. Infantry, July 20, 1864; discharged Nov. n, 1864, on 
expiration of service. 

HOLT, BALLARD, 2d. Private. Private Co. B, nth Mass. Infantry, 
Aug. 26, 1864 ; discharged June 4, 1865, on expiration of service. 

LANE, THOMAS J. Private. Quartermaster Sergeant 4th Mass. Cavalry, 
Feb. 18, 1864; Second Lieutenant May n, 1865; First Lieutenant 
Aug. 9, 1865 ; discharged Nov. 14, 1865, on expiration of service. 

LE CAIN, CHARLES LAMONT. Private. Corporal Co. H, 6th Mass. 
Vols., July 1 6, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of 
service. 

, LEODEGAR M. Private. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. Infantry, 
July 30, 1863 ; First Lieutenant Nov. 21, 1863 ; Captain, Sept. 21, 
1864; discharged July 12, 1865, on expiration of service. 



286 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

MERRILL, THOMAS TOBIE. Private. Private 4th Unattached Company 
Infantry, May 3, 1864; discharged Aug. 6, 1864, on expiration of 
service. Private Co. D, ist Frontier Cavalry, Jan. 2, 1865; dis 
charged June 30, 1865, on expiration of service. 

PERKINS, EZRA. Private. Second Lieutenant Co. G, 6oth Infantry 
M. V. M., July 19, 1864; discharged Nov. 20, 1864, on expiration 
of service. 

POWERS, STEPHEN AMBROSE. Corporal. Sergeant Co. I, 2d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Dec. 25, 1863 ; discharged Sept. 3, 1865. After the war 
was in U S. Marine Corps for several years. 

PRIEST, JOHN DODD. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. Vols., 
July 30, 1863; First Lieutenant, May 17, 1864. Died at George 
town, June 22, 1864, from a wound received while on the skirmish- 
line at " Salem Church," May 31, 1864. 

The following extract from the letter of a brother officer, written 
hurriedly from the field, shows the regard in which he was held by 
the members of his regiment : 

" It on this occasion becomes a duty, though a sorry one, to commu 
nicate to you the fact that my dear friend and fellow-officer, your de 
voted son, was last evening, in an action with the enemy, wounded by a 
bullet in the groin. 

" I did not see him, as I did not come to the rear until late at night. 
He was sent to the rear in an ambulance, and will probably have a fur 
lough to go home. Poor words of mine cannot properly express the 
feeling of regret with which the fellow officers and soldiers of this 
command part with Lieutenant Priest. He is a son to be proud of, a 
man to be admired, a soldier whose conscientious bravery is an example 
for officers and men to follow. 

" He is on the eve of promotion, which is merited in a high degree. 
You have my heartfelt sympathy in his illness, but I hope to see him 
with us again in his new rank which he has so gloriously earned." 

RAYMOND, WALTER LANDOR. Private. Private Co. L, ist Mass. Cavalry, 

Jan. 6, 1864. Died Dec. 25, 1864, of pneumonia, at Salisbury, 

N. C., while prisoner of war. 
SAWYER, LYMAN J. Private. Private Co. C, 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery, 

Oct. 6, 1863 ; deserted Jan. 27, 1864. 
TOWNSEND, ALBERT W. Private. Enlisted in a New York regiment. 

Died at Florence, S. C., January, 1865, while prisoner of war. 
WHITE, JAMES GUSHING. First Lieutenant. Captain 2d Mass. Heavy 

Artillery, Aug. 14, 1863; discharged Sept. 3, 1865, on expiration 

of service. 
WOOD, CHARLES. Private. Sergeant-Major 56th Mass. Infantry, Dec. 

28, 1863. Died Feb. 5, 1864, at Readville, Mass. 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 287 

COMPANY H. 

BOLLES, GEORGE B. Private. Corporal Co. F, 5th Mass. Infantry, July 
20, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 

BUMPUS, EVERETT C. Private. First enlisted as private in Co. C, 4th 
Regt. M. V. M., April 22, 1861 (company commanded by his 
father) ; discharged July 22, 1861, on expiration of service. Second 
Lieutenant loth Co. Heavy Artillery, Sept. i, 1863. Afterwards 
attached to 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery. First Lieutenant Oct. 28, 
1864; discharged Sept. 18, 1865, on expiration of service. 

DAWES, RICHARD CRANCH. Private. Acting Ensign, U. S. Navy, Dec. 
14, 1863; resigned Jan. n, 1867. 

HERSEY, JOHN W. Private. Sergeant Co. D, 6oth Infantry M. V. M., 
July 16, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 

HIGGINS, BENJAMIN. Private. Private Co. M., 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery, 
Aug. 26, 1864; discharged June 17, 1865, on expiration of service. 

HIGGINS, GEORGE ALLEN. Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, Jan. 2, 
1864 ; discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

HOWE, ALBERT RICHARDS. Second Lieutenant. Second Lieutenant 5th 
Mass. Cavalry, Dec. 17, 1863; ist Lieutenant, Jan. 7, 1864; Cap 
tain, Jan. 18, 1864; Major, Feb. 16, 1865; mustered out Oct. 
31, 1865, on expiration of service. Died of heart disease, at 
Chicago, June i, 1884. 

MOORE, MATTHIAS J. Private. First Sergeant i4th Mass. Battery, Feb. 
27, 1864. Wounded at Crossing of North Anna River. Second 
Lieutenant, Jan. 25, 1865 ; discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration 
of service. Died at Northfield, N. H., Nov. 15, 1885, aged 52 
years. 

MOULTON, GRAXVILLE W. Private. Private Co. A, 2d Mass. Cavalry, 
Feb. 26, 1864; discharged July 25, 1865, on expiration of service. 

NASH, OSBORN PREBLE. Private. Private in Signal Corps, U. S. Army, 
March 30, 1864. Served at New Orleans, Natchez, Vicksburg, and 
on the Mississippi River; discharged Aug. 3, 1865, on expiration of 
service. 

PACKARD, ELISHA. Private. Corporal Co. B, 6oth Mass. Vols., July 16, 
1864 ; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 

PEABODY, LYMAN EVERETT. Private. Private Co. M, 3d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Aug. 27, 1864 > discharged June 17, 1865, on expiration of 
service. 

RENNARD, GEORGE WASHINGTON, Private. Private Co. G, 58th Mass. 
Vols., March 26, 1864; discharged July 13, 865, on expiration of 
service. 

SAWYER, WILLARD G. Private. Private Co. C,3d Mass. Heavy Artillery, 
Oct. 6, 1863; deserted Jan. 27, 1864. 



288 FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

SMITH, WILLIAM V. Captain. First entered the service as Second Lieu 
tenant 1 8th Mass. Vols., Aug. 20, 1861. Resigned June n, 1862. 
Captain ;th U. S. C. T., Oct. 22, 1863. Discharged with brevet 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, Oct. 22, 1866. 

STORROW, SAMUEL. Private. First Lieutenant 2d Mass. Infantry, Sept. 
22, 1864 5 died of wound received at Averysboro , N. C., March 16, 
1865. (See Harvard Memorial Biography. ) 

WEEKS, GEORGE M. Private. Private Company G, 56th Mass. Infantry, 
Jan. 19, 1865 ; discharged June 30, 1865, on expiration of service. 

COMPANY I. 

BURBANK, ALONZO F. Private. Corporal Co. E, 6th Mass. Infantry, 
July 18, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 

CHANDLER, BENJAMIN PARKER. Private. Acting Civil Engineer in U. S. 
Navy, attached to the Pensacola Navy Yard. Died there Sept. 12, 
1874, of yellow fever. 

COPITHORNE, WILLIAM. Private. Private Co. A, 4Oth New Jersey In 
fantry, March 10, 1864; discharged July 25, 1865, on expiration of 
service. 

CURRIER, HUGH LEGARE. Private. Private nth Mass. Infantry, Sept. 
7, 1864; discharged June 4, 1865, on expiration of service. Died 
at Everett, Mass., Dec. 29, 1879. 

FLETCHER, WARREN GILMAN. Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, 
Jan. 2, 1864; discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

Foss, JAMES MADISON. Private. Sergeant Co. I, 59th Mass. Infantry, 
Aug. 2, 1864. Died Nov. 4, 1864, at McDougal Hospital, New 
York. 

JONES, HENRY BROWN. Sergeant. First Lieutenant nth Unattached 
Company Heavy Artillery (afterwards 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery), 
Oct. 21, 1863. Resigned for disability, Dec. 22, 1864. 

MACOMBER, HENRY SEYMOUR. Corporal. Sergeant Co. H, 6th Infantry 
M. V. M., July 16, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration 
of service. 

NEWELL, JULIUS T. Private. Second Lieutenant 4th Heavy Artillery, 
Aug. 16, 1864; First Lieutenant. Feb. 18, 1865. On duty at Rich 
mond and Manchester, Va., and for a while served on staff of Gen. 
Carey; discharged June 17, 1865, on expiration of service. 

PARKER, STEPHEN HENRY. Private. Sergeant Co. D, 59th Mass. In 
fantry, Feb. 9, 1864. Died July 30, 1864, of wounds received at 
Petersburg, Va. 

POOLE, FRANCIS H. Private. Enlisted as seaman in U. S. Navy, Sept. 
21, 1863. Promoted mate, and was on duty on U. S. S. S. " Wa- 
bash," at Charlestown Navy Yard, for several years. Died at Welles- 
ley, Mass., Dec. 4, 1886. 



SUBSEQUENT SERVICE. 289 

PRATT, GEORGE HENRY. Private. Sergeant Co. E, 56th Mass. Infantry, 
Jan. 12, 1864; discharged July 12, 1865, on expiration of service. 

PURBECK, MARCELLUS AUGUSTUS. Private. Private in Signal Corps, 
U. S. Army, March 29, 1864; discharged Aug. 26, 1865, on expira 
tion of service. 

RHOADES, LAWRENCE. Private. Was discharged from the regiment at 
New Berne, to remain with Capt. J. A. Goldthwait, District Com 
missary, June 4, 1863. Was appointed Commissary of Subsistence, 
U.S. Vols., with rank of Captain, July 2, 1864; mustered out Aug. 
22, 1865. Brevet Major, U. S. V., March 26, 1865, "for faithful 
and meritorious services during the campaign against the city of 
Mobile and its defences." Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. V., 
March 26, 1865 ; and brevet Colonel, U. S. V., March 28, 1865, 
" for faithful and meritorious services during the war." 

TAYLOR, WILLIAM A. Private. Sergeant Co. K, 4th Mass. Cavalry, 
March i, 1864; discharged Nov. 14, 1865, on expiration of service. 
Died at Boston, Dec. 4, 1878. 

TILDEN, JOSEPH. Sergeant. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Infantry, April 
i, 1863 ; First Lieutenant, May 13, 1863. Transferred to 55th 
Mass, as Captain, May 27, 1863 ; discharged for disability, July 14, 
1863 ; served as A. A. G. on staff of General Pierce during the draft 
riots in Boston. Died at Honolulu, H. I., July 9, 1885, in conse 
quence of injuries received at fire. 

TYLER, HERBERT. Private. Sergeant Co. A, 420! Mass. Vols., July 14, 
1864; discharged Nov. u, 1864, on expiration of service. 

COMPANY K. 

BAILEY, WALTER. Private. First enlisted in regular army, Jan. 3, 1861. 
Sent with the reinforcements to Fort Su inter, and was on duty during 
the bombardment under Major Anderson. Upon surrender of the 
fort was sent to New York, and assigned to Co. H, ad U. S. Infantry, 
and took part in the battle of Bull Run. Discharged by civil author 
ity, being under age. In the fall of 1863, re-enlisted in Co. C, ist 
Vermont Cavalry. Wounded in front of Winchester, Nov. 12, 1864, 
while on picket, and discharged soon afterwards. 

HUSSELL, ALFRED W. Private. Private Co. G, 58th Mass. Infantry, 
March 26, 1864. Killed at Petersburg, Va., July 12, 1864, while 
acting as color-sergeant. 

DORR, JOHN. Sergeant. First Lieutenant Co. G, 6oth Mass. Infantry, 
July 19, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 

FISHER, ALBERT. Private. Private Co. L, ad Mass. Heavy Artillery, 
Dec. 22, 1863; discharged Sept. 3, 1865, on expiration of service. 

FISHER, NATHAN WARREN. Private. Private Co. K, 42d Infantry 

9 



290 



FORTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



M. V. M., July 18, 1864 ; discharged Nov. n, 1864, on expiration of 

service. 
GILMORE, LUMAN W. Private. Private i6th Mass. Battery, May n, 

1864; discharged June 27, 1865, on expiration of service. Received 

spinal injury at Fairfax Court House. 
GOULD, WILLIAM A. Private. Corporal Co. F, 5th Infantry M. V. M., 

July 20, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 
GRAY, CHARLES L. Private. Private in Co. K, 42d Infantry M. V. M., 

July 18, 1864; discharged Nov. n, 1864, on expiration of service. 
HARTSHORN, LOWELL EBENEZER. Private. Private Co. A. 56th Mass. 

Infantry, Dec. 26, 1863. Died while prisoner of war at Anderson- 

ville, Ga., Dec. 17, 1864. 
JESSUP, WILLIAM A. Private. Private Co. K, 42d Mass. Infantry, July 

18, 1864; discharged Nov. u, 1864, on expiration of service. 
JONES, DENNIS HARTWELL. Private. Enlisted in 44th Regt. at the 

age of sixteen. First Lieutenant 55th Mass. Infantry, June 19, 1863. 

Killed accidentally, March 23, 1864. 
KEEN, JARIUS P. Private. Private Co. K, 56th Mass. Infantry, Jan. 12, 

1864; discharged July 20, 1865, on expiration of service. 
LORING, FRANK MINOT. Private. Private in Co. B, 6th Infantry M. V. M., 

July 17, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 
MOULTON. EDWARD C. Private. Corporal Co. F, 59th Mass. Infantry, 

Feb. 20, 1864. Killed at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 
RHOADES, CHARLES J. Private. Corporal Co. K, 6th Mass. Infantry, 

July 14, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 
TROUT, THOMAS K. Private. Private Co. A, 6th Mass. Infantry, July 15, 

1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 
WENTWORTH, GEORGE AUGUSTUS. Private. Private in Co. G, 2d Mass. 

Cavalry, March 31, 1864; discharged June 28, 1865, on expiration 

of service. Wounded in the head by a sabre-cut, at battle of Aldie, 

July 6, 1864. 




APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 




RIOT. 

OT long after the muster out of the Forty- 
fourth Regiment the draft riots occurred, 
and it was called together by the follow 
ing order : 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, HEADQUARTERS, 

BOSTON, July 14, 1863. 
Special Order No. 393. 

Colonel Lee, Forty-fourth Massachusetts Vol 
unteer Militia, will cause his regiment to assemble at their armory, 
Boylston Hall, forthwith, and await further orders. 
By order of the Commander-in-Chief. 

WM. SCHOULER, Adjutant- General. 

So many men had gone away on business or pleasure that our 
ranks were far from full, but all who were within call responded 
promptly. The regiment remained on duty till the i6th, when 
they were dismissed by the following order : 

HEADQUARTERS, FANEUIL HALL SQUARE, BOSTON, July 21, 1863. 
Special Order No. 6. 

Colonel F. L. Lee, commanding Forty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia, and Colonel Charles R. Codman, commanding Forty-fifth Massa 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, are hereby ordered to dismiss their respective 
commands until further orders In issuing this order the general com 
manding is desired by his Excellency the Governor to express to them, 
their officers and men, his thanks for their prompt response to the call of 
duty and the admirable manner in which they have performed it. 

Every duty has been performed to the entire satisfaction of the com 
manding general. 

By command of 

R. A. PEIRCE, Brigadier-General. 
C. J. HIGGINSON, A. A. G. 



294 APPENDIX. 

The last order entered in the regimental order-book relates to 
the draft riots, and refers to sending out pickets and reconnoitring 
parties. There is a postscript in Colonel Lee s own handwriting, 
the first time it appears in the book, which is very charac 
teristic to those who knew him well : 

" Enjoin upon the officers to save the detachments on duty as much 
fatigue as possible." 



ASSOCIATION. 




: < -,,;. tilt 



i EARLY every year since the return of the 
Forty-fourth some of the companies have 
been in the habit of holding reunions, 
among them C, D, E, and F. Companies 
C, E, and F are regularly organized, but 
Company D never formed an association, 
although it elected officers at each meeting. 
At the reunion of the latter company, De 
cember, 1875, the subject of forming a 
regimental association was broached and 
discussed, and by vote of those present 
the secretary was authorized to call a 
meeting at Parker s, Jan. 13, 1876, of all 
former members of the regiment, to consider 
the subject. About sixty responded ; and after several questions 
had been asked and suggestions made, the constitution as re 
ported by a self-constituted committee was adopted, and the vote 
passed to form an association. The officers elected were : 
Colonel F. L. Lee, president; Adjutant E. C. Johnson, treasurer; 
Corporal James B. Gardner, secretary. The constitution pro 
vides that any former member of the regiment who has been 
honorably discharged may become a member of the Association 
by the payment of one dollar. This constitutes a life member 
ship, as there are no assessments. 

The first annual meeting was appointed for December 14, the 
fourteenth anniversary of the battle of Kinston. As many of 
our men wished to come together earlier, a special meeting was 
arranged for March 14, the anniversary of the battle of New 
Berne. At this special meeting there were one hundred and 
thirteen members present. Annual meetings have been held 



296 APPENDIX. 

regularly since 1876, and latterly the third Wednesday of Jan 
uary has been the date selected. 

On Sept. 17, 1877, the regiment paraded, probably for the 
last time as a regiment, on the occasion of the dedication of 
the Soldiers Monument. Lieutenant Colonel Cabot was in com 
mand, and one hundred and sixty-four members answered at 
roll-call. 

At the annual meeting in 1880 a committee was appointed to 
act with similar committees from the other regiments of our 
brigade to arrange for a brigade reunion. The Twenty-fourth 
Massachusetts and Tenth Connecticut did not appoint commit 
tees ; but the Fifth Rhode Island and ours made the necessary 
arrangements, and delegates were present from the regiments 
first named. The reunion was held at Rocky Point on July 30, 
about four hundred being present. 

On Aug. 29, 1882, the regiment celebrated the twentieth anni 
versary of its going into camp, by a gathering at the Point 
of Pines, quite a delegation from the Fifth Rhode Island being 
present as invited guests. 

Soon after the election of Wm. Garrison Reed to the secre 
taryship he suggested the idea of securing for the Association 
portraits of our field and staff, and of our brigade, division, and 
corps commanders. His suggestion met a favorable response, 
the necessary expenses were promptly subscribed, and at the 
annual meeting in 1883 the pictures w r ere exhibited to the mem 
bers of the regiment. They are in crayon, and were drawn by 
Mr. Charles Stanford. Generals Foster, Wessells, and Stevenson, 
Adjutant Hinckley, and Colonel Sisson are framed singly, and 
hang in one of the private dining-rooms at Young s. The large 
picture of the field and staff is stored, except when brought out 
at the regimental reunions. The portrait of General Thomas G. 
Stevenson was presented by his brother, General Robert H. 
Stevenson, and that of Adjutant Hinckley by his father, Isaac 
Hinckley, Esq., of Philadelphia. 

At the annual reunion in January, 1885, Comrades Reed and 
Mclntire gave an account of their recent trip to North Carolina, 
and by aid of a stereopticon exhibited views of many places which 
were familiar to us when we were wearing the blue. 



ASSOCIATION. 



297 



The officers of the Association have been as follows : 
PRESIDENTS. 



Colonel F. L. Lee 1876 

Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. Cabot 1877 

Captain S. W. Richardson . 1878 

First Lieutenant Wm. Hedge . 1879 

Second Lieutenant C. C. Soule 1880 

First Sergeant A. C. Pond . . 1881 



Sergeant G. B. Macomber . . 1882 

Private C. J. Mclntire . . . 1883 

Adjutant E. C. Johnson . . . 1884 

Captain C. Storrow .... 1885 

Private E. C. Bumpus . . . 1886 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

E. C. Cabot, Charles Hunt, George B. Lombard 1876 

S. W. Richardson, W. V. Smith, W. Hedge 1877 

H. D. Sullivan, J. W. Cartwright, W. Hedge 1878 

W. A. Simmons, A. D. Stebbins, A. B. Wetherell 1879 

C. J. Mclntire, A. C. Pond, C. Storrow 1880 

F. G. Webster, George Pope, F. S. Gifford 1881 

C. W. Chamberlain, R. C. Waterman, H. W. Hartwell 1882 

E. C. Johnson, George L. Keyes, W. C. Cotton 1883 

H. D. Sullivan, Theodore M. Fisher, C. Storrow 1884 

John Parkinson, W. H. Alline, William Gillespie 1885 

A. S. Hartwell, L. W. Rogers, George B. Lombard 1886 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



COMPANY A. 

H. W. Hartwell 1876 

F. D. Montgomery .... 1877 

L. W. Rogers 1878 

E. R. Rand 1879 

A. W. Edmands 1880 

J. A. Wallace 1881 

C. H. Bailey 1882 

F. F. Gibbs 1883 

J. E. Gott 1884 

S. A. F. Whipple 1885 

G. F. Wellington 1886 

COMPANY B. 

S. A. Walker 1876 

G. L. Keyes 1877 

A. B. Wetherell 1878 

C. C. Soule 1879 

J. S. Barrows 1880 

W. Gillespie 1881 

G. W. Brooks 1882 



E. D. Farnuin 
C. C. Patten 
H. N. Hyde 
C. W. Knight 



1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 



COMPANY C. 



A. C. Pond 1876 

G. R. Rogers 1877 

W. Ware 1878 

A. Cutting 1879, l88 4 

W. H. Alline 1880 

E. C. Burrage 1881 

C. E. Barker 1882 

H. S. Bean 1883 

J. W. Small 1885 

W. C. Cotton 1886 

COMPANY D. 

H. D. Sullivan 1876 

W. K. Millar .... 1877, 1881 

George Sawin 1878 



298 



APPENDIX. 



I. W. Moody .... 


1870 


E. H. Adams .... 
C. A. Hovey 


. . 1878 
1870 


K A. Messin"er . 


. . 1880 


W. H. Neal .... 


. . 1882 


E. C. Bumpus .... 
J. W. Hersey .... 
H. Merriam .... 


. . 1880 
1881, 1883 
. 1882 


S. S. Bartlett .... 


188^ 


Henry Howard .... 


. . 1884 


J B. Gardner . 


. . 1885 


G. A. Murray 


. . 1884 


E. B. Hosmer .... 

COMPANY E. 
C. E. Tucker . . 


. . 1886 
. . 1876 


E. Packard 


. 1885 


O. P. Nash .... 


. . 1886 


COMPANY I. 
C. Sumner 


1876 


T. T. Wveth . 


1877 


G Russell .... 


. . 1878 


R Loudon .... 


1877 


G. P. Walcott .... 


1870 


B F. Field, Jr. . . 


. 1878" 


J. B. Rice, Jr 
Leslie Millar .... 


1880, 1881 
. . 1882 


B. F Adams .... 


1870 


J. T. Shackford . . . 


. . 1880 


J. P. Flagg, Jr. ... 
G. W. Wheelwright . . 
W. R. Adams .... 


. . 1883 
. . 1884 
. . 1885 


J. McCrillis, Jr . . . 


. . 1881 


T. Pinkham .... 


. . 1882 


VV. A. Gaylord 


. . 1883 


W. S Wilder .... 


1886 


J. L. Eldridge .... 


. . 1884 


COMPANY F. 
A. W. Denny 


. . 1876 


H B. Jones 


. . 1885 


H. N. Bridges .... 

COMPANY K. 
H. A. Thomas .... 


. . 1886 

1876, 1 88 1 
1877 


G. B. Macomber . 


1877 


E. N. Hewins .... 
D Cobb 


1878, 1881 
1870 


J. F. Dean 


. . 1880 


G. F. Jones 


. . 1882 




1878, 1885 
1870 


R. E. Ashenden . . . 


. . 1883 


W H Lord 


J. M. Gibbs 


. . 1884 


R H Weld 


1880 


H. B. Coburn .... 


. . 1885 


T Parkinson 


1882 


J. W. Hayward 


. . 1886 




1883 


COMPANY G. 
George Ellis .... 


. . 1876 


F W. Reynolds . . . 


1884 


I N. Meserve 


. . 1886 


AT LARGE. 
T. W. Fisher .... 


. . 1876 


T. J. Lawrence .... 


1877 


F G. Webster .... 


. . 1878 


C" T IVTrTntirp 


l87n 




lo/y 

1880 


J. W. Cartvvright . . . 


1877 


P 9 Vpnrlpll 


18,81 


A. Jacobs 


. . 1878 


EC TTicVipr 


188-? 


W. C. Ireland .... 


1879 


F. P. Adams .... 

WC Clann 


. . 1883 

rftfi>i 


F. S Gifford . . . 


. . 1880 


C. Hunt 


. . 1881 


H Newhall 


i88r 


J. R. Kendall .... 


. . 1882 




1886 


G. R. Rogers .... 


. . 1883 


COMPANY H. 
F M Mears 


1876 


J Owens . .... 


. . 1884 


Fred. Odiorne 


. . 1885 


W B Allen . . 


. 1886 


R. Mao-uire . 


1877 







ASSOCIATION. 299 

At the time of going to press three hundred and thirty-nine 
have joined the Association. 

At the annual meeting, Jan. 20, 1886, the treasurer showed 
a balance on hand in the general fund of $508.65 ; and the trus 
tees of the Permanent Fund, its nucleus being the old regimental 
fund which had been in the hands of the colonel since the war, 
at time of the transfer amounting to $875.86, reported on hand 
$1,972.68. 

It is to be hoped that the Association will continue so long as 
a single member can answer " Here " at roll-call. 



ROSTER. 



To the members of the Forty-fourth the ROSTER will undoubt 
edly be one of the most interesting features of the Record. The 
plan of arranging the names in alphabetical order, without refer 
ence to company or rank, was one of the first matters agreed 
upon after it was determined to compile a regimental history 
(1879), and is, we think, original with this Committee. 

A great deal of time has been devoted to ascertaining the 
present addresses and occupations of the members. Every one 
whose address is here given has replied to communications sent 
him; or, as letters sent in "request" envelopes to the given 
address have not been returned, we presume it to be correct. 
As residences and occupations are being constantly changed, 
it is of course practically impossible to have the Roster abso 
lutely perfect, but it is believed that it will be found essentially 
reliable. 

Where the date of muster is not given, it was Sept. 12, 1862; 
and where date of discharge is not stated, it was June 18, 1863. 

Readers noting errors, omissions, or changes will confer a 
favor if they will notify J. B. GARDNER, 23 Crawford Street, 
Roxbury, Mass., so that the official Roster of the Regimen 
tal Association may be kept at all times as nearly correct as 
possible. 



302 



APPENDIX. 



ENT 



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304 



APPENDIX. 



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306 



APPENDIX. 



Remarks. 


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Died at Isle of Shoals, Aug. 16, 1874. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. Killed 


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Dis. March 9, 1863. Disability. 
Mustered Oct. u, 1862. 

T^^l 


Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 

Re-enlisted. Ch.XV. Died at Pen- 
sacola Navy Yard, Sept. 12, 1874. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Died at Greenbush, June 13, 1881. 

Died 187- 


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Bunker, Nathaniel W 
Burbank, Alonzo F. 
Burchsted, Benjamin 
Burchsted, John H. 
Burrage, Edward C. 


Bush, Francis, Tr. . 


Bussell, Alfred W. 


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Butterfield, Edward E 
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ROSTER. 



307 



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308 



APPENDIX. 



Remarks. 


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sion in Fifty-fifth Massachusetts. 
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ROSTER. 309 



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Curtis, Edwin H. . 


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315 



XX 


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Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


Died at Washington, D. C., 1885. 

Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. Died 
at Beaufort, N. C., Sept. 4, 1865. 
Dis. Oct. 4, 1862. Disability. 
Wounded at Washington, N. C. 
Died at Wilson, N. C., April 14, 
1863. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Died 
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Hinckley, Wallace 

Hiscock, Charles P 
Hobart, David K. 


Holden, Nathaniel 
Holland, Charles P 
Holmes, John R. 
Holmes, Samuel A 


Holmes, S. Welles 
Holmes, Thomas 
Holt, Ballard, 2d. 


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317 



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Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Dis. March 13, 1863. Disability. 
Dis. March 31, 1863. Promotion. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. Died 
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Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Drowned in Mississippi River, May, 


1077. 

Dis. March 9, 1863. Disability. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 








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Ingraham, Henry . 
Ingraham, Nathaniel 
Ingraham, William F 


Ireland, William C. 
Ives, George A. 
Jackson, Frederick 


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318 



APPENDIX. 



Remarks. 




Died at Newton, Feb. 22, 1875. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Dis. Sept. 30, 1862. Disability. 


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Kingsbury, Edward P 
Kirdehan, Patrick A. 
Knapp, Arthur M. . 


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51 iMB!55 8 i 

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ROSTER. 



319 





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Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Died at New Berne, N. C., Oct. 10 
1864. Was commissioned Cap- 


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Prisoner at Washington, N. C. 
April, 1862. 

Dis. March 31, 1863. Disability. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


















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Knox, Stedman H. 
Lamson, George W. . 
Lane, Cornelius C. 


Lane, Thomas J. . . 
Lathrop, William H. 
Lawrence, Charles C. 


Learned, Frank S. . 
Learned, Horace E. 
Leatherbee, William ] 


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cu cu cu cu .M .".t: . 



320 



APPENDIX. 



Remarks. 


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Mann, William C. . 
Mansfield, Almond H 



ROSTER. 



321 



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322 



APPENDIX. 



XV. D 

ov. 15, 1 



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ROSTER. 



323 



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324 



APPENDIX. 



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XV 
XV. 



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ROSTER. 



325 



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326 



APPENDIX. 



Remarks. 


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32; 






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328 



APPENDIX. 



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ROSTER. 329 



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330 



APPENDIX. 



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evens, H 
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ROSTER. 



331 



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apter XV. 
pter XV. Died 
arch 13, 1867. 



XJ-1 ^ ^-i 



Promo 
XV. 



1863. 
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332 



APPENDIX. 



Remarks. 


Dis. Apr. 26, 1863. Promotion. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


> 

X 

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Died at Cambridge, Feb. 21, 1871. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


CO 

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13 

CD 

S 


Re-enlisted. Chap. XV. Died in 
prison, Oct. 28, 1864. Buried at 
Charleston, S. C. 


Died at Charlestown, July 25, 1873. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


ro 

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Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 


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Sanitary Commission. 
Dis. March 14, 1863. Disability. 
Dis. Oct. 7, 1862. Disability. Af 
terwards served in Signal Corps. 


Died at Tewksbury, 187-. 


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Waldron, Franklin 
Walker, E. Clifforc 
Walker, Samuel A 


Wall, Charles J. 
Wallace, Edwin A. 
Wallace, James A. 


Ward, Charles F. 
Ward, William F. . 
Ware, Robert . 


Ware, William . 
Warner, Henry E. 





ROSTER. 



333 



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334 



APPENDIX. 



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ROSTER. 



335 



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336 



APPENDIX. 



AGE AT ENLISTMENT. 1 



Age. 


Field 
and 
Staff. 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


I 


K 


Total. 


16 to 17 




I 


2 






I 


2 


2 


2 




3 


13 


18 


I 


16 


15 


13 


!3 


22 


13 


2 3 


19 


22 


24 


181 


*9 




12 


7 


24 


10 


25 


17 


H 


14 


18 


9 


ISO 


20 




12 


ii 


J 5 


21 


II 


6 


15 


12 


12 


12 


127 


21 


I 


10 


4 


5 


14 


II 


17 


9 


6 


3 


6 


1 06 


22 


3 


IO 


7 


14 


9 


7 


14 


7 


13 


9 


10 


103 


2? 




6 


8 


7 


ii 


6 


8 


7 


5 


8 


5 


7i 


24 




7 


4 


6 


7 


7 


5 


4 


7 


4 


6 


57 


2 5 


3 


4 


8 


3 


3 


5 


3 


4 


7 


3 


5 


48 


26 to 30 


i 


16 


24 


3 


ii 


6 


H 


10 


12 


IO 


13 


120 


.3 1 to 35 


3 


^> 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


I 


2 


5 


3 


36 to 40 


2 


4 


9 


I 






i 


i 


2 




3 


23 


41 to 44 


I 


i 


i 


I 








i 


I 


i 




7 


Total 


IS 


101 


i3 


IO4 


102 


104 


103 


IOO 


IOI 


1 02 


IOI 


1036 



1 Many of the men gave their ages more than they actually were, fearing that they would be rejected were 
the right ages known. (The compiler knows personally of several, reported at eighteen, who were barely 
sixteen.) 



RECAPITULATION: PLACES OF ENLISTMENT. 



337 



CITIES AND TOWNS TO WHICH MEMBERS WERE CREDITED 
AT ENLISTMENT. 



Cities & Towns. 


Field 
and 
Staff. 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


I 


K 


Total. 


Boston . . 


6 


26 


2 


56 


45 


45 


44 


37 


27 


38 


16 


342 


Newton 


I 




93 




i 


i 


i 




I 




i 


99 


Cambridge 




7 




IO 


12 


20 


10 


7 


3 


5 


i 


75 


Dorchester 




4 




4 






2 


20 




7 




37 


Framingham 




i 




2 


2 








3 






35 


Roxburv 


I 


3 




3 


3 


3 


6 


5 


3 


i 


2 


3 


Walpole . 






















30 


30 


W. Roxbury 


I 










i 


3 


2 






22 


29 


Walt ham . 




6 






2 


15 


2 






i 




26 


Maiden 




3 






2 


2 


I 




8 


8 


I 


25 


Chelsea . 




3 


i 


I 




2 


9 


I 




3 




20 


Weston 


















i 


18 


I 


20 


Neeclham . 




ii 


2 
















I 


4 


W. Camb. . 




7 




5 


2 














14 


Andover . 




i 












II 




i 




J 3 


Brookline . 


I 




I 


8 






i 




2 






i3 


No. Andover 




7 




i 












4 




12 


Sherborn . 






















12 


12 


Other towns 
in Mass. 1 


5 


22 


4 


13 


29 


J 5 


24 


17 


26 


16 


M 


I8 5 


Other towns 
outside State 2 








i 


4 














5 


Total . . 


15 


101 


I3 


104 


IO2 


104 


i3 


IOO 


IOI 


102 


IOI 


1036 



1 This includes sixty-three cities and towns. One town is credited with nine members ; three, with eight ; 
three, with seven; three, with six; four, with five; five, with four; eight, with three: thirteen, with two: 
and twenty-three towns with one member each. 

2 This represents the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Wisconsin. 



338 



APPENDIX. 







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RECAPITULATION : RESIDENCES. 



339 



OF LAST KN6WN RESIDENCES OF THOSE MEMBERS FROM WHOM WE HAVE 
HEARD OR OF WHOM WE HAVE OBTAINED RELIABLE INFORMATION. 



States. 


Field 
and 
Staff. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 

3 
5 

45 

i 
i 

2 

I 
I 
I 
I 

2 

I 
I 

I 

I 

I 

7 
i 

3 
i 


G 


H 


I 


K 


Total. 


Boston 
Mass, (except Boston) . . 

Total in Mass. 

Arizona 
Arkansas 


4 
3 

7 

i 

8 


2O 

37 

57 

i 

i 
i 

i 

i 

6 

i 

i 

i 

i 

72 


2O 
3 

5 

3 

2 
I 

I 
I 

I 

2 

I 

I 
I 

I 
I 


38 
9 

47 

i 
i 

i 

3 
i 

i 

i 

8 

i 
i 

i 
i 


41 

12 

53 
i 

i 

2 

4 
i 

2 

I 

I 
I 

9 
i 

i 

i 
i 


34 

24 

58 

2 

I 
I 

3 

i 
i 

10 


33 
i? 

5 

i 
3 

2 

I 
I 

I 
2 

I 

5 

i 
i 

i 


13 

34 

47 
i 

3 

3 
i 

i 
i 

i 

i 
i 

i 
i 

2 
I 

2 

I 
I 

I 
I 


27 
17 

44 

3 

i 

i 

i 
i 

i 

i 

i 

i 

i 

3 

-> 

i 


30 

52 

I 
I 

I 

I 
I 

I 
2 

I 
I 
I 


282 
228 

5! 

2 
I 

2 
13 

3 
10 

i 

12 
I 

I 
13 

3 
4 

5 
i 

i 

5 
5 
4 

I 

6 

i 

6 

53 

2 

6 

4 

i 

2 

6 


California (except San Fran 
cisco) 


San Francisco . . . 
Colorado 


Connecticut 


Dakota ... 


Delaware 


Florida 
Georgia 


Illinois (except Chicago) . 
Chicago ... 




Iowa 


Kansas 


Kentucky 


Louisiana .... 


Maine .... 


Maryland 


Michigan 


Minnesota 


Missouri 


Nebraska 


New Hampshire .... 
New Jersey 
New Mexico 


New York (except New York 
City and Brooklyn) . 
N. Y. City and Brooklyn 
Ohio 


Pennsylvania 


Rhode Island 
South Carolina .... 




Washington, D. C. . 




New Brunswick .... 










Total . . . 


66 


69 


81 


82 


75 


72 


/I 


64 


63 


723 



340 



APPENDIX. 



RECAPITULATION 

OF LAST KNOWN OCCUPATIONS OF THOSE MEMBERS FROM WHOM WE HAVE 
HEARD, OR OF WHOM WE HAVE OBTAINED RELIABLE INFORMATION 
(ARRANGED IN NUMERICAL ORDER). 





Field 
and 
Staff 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


I 


K 


Total. 


Skilled Mechanics ... 
Clerks, etc 




II 

2 


16 

A 


1 
i 
8 


7 
10 


3 
1 1 


4 

-7 


I 
q 


9 

4 


9 

6 


13 

I 


7 6 

C7 


Mechanical or Manufacturing 
(Principals or Managers) 
Fanners, Planters, Stock, etc. 
Miscellaneous 




J 3 
8 
1 1 


3 

6 

-5 


4 

c 


9 
1 


5 
6 

Q 


i 

4 

c 


6 

5 

2 


8 

r 


3 
4 
6 


6 

o 


55 
53 

C2 


Merchants, wholesale . 
Unknown 


I 


i 

7 


I 

2 


10 


4 

4. 


6 


5 


6 


6 


4 

7 


3 

10 


$ 


Merchants, retail .... 
Salesmen 
Mercantile, miscellaneous . 
Professional, miscellaneous 
Brokers and Com. Merchants 
Bookkeepers, etc. 
R. R. Officers and Employees 
Government Officials (Na 
tional, State, and City) . 
Foremen & Superintendents 
Coachmen, Laborers, etc. 
Lawyers 
Bankers and Bank Officers 
Out of business .... 
Clergymen . 


2 
I 

I 


3 
3 

i 
i 

-7 

I 
I 


2 

4 

3 

i 
3 

i 
6 
3 

i 
j 


7 
7 
3 

6 

2 

3 

i 
i 


4 
4 
4 
4 

5 
i 

2 

I 
2 

I 

2 
I 


5 
5 
5 
i 

3 

2 

3 
i 

i 
i 
i 

2 


3 
7 
i 

4 
5 
5 
i 

4 

4 
3 

c 


2 

2 

3 
3 
3 
i 

4 
i 

3 
i 

3 

2 


6 
3 

2 
I 

3 

3 
i 
i 


8 

i 

O 

i 

i 
i 

i 


i 

3 
4 
i 

2 

3 
3 
i 


44 
39 
24 
23 

23 

o ^ 

21 

9 

17 
M 

13 
II 
I I 
IO 


Physicians 


I 








} 


I 


4 













Insurance 








2 


I 


-J 




I 






i 


8 


Theatrical 








I 




4 


2 










7 


Real Estate 








I 




i 




2 


i 


,, 




7 


Express 




I 


2 






i 




I 




2 




7 


Treasurers 






2 


I 


I 














6 




























Total . . . 


8 


72 


66 


6 9 


81 


82 


75 


72 


7 1 


64 


63 


723 



SIGNATURES OF MEMBERS OF THE 
44rn REGIMENT MASSACHUSETTS VOLS. 

Reproduced from Photographic Copy of Pay Rolls kindly furnished 
the Committee by 

ADJT. GEN. DRUM, U. S. A. 



NON COMMISSIONED STAFF. 



CO- A CONTINUED. 



HOSPITAL DEPARTMEMT. 




CO. A CONTINUED. 




CO. A CONTINUED. 



<9* 



-/*- 




CO B CONTINUED. 



CO. B CONTINUED. 




<?Mt&. 

OL&WH. 





CO. D CONTINUED. 



CO. E CONTINUED. 




8 



CO. E CONTINUED. 



CO. E CONTINUED. 




9 




10 



CO. F CONTINUED. 



CO. G CONTINUED. 




CO. G. 



(t-^ sPf^r f * ~ r s tfrr *^r (** 

-4ft^rr~-f*J C/YAstZ~2^ 

J^&j&~~. 

* ^ / * ^(y 





11 




12 




13 



4 t i&cJ?wv4U 



Y?. S7Z4*<4^*t4j94<) 




14 



CO. I CONTINUED. 



CO. K CONTINUED. 




SL**#Ur^ty^J$*+fyjk^4j 

&<^&</~&&* 

#**& foqcM&ts** 

/ /25 "1 i/W 

Ow 
A^^ 

17 AT 












CO. K. 





15 



CO. K CONTINUED. 



CO. K CONTINUED. 








INDEX. 



INDEX. 



ABBOTT, HENRY L ., 16. 
Adams, John, 285. 
Adams, John Quincy, 8. 
Adams, Warren W., 285. 
Adams, William R., 276. 
Allen, Dr. C. H., 236. 
Allen, Walter B., 236. 
Anderson, Colonel, 65. 
Andrew, Gov. John A , 10, 19. 
Association, Regimental, 295. 
Atkins, Francis H., 278. 
Attwood, Cornelius G., 223. 



RABCOCK, GEORGE L., 213. 

Bacon, John F., 82. 

Bailey, Walter, 289. 

Ballister, Joseph, 3. 

Band, Regimental, 31, 92, 213; list of 

members, 82. 
Barker, Eben F., 271. 
Barnard, Jonathan G., 3. 
Barracks at New Berne, 71 ; cleaning up, 

79- 

Bartlett, Edward J., 278. 
Bartlett, Gen. William F., 16. 
Batchelder s Creek, 198. 
Bates, Daniel D., 274. 
Bay State Forty-fourth, 106. 
Beal, Alexander, 38. 
Beal, Charles W., 274. 
Beal, George W., 274. 
Bedell, Charles H., 192. 
Beebe. J. M., & Co., 37, 38. 
Bclger s Battery, 140, 143, 175. 
Belger, Capt. James, 236. 
Bellows, Henry H., 271. 
Bickmore, Albert S., 84. 
Bigelovv, George Tyler, 9. 
Blake, James II., Jr., 28, 8l. 
Blake, Lemuel, i, 2, 3, 6. 
Blockhouse Squad, 83. 
Blount s Creek, 175. 
Bolles, George B., 287. 



Boston Brass Band, 31. 

Bounties, 25. 

Boxes from home, 93. 

Bradish, Albert H., 276. 

Brewster, James B., 276. 

Brice s Creek, 83. 

Brigades, i8th Army Corps, 58. 

Briggs, James W., 72, 81, 115. 

Broad Street riot, 9. 

Brooks, George W., 272. 

Brown, B. F. & Co., 93. 

Brown, Frederick T., 73. 

Brown, Hezekiah, 93. 

Brown, Stephen, I, 2. 

Browne, Lieut.-Col. Albert G., Jr., 219. 

Bryant, Albert, 273. 

Buck, Edward R., 28. 

Bumpus, Everett C., 287. 

Bunker Hill Monument, 9, 10. 

Bunker, Nathaniel W., 285. 

Burbank, Alonzo F., 288. 

Burnside Expedition, 54. 

Burrage, Mr. , 37. 

Bush, Francis, Jr., 258. 
Bussell, Alfred W., 265, 289. 
Butler, Albert L., 84, 259. 



CALLENDAR, JOSEPH, Jr., 3. 

Camp Life, 69. 

Camp, at Readville, 24; Stevenson 

(Thomas G.), 70; Lee, 204. 
Carter, George H., 274. 
Cartwright, Charles W., 38. 
Cartwright, James W., 276. 
Cemetery, National, at New Berne, 227. 
Chandler, Benjamin P., 265, 288. 
Channing Circle of Newton, 236. 
Chase, Loring A., 285. 
Child, Isaac, 3. 
Clapp, David C., 272. 
Clark. James F., 84. 
Cleaning up, 79. 
Cobb, Sylvanus, 30. 



3<5o 



INDEX. 



Cobb, Mrs. Sylvanus, 30. 

Cobb " Twins," 30, 85. 

Coffin, Jared, 84. 

Cogswell, Edward R., 278. 

Company B, reception at Newton, 219. 

Companies F and B, Picket Duty, 197. 

Conant, John H., 84, 271. 

Concerts, 85. 

Confederate Forces in North Carolina, 

57 ; at Washington, N. C., 170. 
" Constitution," frigate, 5, 6. 
Contrabands, 88. 

Convent at Charlestown, burning of, 9. 
Converse, J. C., & Co., 38. 
Cook, Charles E., 278. 
Cootey, Philip I., 273. 
Copithorne, William, 288. 
Correspondence, 89. 
Courtis, A. Stacy, 259. 
Cragin, George N., 271. 
Crane, Edward W., 274. 
Crane, William D., 263, 265, 274. 
Cross, Henry C., 276. 
Cumston, James S., 86. 
Cumston, Miss Lizzie G., 236. 
Cumston, William, 38. 
Cunningham, Charles A., 28, 273. 
Currier, Hugh L., 288. 
Curtis, Joseph H., 82. 



DABNEY, Maj. CHARLES W., 257. 

Daily routine of duty, 73. 

Dalton, James, i, 6. 

Dana, George, 2. 

Daniel, Captain, 105. 

Dawes, Richard C., 287. 

Dean, Joseph F., 240. 

Delano, William C., 285. 

Demeritt, Charles H., 71. 

Demond, Alpheus, 272. 

Dennie, Thomas, Jr., 3. 

De Peyster, Richard V., 116, 235, 238. 

Derby, Oliver C., 276. 

Desertions, list of, 247. 

Detailed men, 81. 

Dexter, Miss Mary L., 236. 

Died of disease, 248 ; of wounds, 247. 

Discharged from disability, 249. 

Discipline, 86. 

Dodge, Albert L., 278. 

Dorr, John, 289. 

Dover Swamp, 223. 

Draft Riot, 293. 

Dramatic performances, 85. 

Draper, Lorenzo, 3. 

Drew, Arthur, 273. 

Drummers, list of, 82. 



Dwight, Lieut.-Col. Wilder, 16, 35. 
Dyer, Mr., 217. 



EDMANDS, ALBERT W., 28, 84. 
Eighteenth Army Corps, 58. 
Ellsworth Zouaves, 10. 
Emery, Caleb, his school, 14. 
Entertainments, 85, 100. 
" Escort," steamer, 67, 181. 
Eustis, Governor, 8, 9. 
Everett, George H., 83. 
Ewer, Charles C., 28, 100. 



FAREWELL orders, 215. 

Field, Benjamin F., Jr., 81. 

Fifers, list of, 82. 

Fifth Rhode Island, 67, 195. 

Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania, 66, 200. 

Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, 262. 

Fire in Boston, 8, 9. 

Fish, Abner C., 89. 

Fisher, Albert, 289. 

Fisher, Edwin S., 240. 

Fisher, Nathan W., 289. 

Fisher, Dr. Theodore W., 72, 127, 234. 

Fletcher, Warren G., 288. 

Foraging, 122, 123. 

Forbes, Francis H., 72. 

Forces in North Carolina, Confederate, 

57 ; Union, 56. 

Fort Anderson, attack on, 65, 107. 
Fort Independence, 13. 
Forty-fifth Massachusetts, 22, 206. 
Forty-third Massachu.setts, 22. 
Foss, James M., 265, 288. 
Foster, George B., 92. 
Foster, George H., 92. 
Foster, John G., 55, 6r. 
Fourth Battalion, n, 15; Roster of, 14, 

18 ; Quickstep, 16. 
Fuller, Albert, 271. 
Fuller, Ezra N., 261. 
Fund, regimental, 38. 



GALLOUPE, Miss SADIE K., 236. 
Gardner, Francis, 218. 
Gardner, James B., 49. 
Gardner, James F., 285. 
Garnett, General, 193. 
Gifford, Frederick S., 271. 
Gilbert, Virgil, 169, 171. 
Gillespie, William, 272. 
Gil more, Luman W., 290. 
Gilmore, P. S., 16, 213. 
Goff, William C., 275. 



INDEX. 



361 



Goldsboro , 133; revisited, 224. . 

Goodwin, Frank, 278. 

Gordon, George H., n. 

Gore, Watson, 2. 

Gould, William A., 290. 

Graham, Lieutenant, 142. 

Grant, Frederick, 94. 

Grant, Moses, Jr., 2. 

Gray, Charles L., 290. 

Gray, William, Jr., 38. 

Gregg, Miss Josie, 29. 

Greenough, William, Jr., 2. 

Grice or Grist place, 160, 229. 

Guard, Camp, 77; mounting, 76; police, 

77- 

" Guerriere," frigate, 6. 
Gum Swamp, 203. 



HAINES, ZENAS T., 18, 25, 98, 104. 

Hale, Nathan, 2. 

Hall, Rev. Edward H., 238. 

Hall, George F., 92. 

Hall, George S., 92. 

Hallett & Cumston, 38, 213. 

" Ham Fat" Expedition, 147. 

Hamilton, 119, 122, 126. 

Hard-tack throwing, 88. 

Harding, Nathan F , 272. 

Harris, Horatio, 38. 

Harrison, William Henry, 10. 

Hartshorn, Lowell E., 266, 290. 

Hartwell, Alfred S., 73, 278. 

Harvard College, 19. 

Hatch, Frank W., 28. 

Hay, Joseph, 3. 

Hedge, William, 72, 273. 

Hemenway, Augustus A., 275. 

Henshaw, Joseph B., 2. 

Hersey, Andrew J., 285 

Hersey, Jacob H., 285. 

Hersey, John W., 287. 

Higgins, Benjamin, 287. 

Higgins, George A., 287. 

Hight, Henry O., 276. 

Hill, Gen. D. H., 64. 

Hill s Point, 187. 

Hinckley, Wallace, 72, 258, 270. 

Hobart, David Kimball, 167, 260. 

Hobart, George H., 275. 

Hobbs, Seth J., 285. 

Hodges, Almon D., Jr., 285. 

Holt, Ballard, 2d, 285. 

" Home Guard," 106. 

Homer, Henry A., 276. 

Hooke, Charles, 105. 

Hopkinson, Francis C., 84, 261. 

Horton, Andrew T., 273. 



Hovey, Charles A., 213. 

Hovey, Charles F., & Co., 38. 

Howard, Davis, 98, 105. 

Howard, Henry, 105. 

Howard, Matthew, 261. 

Howard, Willard, 27, 65, 104, 105. 

Howe, Albert R., 73, 287. 

Howe, J., Jr., 7. 

Hoyt, Henry M., 279. 

Hubbard, Hiram, Jr., 84. 

Hunt, Harry, 107. 

Hunt, Samuel, 3. 

Hutchins, Col. William V., 5. 



IL RECRUITIO, 105. 
Ingraham, A. W., 212, 213. 
Ingraham, William F., 212. 
Inspections, 79. 
" Invalid Guard," 82, 251. 
Ireland, William H., 236. 



JACOBS, AUGUSTUS, 276. 
Jacobs, Augustus P., 115. 
James, Garth W., 264, 279. 
Jarvis, Deming, 3. 
Jessup, William A., 290. 
Johnson, Edward C., 72. 
Johnson, Henry W., 172. 
Jones, Colonel, 200. 
Jones, Dennis H., 290. 
Jones, Edward L., 280. 
Jones, Henry B., 288. 
Jones, Irving, 273. 
Jones, Sylvester A., 273. 
Joy, Charles F., 276. 



KEEN, JAKIUS P., 290. 
Kenrick, John, 72. 
Kent, Barker B., Jr., 280. 
Kent, Frederick A., 276. 
Killed, list of, 247. 
Kimball, Henry G., 242. 

King, , 231. 

King, B. Flint, 276. 
King, E. & F., & Co., 38. 
Kinston, 135, 230. 



LAFAYETTE, General, 8. 
Lane, Thomas J., 285. 
Lathrop, William II., 280. 
Lawrence, Abbott, 2, 7. 
Lawrence, Charles C., 212 
Lawrence, Theodore J , 167. 
Le Cain, Charles L , 285. 



362 



INDEX. 



Lee, Francis L., 17, 86, 99, 117. 
Lee, Mrs. Francis L., 38. 
Leonard, John, 167. 
Letter-writing, 89. 
Lewis, Charles P., 95. 
Lewis, Win. K., & Bro., 95. 
Lipp, Leodegar M., 285. 
Little Creek, 109. 
Littlefield, Henry W., 275. 
Livermore, William B., 277. 
Lombard, George, 72. 
Lombard, Jacob, 72. 
Loring, Frank M., 290. 
Lovett, Miss Nellie E., 236. 
Lyon, Henry, 84. 

MACDEARMID, Lieutenant, 172, 180, 181 
Macomber, Grenville B , 92. 
Macomber, Henry S., 288. 
Mansfield, Isaac, I. 
Mansfield, Theodore F., 272. 
Mason, Thomas D., 94. 
Massachusetts Rifle Club, 17. 
McCleary, Mrs. S. F., 4. 

McCready, , 105. 

Mclntire, Charles J., 223. 

McLaughlin, Capt X. B, 31. 

McPhee, Dr. Daniel, 246. 

Medical and Surgical, 233. 

Mending clothes, 90. 

Mercantile Library Association, 23. 

Merrill, Thomas f ., 286. 

Midnight drills, 87. 

Mitchell, Francis A., 280. 

Monroe, Theodore J , 273. 

Moore, Matthias J., 287. 

Moreheacl City, 47. 

Morse, Charles, 116, 231, 259. 

Morse, Charles F., 280. 

Morse, George J., 273. 

Moulton, Edward C., 290. 

Moulton, Granville W., 287. 

Mount Olive Station, 141. 

Mulliken, John, 73. 

Murclock, Charles C., 84. 

Musicians, list of, 82. 

Muster in, 30. 

Muster out, 222. 

Myers, John H., Jr., 277. 

Myrick, David, 177. 

NAGLE, " Corporal of the Guard," 37. 
" Nancy Skittlerop," 105. 
Nash, Osborn P., 287. 
New Berne and its Garrison, 53. 
New Berne, voyage to, 41; attack on, 65, 
107. 



Newell, James S., 277. 

Newell, Julius T., 288. 

New England Guards, i ; motto of, 4 ; 
cannon, 5; encampments, 6, 8, 9 ; re 
cruits furnished by, 13; commanders 
of, 14. 

Newhall, Cheever, 3. 

Newspapers, 91. 

Nicknames, 96. 

Ninety-second New York, 65, 107. 

North Carolina Revisited, 223. 

Nourse, Harrison, 275. 

Noyes, George E., 240. 

O BRIEN, Lieut "TEDDY," 168, 193. 
Opera, 105. 
Orange pickle, 94. 
Organization, 21. 



PACKARD, EUSHA, 287. 
Palfrey, Francis W., 16. 
Park, Charles S., 277. 
Parker, Harrison, 2cl, 115. 
Parker, Stephen II , 265, 288. 
Parkinson, John, Jr., 73. 
Parsons, Michael A., 116. 
Patten, Thomas H., 277. 
Payne, John, 192. 
Peabody, Lyman E., 287. 
Peakes, John D., 115. 

Pease, , 17. 

Peirce, Gen. R A., 220. 

Pensions, 252. 

Perkins, Ezra, 286. 

Perkins, William E., 280. 

Personnel, 255. 

[>etherick or Pedrick, Captain, 184. 

ettigrew, General, 65. 
3 icket Duty of B. & F., 197. 
3 ickman, Ensign, 7. 
3 ierce, Henry T., 116. 
limpton, Merrill F., 277. 
lymouth, first visit to, 127; report of 

expedition, 154. 
olice Guard, 77. 
ollitz, John C., 242. 
ond, Albert C., 115. 
oole, Francis H,, 288. 
ope, George, 281. 
3 ortraits, 99. 

" osition of companies, 72. 
Bowers, Stephen A., 178, 286. 
Vatt, George H, 289. 
Vescott, Miss Louisa, 236. 
Driest, John D., 286. 
Prisoners, list of, 247. 



INDEX. 



363 



Proctor, George, 273. 
Promotions, 72. 
Provost, 205. 
Purbeck, Marcellus, 289. 
Putnam, Capt. John C., 13. 



RAIL-FENCES, 120. 

" Railroad Monitor," 200. 

Rainbow Bluff, 121. 

Rand. Edwin R., 83. 

Rations, 74. 

Rawlc s Mills, 109. 

Raymond, Walter L., 266, 286. 

Read, Gardner, & Co., 38. 

Read, Henry F., 272. 

Readville, camp at, 21 ; departure from, 

41. 

Reception in Boston, 217. 
Reconnoissance Companies A. and G , 

165. 

Regimental Fund, 38. 
Rennard, George W., 287. 
Resignations, 72. 
Revere, Maj. Paul J., 16. 
Review at New Berne, 106. 
Reynolds, Frank W., 28, 72. 
Rhoades, Charles J., 290. 
Rhoades, Lawrence, 289. 
Richards, Reuben, Jr., 2. 
Richardson, James M., 84, 124, 167, 271. 
Richardson, Jeffrey, 5. 
Richardson, Spencer W., 28. 
Richmond, William T., 2/3. 
Robbins, James A., 287. 
Roberts, Charles E., 116. 
Rodman s Point, 168, 245. 
Rogers, Gorham, 38. 
Rogers, Lysander W., 84. 
Rollins, Charles E., 115, 231, 259. 
Roster, 301. 
Rumors, 97. 
Russel, Cabot J., 263, 281. 



SAFFORD, DEFOREST, 106. 
Salignac Drill Corps, 17. 
Sargent, W. P., 38. 
Sawyer, Lyman J., 286. 
Sawyer, Willard G., 287. 
Sayer, Frederick, 32, 105. 
Scouting, 198. 
Scudder, Elisha G., 85. 
" Seed-Cakes," 96. 
Sewell, Thomas R., 3. 
Shackford, Silas T., 84. 
Shaw, Col. Robert G., 16. 
Sick Reports, 252. 



Simonds, Joseph W., 271. 

Simpkins, William H., 264, 281. 

Simpson, Daniel, 3, 28. 

Sisson, Col. Henry T., 181. 

Skinner, F., & Co., 38. 

Smallidge, William A., 115. 

Smith, Frederick W., Jr., 115. 

Smith, Gen. G. W., 141. 

Smith, " Si," 3. 

Smith, William V., 288. 

Soldier s Aid Society, 236. 

Song-Book, Regimental, 28. 

Soule, Charles C., 72, 272, 284. 

Southwest Creek, 136. 

Spinola, General, 174. 

Staff of General Foster, 59; General Wes- 

sells, 62 ; surgical, 234. 
Statistics, 255, 270. 
Stealing whiskey, 49. 
Stebbins, Asa D , 28, 117. 
Stebbins, Horace S., 28, 73. 

Steffen, , 17, 36. 

Stevens, Edward L., 265, 277. 

Stevenson, Mrs. J. Thomas, 13. 

Stevenson, Thomas G., 14, 16, 17, 63, 70. 

Storrow, Samuel, 265, 288. 

Stove-Pipe Battery, 192. 

Streeter, Miss Carrie B., 236. 

Streeter, Miss Julia, 236. 

Sturtevant, Charles W., 271. 

Subsequent Service, 269. 

Sullivan, George, i, 2. 

Sullivan, Henry D., 28. 

Sumner, Clarence, 28. 

Surgeon s Call, 76, 234. 

Surgical and Medical, 233. 

Swett, Samuel, i, 2, 6, 16. 



TACKNEY, JOHN, 192. 
Tarboro , 109. 
Taylor, Theodore E, 73. 
Taylor, William A., 289. 
Teague, Frank W., 272. 
Tenth Connecticut, 70, 138. 
Tewksbury, George H., 284. 
Thanksgiving, 83. 
Tibbetts, J. R., 38. 
Tidd, Charles R., 2, 7. 
Tilden, Joseph, 289. 
Tisdale, Barney, 3. 
Townsend, Albert W., 266, 286. 
Trescott, Edward R., 273. 
Trip p, George L., 28, 275. 
Trout, Thomas K., 290. 
Tucker, Charles E., 116, 277. 
Tuttle, Horace P., 275. 
Tweed, William H., 284. 



364 



INDEX. 



Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, 17. 
Tyler, Herbert, 289. 

UNIVERSALIST SOCIETY, FIFTH, 236. 

VINE SWAMP ROAD, 135. 
Vose, Clifton H., 266, 275. 
Voyage to New Berne, 41. 
Voyage Home, 216. 

WALCOTT, GEORGE P., 277. 

Walker, E. Clifford, 273. 

Wallace, Edwin A., 277. 

Ward, Richard, 2, 7. 

Ward, William, I. 

Ware, Dr. Robert, 72, 177, 234, 236, 245. 

Warren, Joshua B., 276. 

Warren Street Society, 236. 

Washington, description of, 110, 162: 

force and garrison, 163. 
Waterman, Rodolph C-, 30. 
Weeks, George M., 288. 
Weld, George M., 284. 
Weld, Richard H., 72. 
Welles, General, 3. 
Wentworth, George A., 290. 
\Vessells, Gen. Henry W., 62. 



West, Joseph, Jr., 3. 
Weston, George, 284. 

Whall, , 217. 

Wheeler, Charles E., 82, 104. 
Wheelock, Merrill G., 82. 
Wheelwright, George W., Jr., ; 
Whipple, Alonzo L., 272. 
White, Benjamin F., 3. 
White, Charles, 28. 
White, Edward P., 278. 
White, James C., 286. 
Whitehall, 140, 145, 225. 
Whitney, Parker, 14. 
Whitney, William L., 278. 
Whittemore, Curtis H., 273. 
Widow Blount, 192. 
Wilkins, Joseph F., 86. 
Wilkinson, Stetson, & Co., 38. 
Willard, Edward A., 273. 
Williams, Robert P., 2. 
Williamstown, 119, 126. 
Willis, Massa, 2. 
" Women and Children " order, 
Wood, Charles, 266, 286. 
Woodward, George M., 285. 
Worthley, James, 278. 
Wounded, list of, 247. 
Wyeth, John J., 81, 100. 




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